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HEALTH BENEFITS OF WINE:

 

MORE INFO ON WINE

WINE

 Description

 

Wine is (usually) Alcoholic Beverage made from particular species of Grapes (e.g. Vitus vinifera).  It is produced by the fermentation of Grapes by natural Yeasts present in the fruit.

 

 

Health Benefits of Wine

 

Aging Process

 

Red Wine may possess Life Extension properties (due to the ability of the Resveratrol content of Red Wine to increase the activity of Sir2p). 

 

Cardiovascular System

 

Red Wine may increase the elasticity of the Arteries

 

Red Wine may help to prevent Atherosclerosis (by inhibiting the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol and by inhbiting the activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B) (due to Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), Resveratrol and Tannins).

 

Red Wine may help to prevent abnormal Blood Clotting both during the period of drinking and during the eighteen hour period following its consumption (due to the Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) and Resveratrol content of Red Wine).. 

      

Red Wine may help to protect the Heart from the toxic effects of Free Radicals (due to the Antioxidant effects of Red Wineĺs Resveratrol content). 

 

Red Wine (moderate consumption = two glasses per day = 250 ml per day) may lower Blood Pressure in Hypertension patients: 

 

¨¨¨Caution:  Excessive consumption of Red Wine may increase Blood Pressure.

 

Red Wine may help to prevent Ischemic Heart Disease (due to the Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) content of Red Wine): 

 

Red Wine may help to prevent Heart Attack (by helping to prevent abnormal Blood Clotting). 

 

Red Wine may reduce the risk of (ischemic) Stroke.   

Red Wine may reduce the risk of Thrombosis, both during the period of drinking and during the 18 hour period following its consumption (due to Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) and Resveratrol).

 

Digestive System

 

Wine may stimulate the Appetite (by stimulating the production of Hydrochloric Acid). 

      

Red Wine may alleviate Hypochlorhydria (by stimulating the production of Hydrochloric Acid). 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may protect the Intestinal Wall against the damage caused by Free Radicals

 

Ears/Hearing

 

Red Wine may help to prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss (due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine). 

 

Eyes/Vision

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may reduce the risk of developing Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) by approximately 20% (probably due to the Anthocyanosides content of Red Wine). 

      

Red Wine may help to prevent Cataracts. 

      

¨¨¨Red Wine may alleviate Eye Fatigue (due to the Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) content of Red Wine). 

 

Immune System

 

¨¨¨Wine (especially Red Wine) may help to prevent the Common Cold (persons consuming two glasses of Red Wine or more per day have a 40% reduction in their incidence of the Common Cold). 

      

 

Red Wine may kill various types of Detrimental Bacteria (due to the Malvoside content of Red Wine): 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may kill Escherichia typhi Bacteria in five minutes to four hours (due to Malvoside). 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may inhibit the toxins produced by Helicobacter pylori. 

-     

¨¨¨Red Wine may kill the Vibrio cholerae Bacteria that causes Cholera (due to Malvoside). 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent some forms of Cancer (by preventing many carcinogens from inducing chromosome mutations (due to Gallic Acid, Resveratrol and Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs)):

 

Wine may help to prevent Basal Cell Carcinoma. 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent Breast Cancer (due to the Polyphenols content of Red Wine).

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent Colon Cancer (due to the OPCs content of Red Wine). 

 

¨¨¨Wine may help to prevent Lung Cancer

 

Wine may help to prevent (Non-Hogkinĺs) Lymphoma

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent/treat Melanoma (due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine).

Red Wine may reduce the risk of developing Mouth Cancer (by 20% - 50%) (due to Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs). 

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Ovarian Cancer cells (due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine).

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may reduce the risk of developing Pharyngeal Cancer (by 20% - 50%) (due to Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs))

.

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent Prostate Cancer (due to the Polyphenols content of Red Wine). 

 

Metabolism

 

Red Wine contains significant amounts of Antioxidants: 

 

Red Wine scavenges Peroxyl Free Radicals (probably due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine). 

 

Red Wine scavenges Peroxynitrite Free Radicals.  

