Page 1 Capsaicin plus green tea combo aids weight loss




Page 6 Green tea extracts may stop Parkinson's  blank




Page 8 Bioflavonoids


Page 14 Antioxidant Querciten and Green Tea on muscle performance



Page 16 Remedy 1 and Recipes



Page 18 Iodine and Heart Health









Page 31 MRSA Remedies



Capsaicin plus green tea combo aids weight loss

A combination of capsaicin and green tea could promote the feeling of fullness and sustain satiety, indicating it could be successful for weight management, says a new study. Researchers from Denmark and the Netherlands report sweet pepper may also reduce energy intake during positive energy balance, according to findings of their 27-person study published in Clinical Nutrition. “We conclude that thermogenic food ingredients have energy intake reducing effects when used in combinations, and in positive energy balance,” wrote the researchers, led by Professor Margriet Westerterp-Plantenga from Maastricht University. These results suggest that bioactive ingredients (capsaicin, green tea, CH-19) may be helpful in reducing energy intake to prevent body weight gain and may support body weight loss by relatively sustaining satiety and suppressing hunger,” they added. The research taps into the burgeoning weight loss and management market, estimated to already be worth $7bn (€5.2bn) globally. It also has implications for diabetes. With 50 per cent of Europeans and 62 per cent of Americans classed as overweight, the food industry is waking up to the potential of products for weight loss and management. The slimming ingredients market can be divided into five groups based on the mechanisms of action - boosting fat burning/ thermogenesis, inhibiting protein breakdown, suppressing appetite/ boosting satiety (feeling of fullness), blocking fat absorption, and regulating mood (linked to food consumption).

Study details

Westerterp-Plantenga and her co-workers recruited 27 people with an average age of 27 and an average BMI of 22.2 kg/m2, and randomised them to three weeks of negative (less calories consumed than used) and three weeks of positive energy balance (more calories consumed than used). During these periods ten separate test days were used to test the effects of capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin plus green tea, or placebo on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate. Only the CH-19 and the capsaicin plus green tea combinations produced a reduction in energy intake during the positive energy balance period. Moreover, the combined supplement produced suppressed hunger and increased satiety, and this was greater during negative than positive energy balance, wrote the researchers. This indicated that energy balance did not affect energy intake but did affect appetite.

Active components

Commenting on the mechanism, the researchers note that both catechins and caffeine in green tea may be behind the effects, with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) previously noted to reduced food intake and body weight in rats. On the use of capsaicin the researchers note that long-term intervention is “hardly possible and results in bad compliance”, and that CH-19 sweet pepper, which is non-pungent, could be “an attractive alternative to capsaicin”. “Since CH-19 sweet pepper was an efficient suppressor of energy intake it would be of interest to investigate if a combination of CH-19 sweet pepper and green tea leads to a similar synergistic effect on energy intake,” wrote Westerterp-Plantenga and her co-workers. Capsaicin only increases liking of the food when used at lower concentrations, and one can only comply with a relatively small dosage of capsaicin over the longer term. “Therefore we suggest that a lower dosage of capsaicin should be combined with other bioactive ingredients (e.g. CH-19 sweet pepper) in order to reach optimal effects,” they concluded.

Source: Clinical Nutrition
Published online ahead of print, doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2009.01.010
“Effects of capsaicin, green tea and CH-19 sweet pepper on appetite and energy intake in humans in negative and positive energy balance”Authors: H.C. Reinbach, A. Smeets, T. Martinussen, P. Møller, M.S. Westerterp-Plantenga Abstract available



Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):349-55

Authors: Oboh G, Rocha JB

One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.



