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What are the different types of bottled water?

There are several different varieties of bottled water. The product may be labeled as bottled water, drinking water or any of the following terms. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) product definitions for bottled water are:

Artesian Water / Artesian Well Water: Bottled water from a well that taps a confined aquifer (a water-bearing underground layer of rock or sand) in which the water level stands at some height above the top of the aquifer
.{ A water-bearing formation of gravel, permeable rock, or sand that is capable of providing water, in usable quantities, to springs or wells. Aquifers are important reservoirs storing large amounts of water relatively free from evaporation loss or pollution }

Distilled water is water that has virtually all of its impurities removed through distillation. Distillation involves boiling the water and re-condensing the steam into a clean container, leaving most if not all solid contaminants behind ( and then there is double distlled to get anything left over by the first distillation)

Drinking Water: Drinking water is another name for bottled water. Accordingly, drinking water is water that is sold for human consumption in sanitary containers and contains no added sweeteners or chemical additives (other than flavors, extracts or essences). It must be calorie-free and sugar-free. Flavors, extracts or essences may be added to drinking water, but they must comprise less than one-percent-by-weight of the final product or the product will be considered a soft drink. Drinking water may be sodium-free or contain very low amounts of sodium.

Mineral Water: Bottled water containing not less than 250 parts per million total dissolved solids may be labeled as mineral water. Mineral water is distinguished from other types of bottled water by its constant level and relative proportions of mineral and trace elements at the point of emergence from the source. No minerals can be added to this product. ( the debate here is whether  you can actually absorb these minerals or do the accumulate in the system and cause health dysfuntions)

Purified Water:  Water that has been produced by distillation, deionization, reverse osmosis or other suitable processes and that meets the definition of purified water in the United States Pharmacopoeia may be labeled as purified bottled water. Other suitable product names for bottled water treated by one of the above processes may include "distilled water" if it is produced by distillation, "deionized water" if the water is produced by deionization, or "reverse osmosis water" if the process used is reverse osmosis. Alternatively "_____________ drinking water" can be used with the blank being filled in with one of the terms defined in this paragraph (e.g. "purified drinking water" or "distilled drinking water").

Sparkling Water: Water that after treatment and possible replacement with carbon dioxide contains the same amount of carbon dioxide that it had at emergence from the source. (An important note: soda water, seltzer water and tonic water are not considered bottled waters. They are regulated separately, may contain sugar and calories, and are considered soft drinks.)

Spring Water: Bottled water derived from an underground formation from which water flows naturally to the surface of the earth. Spring water must be collected only at the spring or through a bore hole tapping the underground formation and the spring. Spring water collected with the use of an external force must be from the same underground stratum as the spring and must have all the physical properties, before treatment, and be of the same composition and quality as the water that flows naturally to the surface of the earth. { again the debate is, does the mineral content actually get used or stored in te system, not to mention bacterial or microbial contaminants}

Well Water: Bottled water from a hole bored, drilled or otherwise constructed in the ground which taps the water of an aquifer.


Reverse Osmosis


Drinking water purification systems, including a reverse osmosis step, are commonly used for improving water for drinking and cooking.

Such systems typically include four or five stages:

In some systems, the carbon pre-filter is omitted and cellulose triacetate membrane (CTA) is used. The CTA membrane is prone to rotting unless protected by the chlorinated water, while the TFC membrane is prone to breaking down under the influence of chlorine. In CTA systems, a carbon post-filter is needed to remove chlorine from the final product water.

Portable reverse osmosis (RO) water processors are sold for personal water purification in various locations. To work effectively, the water feeding to these units should best be under some pressure (40psi or over is the norm). Portable RO water processors can be used by people who live in rural areas without clean water, far away from the city's water pipes. Rural people filter river or ocean water themselves, as the device is easy to use (Saline water may need special membranes). Some travelers on long boating trips, fishing, island camping, or in countries where the local water supply is polluted or substandard, use RO water processors coupled with one or more UV sterilizers. RO systems are also now extensively used by marine aquarium enthusiasts, as the domestic water supply contains substances that are extremely toxic to most species of saltwater fish. In the production of bottled mineral water, the water passes through a RO water processor to remove pollutants and microorganisms, In European countries, though, such processing of Natural Mineral Water (as defined by a European Directive) is not allowed under European law.(In practice, a fraction of the living bacteria can and do pass through RO membranes through minor imperfections, or bypass the membrane entirely through tiny leaks in surrounding seals. Thus, complete RO systems may include additional water treatment stages that use ultraviolet light or ozone to prevent microbiological contamination.)