 

¨¨¨Red Wine may help to prevent Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and may minimize some of the complications associated with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2. 

      

Red Wine may increase HDL Cholesterol levels. 

 

Wine (1 ľ 2 glasses per day) may help to prevent Insulin Resistance. 

 

Red Wine may inhibit the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol (due to Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs), Resveratrol and Tannins).   

 

Red Wine may facilitate weight loss in persons afflicted with Obesity (due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine increasing the activity of Sir2p).  

 

Nervous System 

Daily consumption of 200 - 400 ml of Red Wine has been associated with a lowered risk of Alzheimerĺs Disease: 

 

Red Wine may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein, a neurotoxic Protein strongly implicated in Alzheimerĺs Disease (due to the Resveratrol and other Polyphenols content of Grape skins used to produce Wine).

 

Oral Health

 

Red Wine may help to prevent and treat Periodontal Disease. 

 

Respiratory System

 

Red Wine may reduce the severity of Asthma. 

      

Red Wine may help to prevent/treat Chronic Obstructory Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (due to the Resveratrol content of Red Wine). 

 

Wine may Enhance the Function of these Substances

 

Digestive Juices

 

Wine may stimulate the production of Hydrochloric Acid (HCl).  [more info]

 

Enzymes

 

Red Wine may increase the production and activity of (endothelial) Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS). 

 

Neurotransmitters

 

Red Wine may increase the production of Nitric Oxide. 

 

Polyphenols

 

Red Wine may increase the absorption of Quercetin.  references

 

Wine may Counteract these Toxic Substances

 

Amino Acids

 

Red Wine (moderate consumption) may lower elevated Homocysteine levels and may counteract the ability of Homocysteine to cause Atherosclerosis. 

 

Enzymes

 

Red Wine may inhibit Aromatase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Testosterone to Estradiol). 

 

Lipids

 

Red Wine may inhibit/delay the absorption of Dietary Fats. 

 

Proteins

 

Red Wine may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein (due to the Resveratrol content of Grapes (skins) used to produce Wine).  references

      

Red Wine inhibits the activation of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-Kappa B) in Monocytes and Macrophages (one of the processes that leads to Atherosclerosis). 

 

Recreational Drugs

 

Red Wine may inhibit the ability of Tobacco smoke to damage the Endothelium. 

 

Wine Contains these Substances 

 

(mg of substance per 100 grams of Wine)

 

The longer that Red Wine is stored, the greater its health benefits (this is due to the Polyphenols content of Red Wine increasing with storage).

 

 

Alcohols:       Ethanol         Methanol ##      

Amines:        Tyramine                   

Carbohydrates:   1,700                        

Lipids:         Saponins *                 

Minerals:  Chromium 2.028mcg     Boron 0.8

Magnesium 13   Phosphorus 14   Potassium 112       

Phenolic Acids:           Vanillic Acid        Gallic Acid   

Syringic Acid             Caffeic Acid 

Cinnamic Acid            Caffeic Acid 

Ferulic Acid              Chlorogenic Acid 

Ellagic Acid               

Polyphenols: **           Anthocyanidins:       Delphinidin  

Pelargonidin 

Cyanidin

Peonidin

Petunidin     

Malvidin

Anthocyanosides:      Malvoside    

Flavanols:           Oligomeric Proanthocyanosides (OPCs) *       30

Flavonols:           Myricetin     

Quercetin *          Rutin * 

Catechin *           Epicatechin *      

Kaempferol *         Hydroxytyrosol * 

Stilbenes:            Resveratrol #     

Acutissimin A  ***    Acutissimin B  ***     

Water:   88,500       Red Wine only

 

**   Red Wine contains higher amounts of Polyphenols than Red or Purple Grape juice because the process of winemaking extracts the Polyphenols from the seeds and skins of grapes.  One glass of Red Wine contains approximately 200 mg of Polyphenols.  One glass of White Wine contains approximately 40 mg of Polyphenols.