Hot Pepper (Capsicum spp.) protects brain from sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

J Med Food. 2008 Jun;11(2):349-55  Authors: Oboh G, Rocha JB

One practical way through which free radical-mediated neurodegenerative diseases could be prevented is through the consumption of food rich in antioxidants. The ability of aqueous extracts of ripe and unripe Capsicum annum, Tepin (CAT) and Capsicum chinese, Habanero (CCH) to prevent lipid peroxidation induced by sodium nitroprusside and quinolinic acid in rat brain in vitro is assessed in this study. The aqueous extract of the peppers were prepared (1 g/20 mL). Incubating rat brain homogenates with pro-oxidant (7 microM sodium nitroprusside [222.5%] and 1 mM quinolinic acid [217.4%]) caused a significant increase (P < .05) in lipid peroxidation in rat brain homogenates. However, the aqueous extract of the peppers (4.2-16.8 mg/mL) caused a significant decrease (P < .05) in the lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. However, unripe CAT (92.5-55.2%) caused the highest inhibition of sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while unripe CCH caused the least inhibition (161.0-102.1%). Furthermore, unripe CAT and CCH peppers had a significantly higher (P < .05) inhibitory effect on quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain than the ripe pepper (CAT and CCH). Therefore, the protection of the brain tissues by hot pepper depends on the total phenol content in sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation, while ripening would reduce the protective properties of hot pepper against quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation. However, unripe CAT has the highest protective properties against sodium nitroprusside- and quinolinic acid-induced lipid peroxidation in rat brain.

RED PEPPER Capsaicin

Possible health benefits

All chili peppers contain phytochemicals known collectively as capsaicinoids.




Digestion  Cayenne can rebuild the tissue in the stomach and the peristaltic action in the intestines.  It aids elimination and assimilation, and helps the body to create hydrochloric acid, which is so necessary for good digestion and assimilation, especially of proteins.  All this becomes very significant when we realize that the digestive system plays the most important role in mental, emotional and physical health, as it is through the digestive  system that the brain, glands, muscles and every other part of the body are fed.


Cayenne has been known to stop heart attacks within 30 seconds.  For example, when a 90-year-old man in Oregon had a severe heart attack, his daughter was able to get Cayenne extract into his mouth.  He was pronounced dead by the medics, but within a few minutes, he regained consciousness.  On the way to the hospital, he remained in a semi-conscious state, but the daughter kept giving him the Cayenne extract.  By the time they got  to the hospital, he had fully recovered and wanted to go home and mow the lawn.  The doctor asked what she had given him, as he said it was the closest thing to a miracle he had ever seen.  Heart Attacks: Cayenne


ùùùGreen tea extracts may stop Parkinson's 
By Stephen Daniells


14/12/2007- The antioxidant effects of green tea polyphenols may protect neurons against the detrimental effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), thereby offering potential benefits for Parkinson's, says new research from China.


The study, conducted in rats, looked at the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on inhibiting the death of neurons induced by the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The results are published in the journal Biological Psychiatry. Parkinson's disease is a degenerative condition affecting movement and balance in more than one million Americans each year, a figure expected to rise due to ageing populations.  According to background information in the article, the disease is caused by an unrelenting process of cell death affecting the neurons containing pigmented dopamine (DA). Researchers, led by Baolu Zhao from the Institute of Biophysics, Academia Sinica, Beijing, randomly assigned male Sprague-Dawley rats to one of six groups: control-fed only; control-fed plus 6-OHDA; GTP (150 mg/kg/day) plus 6-OHDA; GTP (450 mg/kg/day) plus 6-OHDA; GTP (150 mg/kg/day) only; GTP (450 mg/kg/day) only. Green tea contains between 30 and 40 per cent of water-extractable polyphenols, while black tea (green tea that has been oxidized by fermentation) contains between 3 and 10 per cent. Oolong tea is semi-fermented tea and is somewhere between green and black tea.  The four primary polyphenols found in fresh tea leaves are epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin gallate (ECG), and epicatechin (EC).
The mix used in this new study contained 50 per cent EGCG, 22 per cent ECG, 18 per cent EGC, and 10 per cent EC (Sichuan Full-green Biology Technology). Zhao and co-workers report that the green tea polyphenols protected against the toxic effects of 6-OHDA, with the higher dose producing a higher protective effect. Most notable, were the inhibition of increases in ROS and NO levels, and subsequent lipid peroxidation. "This study shows that, in vivo, GTP partially protected dopaminergic neurons (3.7 times more remaining neuron in GTP-treated than vehicle-treated animals) from 6-OHDA-induced cell death through ROS-NO pathway," wrote the researchers.  Commenting independently on the study, John Krystal, editor of Biological Psychiatry and affiliated with both Yale University School of Medicine and the VA Connecticut Healthcare System said: "If green tea consumption can be shown to have meaningful neuroprotective actions in patients, this would be an extremely important advance."He added a note of caution however, saying that many health-related benefits have been reported for a wide variety of naturally-occurring substances with many being contradicted by subsequent clinical trials. This is the case with St. John's Wort and Ginko Biloba, he said. "Thus, it is extremely important to identify the putative neuroprotective mechanisms in animal models, as Guo and colleagues have begun to do for Parkinson's disease," said Krystal. Source: Biological Psychiatry (Elsevier) 15 December 2007, Volume 62, Issue 12, Pages 1353-1362  "Protective Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols in the 6-OHDA Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Through nhibition of ROS-NO Pathway"
Authors: Shuhong Guo, J. Yan, T. Yang, X. Yang, E. Bezard and B. Zhao