In the water treatment industry there is a chart of types of contaminants, their sizes and which ones pass through the various types of membranes.[1] Membrane pore sizes can vary from 1 to 50,000 angstroms depending on filter type. "Particle filtration" removes particles of 10,000 angstroms or larger. Microfiltration removes particles of 500 angstroms or larger. "Ultrafiltration" removes particles of roughly 30 angstroms or larger. "Nanofiltration" removes particles of 10 angstroms or larger. Reverse osmosis is in the final category of membrane filtration, "Hyperfiltration," and removes particles larger than 1 angstrom


What is water really supposed to do?  Hydrate and cleanse and be utilized by the system to allow fluids in our cells to work properly. The concept of drinking a gallon a day is totally ridiculous…..if you are consuming fruits veges , drinking herbal teas, making juices this is all part of the process of maintaining hydration….the environment you are in, determines you’re requirements of water, the hotter or more toxic you’re environment then the more you will need to maintain hydration by drinking, the more wet the environment the less you will need and the cleaner the environment will be based on your activity levels. But in all levels you do not want contaminated water, and a good RO system is probably the best solution for most unless you live over an aquifier . it will remove all contaminants up to 98% . It will also deal with bacterial and microbial to a certain level depending on the type of system you are using, and the style of membranes. If you are in a desert you might want to combine an RO system with a Atmosperic water generator, if you live near a body of salt water, this would definitely insure your levels of adequate drinking water that is fresh and salt and contaminant free

Atmospheric water generator

An Atmospheric water generator (AWG), or atmospheric condenser, is a developing piece of technology with the intent of producing pure drinking water from the humidity of the surrounding air. An AWG operates in a manner very similar to that of a refrigerated dehumidifier: air is passed through a cooled coil, causing water to condense. The amount of water that can be produced depends on the humidity, the volume of air passing through the coils, and the size of the machine.

The device is used in situations where pure drinking water is otherwise difficult to obtain or where the population demands are greater than the water tables can sustain or the water table has been or is contaminated, or for natural disaster relief.

Principle of operation

Basic operating principle of an AWG

An AWG uses refrigeration techniques optimized to condense water from air. Blower driven air is drawn into the system through an electrostatic filter. In the machine's exterior housing, a compressor circulates refrigerant through a coil array located in the path of the air providing a temperature differential between the air and coil surface, resulting in condensation. The condensation is funneled into a holding tank. A level switch in the holding tank controls the water making cycle. Water is pump circulated in an ozone generating UV light chamber to kill bacteria and then through high and low density charcoal filters to remove solids and oxygenates. It is finally collected back in the holding tank. The water filtration cycle is both flow and time controlled. Water is dispensed by tap valve diversion. The actual amount of water produced depends on relative humidity and ambient air temperature. Relative humidity measures the amount of water vapour present in the air at a given temperature. The higher the relative humidity and air temperature, the more effective most all of these devices are. Typically these refrigeration-based devices do not work efficiently when the temperature gets below 15.5°C (60°F) or the relative humidity drops below 30%.


A wide range of Atmospheric generators are available, from a home/office unit producing 28 litres a day, to 1200 litres and even more than 500.000 litres per day for industrial bottling plants.


The cost effectiveness of an atmospheric water generator depends on the capacity of the machine as well as on humidity and temperature conditions. Besides such machines can be powered by alternative energy like solar, wind or even gas or oil fired generators which can be of great help especially when such machines are put into operation for relief efforts.

Cost Details

The following is the cost per liter calculation for a typical 120 litres per day AWG with power consumption 2.6kW @ INR(Indian Rupee) 4.5 per kWh.The cost of producing 1 liter of water will typically range from $US0.03 (85-100% RH) to $US0.06 (40-50% RH)Total annual electric costs : 2.6kW × 24 hrs/day × 365 days/year ×INR 4.5 per kWh = Rs.1,02,492/year ≈ US$2,277.60/year (US$1 = INR45).......A  total annual water production : 120 litres per day × 365 days/year = 43,800litres/year..........B

COST PER LITER = A ÷ B = US$0.05

[Alternative methods

The methods listed below are not AWGs but other alternative methods of water making.

Source: LexCarb LLC

Source: Sciperio Inc.