 

*** Acutissimin A and Acutissimin B are only present in Red Wine that has been stored in Oak barrels.  The Vescalagin content of Oak reacts with the Catechin and Epicatechin content of Red Wine, producing Acutissimin A and Acutissimin B, which then become components of the resulting Red Wine.  The longer that

 

Red Wine is stored in Oak barrels, the higher its content of these polyphenols.

 

The Resveratrol content of Red Wine is approximately 0.1 - 15.0 mg per liter (average 2.25 mg per liter) - pinot noir grapes appear to have the highest content of all Red Wines while very few White Wines contain any Resveratrol.  The Resveratrol content of Wine is related to the length of time the Grape skins are present during the fermentation process.  Therefore the concentration is significantly higher in Red Wine than in White Wine because the skins are removed earlier during White Wine production, thereby reducing the amount that is extracted.

 

## Methanol is present in higher quantities in Red Wine than in White Wine.  The Methanol content of Wine arises from the action of the enzyme Pectin Esterase (PE) on the Pectin content of Grapes during the mashing stage.  In the production of Red Wine the Grape Skins are retained in the mash and in White Wine the skins are removed: the skin is the main source of Pectin.  On average Red Wine contains approximately 0.02% Methanol (200 ppm) while White Wine contains about 0.005% (50 ppm).

 

Toxic Effects of Wine

 

Alcohol

 

Red Wine may cause the usual problems associated with excessive Alcohol consumption - this should be kept in mind when considering the usage of Red Wine for therapeutic purposes.

 

Minerals

 

Wine occasionally contains Lead residues (from the seal used to protect the cork).

 

Nervous System

 

Red Wine may trigger Migraines (by causing 100% inhibition of the Phenolsulphotransferase - P (PST-P) enzyme which helps to prevent Migraine).

 

Wine may Interfere with these Substances

 

Pharmaceutical Drugs

 

Red Wine may reduce the absorption of Cyclosporine (causing Cyclosporine treatment to be less effective).  Therefore Red Wine should not be consumed by persons receiving Cyclosporine treatment. 

 

Red Wine Compared to White Wine

 

The color of Wine is not related to the color of the Grapes used in its manufacture - the color of Wine is actually governed by the method of manufacture.

 

Red Wine     White Wine*

Type of Grape: Red Grapes or White Grapes

 

Part of Grape Used:     Whole Grape (including Skin, Seeds and part of the String)     Juice of the Grape only

Production Method: Whole Grapes are crushed and left together for two to three weeks, during which the pigments (Anthocyanins) and OPCs (from the Skin and Seeds) gradually dissolve into the Wine during the process known as maceration. After extraction of juice, the seeds and skins are discarded and the juice is fermented to eventually produce wine.

Nutrient Differences:   Finished product contains a large amount of Anthocyanins and OPCs.    Finished product contains approximately 3% of the quantity of OPCs and Tannins as Red Wine. Methanol: 200 ppm Methanol (the compound that may be responsible for Hangovers).   50 ppm Methanol.

 

Some Eastern European countries produce macerated White Wine which is manufactured by a similar process to Red Wine using White Grapes, resulting in a White Wine that includes a much greater quantity of OPC than unmacerated White Wine.

 

 

Optimal Consumption of Wine

 

Studies that have demonstrated health benefits for Red Wine indicate that the protective level of Red Wine consumption occurs at approximately two glasses per day (250 ml per day).  Consumption of Red Wine in excess of two glasses pay day may initiate the negative effects of excessive Alcohol (ethanol).

 

Commercial Availability of Supplemental Wine Extracts

 

Red Wine extracts are available from health food and nutrition outlets in the form of:

 

-      300 mg capsules.

-      500 mg capsules

 

Supplemental Red Wine extracts are usually labeled as Red Wine Polyphenols and are often standardized to contain 20% - 100% Polyphenols (including up to 35% Anthocyanosides).

 

Description

 

Resveratrol is a type of Phytoalexin (a class of Polyphenol compounds produced as a part of a plant's defense system against disease).  Resveratrol is produced (in the plants in which it is present) during times of environmental stress, such as adverse weather, insect attack, animal attack or pathogenic attack.  It is both water-soluble and fat-soluble.