This is good news for women as a general rule you can live longer by eating flavonoids.....mind you I was a bit bias on the SOY, but I had to leave it in the report  because the isoflavones of soy are also classified as a flavonoid...but you notice in the report the flavones from soy are not mentioned  to much on how high they actually helped??? curious eh!!! the flavonoids daizeden and genisten ( from soy) have been actually attributed in blocking estrogen ( due to the fact that they are phytoestrogens) and convert to a foreign estrogen that can lead to a cancer of the reproductive area.....funny how this report sort of implies the benefits of flavonoids and lumps them is a good report and the facts are about 98% i think this is a good report to share with all of you, but i wanted to point out as well how something could be slipped into a report and you would asssume that a substance is safe just by association, notice no mentioning of how effective it was in reducing anything!!!!! I also added  some other info on Bioflavonoids.

To your health eh!!!

Greater intake of some flavonoids linked with reduced cardiovascular and all cause mortality among women over a 16 year period

A report published in the March, 2007 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition described the finding of researchers at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis and the University of Oslo that women whose intake of certain classes of flavonoids is high in comparison with other women have a reduced risk of cardiovascular and/or all cause mortality. Flavonoids are polyphenolic plant compounds that act as antioxidants, thereby helping to prevent the oxidation of LDL cholesterol. They may also benefit the heart by reducing inflammation, improving endothelial function, and inhibiting platelet aggregation.

The current study evaluated data from 34,489 postmenopausal participants in the Iowa Women's Health Study who were free of cardiovascular disease upon enrollment. Flavonoid intake from dietary questionnaires completed at the beginning of the study was classified, and the associated risk of death from cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, stroke, and all causes over a sixteen year period was calculated.

Dietary flavonoids were classified as flavonoids, which includes flavonols, flavones, flavanones, flavan-3-ols and anthocyanidins; proanthocyanidins, and isoflavones (from soy). Among women who reported consuming anthocyanidins (found in blueberries, raspberries and red wine), the risk of coronary heart disease mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and total mortality was significantly lower than that of women who reported no anthocyanidin intake. For subjects in the top one fifth of flavanone (hesperitin, narigenin and eriodictyol) intake, there was a 22 percent reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease mortality compared with those who consumed the least amount, and for flavones (luteolin and apigenin) a 12 percent reduction in total mortality was determined. Individual foods associated with significant mortality reduction included bran, apples, pears, red wine, grapefruit, strawberries and chocolate. The study is the first of its kind, to the authors' knowledge, to report on total flavonoids and their seven subclasses. "Results from this study suggest that the intake of certain subclasses of flavonoids may be associated with lower coronary heart disease and total cardiovascular disease mortality in postmenopausal women," the authors write. "Furthermore, consumption of some foods that are high in flavonoid content or that are among the main sources of flavonoids in the diet of these study participants may have similar associations."


Here are some other bioflavonoids.......  Flavonoid polyphenolics (aka bioflavonoids)


Bioflavonoids, a subset of polyphenol antioxidants, are present in many dark berries such as black currant, pomegranate, seabuckthorn, noni, blueberries, and blackberries, as well as in certain types of coffee and tea, especially green tea.


Phenolic acids and their esters

See main article: Polyphenol antioxidant


Other nonflavonoid phenolics

 Other organic antioxidants





Naringin normalizes Hematocrit (Blood Thickness) levels (i.e. it raises low Haematocrit levels and lowers elevated Haematocrit levels and has no effect on normal Haematocrit levels).  research

Naringin promotes the elimination of old Red Blood Cells.  research


Digestive System


Naringin inhibits the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) to cause Gastric Ulcers.  research


Immune System


Naringin prevents or treats some types of Cancer:


-        Naringin helps to prevent Breast Cancer.  research

-        Naringin helps to prevent Lung Cancer.  research

-        Naringin inhibits the metastasis of Melanoma:


-        In mice studies, oral administration of Naringin inhibited the metastasis of Melanoma to the Lungs - Naringin-treated mice exhibited an 27% reduction in the number of Lung tumor nodules.




Naringin lowers elevated serum Cholesterol levels.  research

Naringin lowers elevated serum Triglycerides levels.  research


Naringin Enhances the Function of these Substances




Naringin extends the half-life of Caffeine.  research


Pharmaceutical Drugs


Naringin increases the bioavailability and potency of many Pharmaceutical Drugs and extends their half-life.


Naringin Counteracts these Potentially Toxic Substances




Naringin inhibits the activity of Aldose Reductase.

Naringin inhibits the activity of HMG-CoA Reductase.  research


Recreational Drugs


Naringin inhibits the ability of Alcohol (ethanol) to cause Gastric Ulcers.  research


Dietary Source of Naringin




Naringin is a constituent of Grapefruit





ùùùAntioxidant Querciten and Green Tea on muscle peformance


Quercetin increases brain and muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and exercise tolerance

J. Mark Davis,1 E. Angela Murphy,1 Martin D. Carmichael,1 and Ben Davis2

1Division of Applied Physiology, Department of Exercise Science and 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina

Submitted 13 November 2008 ; accepted in final form 6 February 2009

Quercetin is one of a broad group of natural polyphenolic flavonoid substances that are being investigated for their widespread health benefits. These benefits have generally been ascribed to its combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but recent in vitro evidence suggests that improved mitochondrial biogenesis could play an important role. In addition, the in vivo effects of quercetin on mitochondrial biogenesis exercise tolerance are unknown. We examined the effects of 7 days of quercetin feedings in mice on markers of mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and brain, and on endurance exercise tolerance. Mice were randomly assigned to one of the following three treatment groups: placebo, 12.5 mg/kg quercetin, or 25 mg/kg quercetin. Following 7 days of treatment, mice were killed, and soleus muscle and brain were analyzed for mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} coactivator (PGC-1{alpha}) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and cytochrome c. Additional mice underwent a treadmill performance run to fatigue or were placed in voluntary activity wheel cages, and their voluntary activity (distance, time, and peak speed) was recorded. Quercetin increased mRNA expression of PGC-1{alpha} and SIRT1 (P < 0.05), mtDNA (P < 0.05) and cytochrome c concentration (P < 0.05). These changes in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis were associated with an increase in both maximal endurance capacity (P < 0.05) and voluntary wheel-running activity (P < 0.05). These benefits of querectin on fitness without exercise training may have important implications for enhancement of athletic and military performance and may also extend to prevention and/or treatment of chronic diseases.

flavonoid; mitochondria; endurance capacity

Endurance capacity in maturing mdx mice is markedly enhanced by combined voluntary wheel running and green tea extract

Jarrod A. Call,1 Kevin A. Voelker,1 Andrew V. Wolff,1,2 Ryan P. McMillan,1 Nick P. Evans,1 Matthew W. Hulver,1 Robert J. Talmadge,3 and Robert W. Grange1

Departments of 1Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, and 2Mechanical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia; and 3Biological Sciences Department, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California