 

 

Health Benefits of Resveratrol

 

Aging Process

 

Resveratrol may retard the progression of the Aging Process.

      

Resveratrol may possess Life Extension properties (due to its ability to increase the activity of Sir2p). 

 

Cardiovascular System

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent Arrhythmias. 

      

Resveratrol may prevent Atherosclerosis. 

      

Resveratrol may inhibit abnormal Blood Clotting. 

 

Resveratrol may help to protect the Heart from the toxic effects of Free Radicals (due to the Antioxidant effects of Resveratrol): 

 

Resveratrol may help to protect the Heart from (cardiac) Fibrosis. 

 

Resveratrol may reduce the toxic effects of Ischemia/Reperfusion injury in the Brain after (ischemic) Stroke. 

 

Digestive System

 

Resveratrol may alleviate (acute) Pancreatitis. 

 

Ears/Hearing

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss. 

 

Excretory System

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent Diabetic Nephropathy. 

 

 

 

 

Immune System

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent various forms of Cancer. 

 

Resveratrol may prevent Cancer via several mechanisms:  it may act as an antimutagen;  it may stimulates phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (i.e. it may possess anti-initiation activity)it may induce cell differentiation in Cancer cells (i.e. it possesses anti-progression activity).

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent Breast Cancer.  One of the means by which Resveratrol may help to prevent Breast Cancer is by functioning as a Phytoestrogen - specifically it appears to beneficially interfere with the activity of Estradiol.  It binds to Receptors that would otherwise bind to Estradiol and thereby prevents Estradiol from relaying Cancer cell promotion ômessagesö.

 

Resveratrol may inhibit the further progression of Colon Cancer. 

 

Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Esophageal Cancer cells.  references

-      Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the Cells involved in Gliomas

 

§Resveratrol may help to prevent Kidney Cancer and may retard the further progression of Kidney Cancer. 

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the further progression of (the Acute Promyelocytic form of) Leukemia and may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia cells. 

-     

Resveratrol may help to prevent and treat Liver Cancer (due to its ability to stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Liver Cancer cells.  references

 

§Resveratrol may help to ôshrinkö the tumors involved in Lung Cancer, may stimulate the Apoptosis (cellular death) of Lung Cancer cells and may inhibit the metastasis of Lung Cancer.  references

 

§Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Multiple Myeloma cells. 

      

§Resveratrol may be useful for the treatment of Neuroblastoma. 

§Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Ovarian Cancer cells. 

 

§Resveratrol may help to prevent and treat Pancreatic Cancer (due to its ability to stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Pancreatic Cancer cells.  references

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the growth of Prostate Cancer cells. 

      

§Resveratrol may inhibit the proliferation of Rhabdomyosarcoma cells. 

 

§Resveratrol may help to prevent Skin Cancer: 

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the growth of Melanoma. 

 

§Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (death) of Thyroid Cancer cells. 

-     

Part of Resveratrolĺs anti-Cancer effect may be derived from its ability to inhibit Nuclear Factor-

Kappa B (NF-Kappa B).

 

Resveratrol may inhibit some types of Detrimental Fungi: 

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit/kill Candida albicans. 

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the replication of Herpes Simplex Viruses: 

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

 

§Resveratrol may inhibit the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2. 

 

§Resveratrol may suppress Inflammation.  references

      

§Resveratrol may inhibit the replication of Influenza Viruses (and may therefore help to prevent Influenza

 

Metabolism

 

Resveratrol possesses Antioxidant properties: 

 

Resveratrol scavenges Peroxyl Free Radicals. 

 

Resveratrol may lower total serum Cholesterol levels: 

 

Resveratrol may increase HDL Cholesterol levels. 

 

Resveratrol may prevent the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol. 

 

Resveratrol may facilitate weight loss in persons afflicted with Obesity (due to Resveratrol increasing the activity of Sir2p). 

 

Nervous System

 

§Resveratrol may be useful for the prevention/treatment of Alzheimerĺs Disease (by inhibiting the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein in the Brain). 