Submitted 11 January 2008 ; accepted in final form 24 June 2008

Duchenne muscular dystrophy is characterized by the absence of dystrophin from muscle cells. Dystrophic muscle cells are susceptible to oxidative stress. We tested the hypothesis that 3 wk of endurance exercise starting at age 21 days in young male mdx mice would blunt oxidative stress and improve dystrophic skeletal muscle function, and these effects would be enhanced by the antioxidant green tea extract (GTE). In mice fed normal diet, average daily running distance increased 300% from week 1 to week 3, and total distance over 3 wk was improved by 128% in mice fed GTE. Running, independent of diet, increased serum antioxidant capacity, extensor digitorum longus tetanic stress, and total contractile protein content, heart citrate synthase, and heart and quadriceps β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities. GTE, independent of running, decreased serum creatine kinase and heart and gastrocnemius lipid peroxidation and increased gastrocnemius citrate synthase activity. These data suggest that both endurance exercise and GTE may be beneficial as therapeutic strategies to improve muscle function in mdx mice.


Remedy 1

Take gunpowder green tea and use 1 tablespoon add 1 tablespoon of powdered garlic or onion and add 1 tablspoon of the bioflavonids from dried whites from citrus ….pulverize them in a blender  until powdered….sift through a tea strainer or sifter    then re blend the left over , and re sift then when you have the powder add it to either honey or aloe vera blend til fused then consume as needed this should increase the effect of endurance and immune protection of lungs liver, immune system, will bind with metals as well as other toxic chemicals, and have a cancer preventative and combatative effect




Take gunpowder green tea…21-3 tablespoons and ground it to a powder the add to a bowl ( sift to get out rough or unpowdered material)


Take 1-2 teaspoons of the dried white of either grapefruit , orange, lemon , pomelo or lime or any other citrus you may like…powder and sift…Add to bowl….


Then take 1 teaspoon of red pepper powder ( do the same if you buy fresh let dry then blend to a powder and sift ) put into bowl


Add 1 cap of any alcohol ( brandy or cognac  or vodka or gin or even tequila) anything filtered is preferred


Then add 2 tablespoons of honey ( unpasteurized )

Put in the bowl


Mix all of these you can either hand mix this or add to a blender and blend on low til everything is saturated and smooth….


When down pour out into a glass bottle or container then use ½ tsp several times a day




Other effects will be as well the Mass lose and potential satisfaction of food in the system, as well as an analgesic effect for pain on several different levels. All of these components as well have anti cancer fighting properties as well as arterial strengthening and heart regulating  effect, antibacterial qualities, and immune enhancing indication.

The  effect can be felt almost immediately



CCCAnother way of doing this is it mix 4 tablespoons of  powdered sifted green tea in a blender and add ½ cup of alcohol ( brandy ….vodka…cognac…etc) and blend for 10 minutes at a medium to high speed….. strain and add to a glass container


Repeat this with the powdered dried bioflavonoid and the red pepper only add 1 tablespoon of the red pepper and only add a ¼ cup


Once all these have been blended and strained then add equal parts of each into a dropper bottle ( 1 ounce or 15 ml) then use 3-5 drops ( It will be hot )



You can apply the alcohol mix  in oil if need be to take or you can apply this to food or anything you may want to



You will again feel the effect immediately so again do not take any prescription drugs with this


You can how ever mix these with certain vitamins …such as

Vitamin C


Alpha Lipoic Acid

Garlic ( when added to garlic it will have an increased effect with cholesterol lowering and  immune strengthening effect)



Hawthorn Berry

Rhodiola Rosea


B1 or Benfotiamine

Folic acid


Beta Carotene


Pine bark





If you do mix this with these supplements Make sure you reduce the amount you take in a day or even rotate these every other day….it can impact the dose higher in the system, and as a result you can have a higher amount in the blood stream….so this can save you money as well as dosing……





ùùùIodine and Heart Health

International Medical Veritas Association ???