 

Respiratory System

 

Resveratrol may help to prevent/treat Chronic Obstructory Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (by inhibiting the increased production of Interleukin 8 that occurs during COPD). 

 

Resveratrol may Enhance the Function of these Substances

 

 

 

 

Enzymes

 

§Resveratrol may increase Quinone Reductase levels (this is one of the means by which Resveratrol may exert anti-cancer effects). 

      

Resveratrol may increase the activity of Sir2p. 

 

Glycosides

 

Resveratrol is a component of Polydatin:  Polydatin is the Glycoside of Resveratrol.

 

Lipids

 

Resveratrol may enhance the ability of Butyric Acid to prevent Colon Cancer.  references

 

Second Messengers

 

Resveratrol elevates Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels. 

 

Resveratrol may Inhibit these Potentially Toxic Substances

 

Amines

 

Resveratrol may reduce the toxicity (carcinogenicity) of Nitrosamines. 

 

Electromagnetic Radiation

 

Resveratrol may inhibit the ability of UV-B to damage the Skin.

 

Environmental Toxins

 

Resveratrol may inhibit the conversion of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to carcinogens. 

 

Enzymes

 

Resveratrol may inhibit Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzed Thromboxane synthesis.  references

      

Resveratrol may inhibit Ornithine Decarboxylase. 

 

Immune System Chemicals

 

Resverarol may inhibit the release of Interleukin 8 in respiratory system epithelial cells. 

 

Lipids

 

Resveratrol may inhibit the production of Thromboxane A2. 

 

Neurotoxins

 

Resveratrol may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Kainic Acid. 

 

Proteins

 

Resveratrol may inhibit Activator Protein-1.  [more info]

      

Resveratrol may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein in the Brain. 

      

Resveratrol may inhibit the production of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-Kappa B). 

 

§Resveratrol may reduce intracellular and secreted levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA). 

 

Dietary Sources of Resveratrol 

 

(mg of Resveratrol per 100 grams)

 

 

Alcoholic Beverages:          Red Wine *               

Fruits: Grapes **7.5  Raisins    Mulberry   Cranberry Blueberry             Bilberry 

Herbs: Hu Zhang    Yucca    Japanese Knotweed  ***                 

Nuts: Peanuts  0.25             

  

The Resveratrol content of Red Wine is approximately 0.1 - 15.0 mg per liter - pinot noir grapes appear to have the highest content of all Red Wines while very few White Wines contain any Resveratrol.  The Resveratrol content of Wine is related to the length of time the Grape skins are present during the fermentation process.  Therefore the concentration is significantly higher in Red Wine than in White Wine because the skins are removed earlier during White Wine production, thereby reducing the amount that is extracted.  references

 

**   Resveratrol is present in Grape skins, seeds, stalks, vines and roots (but not the flesh of the fruit).  The highest concentration of Resveratrol is found in Grape skins.  Grape juice contains very little resveratrol compared to Red Wine.  The resveratrol content of Grape Skins is 50 - 100 mcg per gram (5,000 - 10,000 mcg per 100 grams [5 - 10 mg per 100 grams]).  references

 

*** Japanese Knotweed is claimed to be the highest known source of Resveratrol (containing 1,000 times the Resveratrol content of Grapes).

 

Bioavailability

 

Dietary Resveratrol (especially from Grape juice) is well-absorbed when consumed orally.  references

 

Dosage Recommendations

 

The usual therapeutic dosage of Resveratrol ranges from 4 - 45 mg per day.

 

Commercial Availability of Resveratrol Supplements

 

ôSingularö Oral Resveratrol Products

 

Resveratrol is available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (mainly only in the USA) in the form of:

 

-      10 mg tablets (derived from 500 mg of Japanese Knotweed).

-      10 mg capsules (derived from 50 mg of Japanese Knotweed)

-      15 mg capsules (derived from 100 mg of Japanese Knotweed (20:1 extract) standardized to contain 15% Resveratrol)

       loose powder containing 5% Resveratrol derived from Japanese Knotweed

 

Chemical Data

 

Resveratrol is classed as a Phytoalexin.

 

Chemical Names

 

3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene

       Trans 3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene

 

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