Courtesy of Scientific American  According to Scientific American physicians for decades have grappled with ways to block further tissue damage in patients who suffer heart attacks. They have tried everything from drugs to cell therapy?all with little luck. But promising new research indicates that a biogel made from seaweed may have the healing powers that have thus far eluded them. Some of the principle healing agents in seaweed are magnesium, iodine, and selenium.  Though the main theme of this book is magnesium medicine for cardiac care we will deal in this chapter with iodine and in another with the important mineral selenium. Selenium is not only crucial when using iodine but it addresses most directly the Hun Hordes of Mercury that are attacking heart tissues in massive amounts leading to cardiac arrest. Mercury is a deadly cardiac poison whose best antidote is selenium - since they bind together making it easier for the body to remove the selenium-mercury compound.  Doctors and all health care practitioners need to be up on their minerals because we need them now more than ever. Minerals provide the foundations of our bodies as cement provides the support for most building foundations. We need to be acutely aware also of how the minerals work together and are dependent on each other for functioning at optimal levels. It is important that mineral interactions be taken into account when looking at iodine supplementation. A person with superior nutrient intake, especially of selenium, will be much more likely to respond well to higher intakes of iodine. Seaweeds (iodine) have exceptional value in the treatment of candida overgrowth. They contain selenium and (all the) other minerals necessary for rebuilding immunity; furthermore the rich iodine content is used by enzymes in the body to produce iodine-charged free radicals which deactivate yeasts.[i] Experiments have shown that k. japonica, edible seaweed, was able to transform inorganic selenium to organic selenium through metabolism. Seaweed was crucial in the evolution of life in that it was and still is responsible for concentrating iodine from the ocean. The Japanese eat more seaweed then anyone in the world and they enjoy some of the best health statistics for it. Clinical cardiovascular features of hypothyroidism include: bradycardia, reduced cardiac output, increased pericardial and pleural effusions, increased diastolic blood pressure and peripheral vasoconstriction. According to Dr. Stephen A. Hoption Cann, Department of Health Care and Epidemiology, University of British Columbia, iodine deficiency can have deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system, and correspondingly, that a higher iodine intake may benefit cardiovascular function.[ii] Regional iodine intake has been shown to be associated with the prevalence of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, where autoimmune hypothyroidism is the more common of the two in regions with moderate to high iodine intake. Both of these thyroid abnormalities have been shown to negatively affect cardiovascular function. Selenium, an important antioxidant in the thyroid and involved ?in the metabolism of iodine-containing thyroid hormones, may ?play an interactive role in the development of these thyroid irregularities, and in turn, cardiovascular disease.  Dr. Stephen. Hoption Cann  Dr. Michael Donaldson says, Iodine stabilizes the heart rhythm, lowers serum cholesterol, lowers blood pressure, and is known to make the blood thinner as well, judging by longer clotting times seen by clinicians. Iodine is not only good for the cardiovascular system, it is vital. Sufficient iodine is needed for a stable rhythmic heart beat. Iodine, directly or indirectly, can normalize serum cholesterol levels and normalize blood pressure. Iodine attaches to insulin receptors and improves glucose metabolism, which is good news for people with diabetes. Iodine and iodine-rich foods have long been used as a treatment for hypertension and cardiovascular disease; yet, modern randomized studies examining the effects of iodine on cardiovascular disease have not been carried out  Adequate iodine is necessary for proper thyroid function. The heart is a target organ for thyroid hormones. Marked changes occur in cardiac function in patients with hypo- or hyperthyroidism.  The country of Finland is an excellent case study of cardiovascular disease and iodine, as reviewed by Dr. Cann. Endemic goiter was common in people and in domestic animals, particularly in the eastern part of Finland away from the sea. Studies in the 1950s revealed that the major dietary difference between eastern and western Finland was iodine. The risk of death from coronary heart disease was 3.5 times higher for people with a goiter in Finland .[iv]  "Thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Triiodothyronine, (T(3)), the physiologically active form of thyroid hormone, binds to nuclear receptor proteins and mediates the expression of several important cardiac genes, inducing transcription of the positively regulated genes including alpha-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase. [v] Negatively regulated genes include beta-MHC and phospholamban, which are down regulated in the presence of normal serum levels of thyroid hormone. T(3) mediated effects on the systemic vasculature include relaxation of vascular smooth muscle resulting in decreased arterial resistance and diastolic blood pressure. In hyperthyroidism, cardiac contractility and cardiac output are enhanced and systemic vascular resistance is decreased, while in hypothyroidism, the opposite is true. Patients with subclinical hypothyroidism manifest many of the same cardiovascular changes, but to a lesser degree than that which occurs in overt hypothyroidism. Cardiac disease states are sometimes associated with the low T(3) syndrome.?[vi] The phenotype of the failing heart resembles that of the hypothyroid heart, both in cardiac physiology and in gene expression. Changes in serum T(3) levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure are caused by alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism suggesting that patients may benefit from T(3) replacement in this setting."[vii] T(3) of course is iodine dependent so the relationship between iodine and heart disease gets clearer.  Iodine-containing thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are important metabolic regulators of cardiovascular activity with the ability to exert action on ?cardiac myocytes, vascular smooth muscle, and endothelial cells.  Dr. Stephen. Hoption Cann Whole body sufficiency of iodine/iodide results in optimal cardiac functions, writes Dr. Guy Abraham.[viii] There is an epidemic of cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in this country and Dr. Abraham is convinced that the medical iodine phobia has a great deal to do with this phenomenon. Adequate stores of iodine are necessary for a smooth heartbeat.[ix] The thyroid hormone deficiency on cardiovascular function can be characterized with decreased myocardial contractility and increased peripheral vascular resistance as well as with the changes in lipid metabolism.[x] Dr. B. West says, Iodine supplementation may be the missing link in a good percentage of heart arrhythmia cases, especially atrial fibrillation. The body needs adequate stores of iodine for the heart to beat smoothly. After close to a year now of using Iodine Fulfillment Therapy, I can attest to this fact.  Most of the stubborn cases of cardiac arrhythmias and atrial fibrillation that we were unable to completely correct with our cardiac protocols have now been resolved with adequate supplies of iodine added to the protocol.[xi] Amazingly, while medicine shuns iodine therapy, their most popular anti-fibrillation drug, Amiodarone, actually is iodine in a more toxic, sustained-release form. This drug can produce a smooth heartbeat when the body has accumulated about 1,500 mgs of iodine the exact amount of iodine retained by your body when iodine fulfillment is achieved by natural supplementation with Prolamine Iodine. Unfortunately, Amiodarone is an extremely toxic form of iodine used by the medical profession. The side effects are often too great (and even life threatening) for most people to endure long enough to achieve a normal heartbeat. In addition, once you stop this drug, your original problem returns. Iodine therapy, on the other hand, fulfills the body?s needs safely, then maintains the smooth heartbeat with a low-maintenance dose, continued Dr. West.  Dr. Donaldson reminds us of the selenium iodine connection saying,  Another factor in how much iodine can be safely used depends on other possible mineral deficiencies. Selenium is very important for thyroid function. Selenium is part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. Glutathione peroxidase in the thyroid helps quench free-radicals produced by the enzyme thyroid peroxidase (which functions to organify iodide as it enters the thyroid). If high levels of iodide are present in the thyroid without sufficient amounts of glutathione peroxidase it causes free-radical damage to the thyroid, leading to autoimmune thyroid disease. Several of the enzymes that convert T4 into T3 also require selenium. Studies in Zaire have found that supplementing selenium and iodine deficient children with just selenium had adverse effects on thyroid function.[xii]  The selenium content in seaweed can bind with whatever mercury is present and render it harmless.  There are just some people who understand the basics of cellular medicine and act appropriately. Dr. John Young in Tampa Florida has been experimenting with a new process for reversing metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past seven years he claims to have a success rate of 80 percent with over 100 diabetes patients. Dr. Young uses a combination of alkaline protein and minerals with a form of iodine that he says reverses the process in diabetes patients in eight to 12 weeks.  It’s important to remember that diabetes and heart disease share similar etiologies. Whatever Dr. Young is doing for his diabetic patients physicians can be doing for their heart patients. Iodine is critical to the heart and arterial system so we know it needs to be part of a fundamental protocol either in a preventative or treatment sense. Dr. George Flechas has found that iodine can reduce the need for insulin in diabetic patients, using 50 to 100 mg of iodine per day. Of 12 patients, 6 were able to completely come off their medications with random glucose readings below 100 mg/dl and a HbA1c less than 5.8 (normal), and the other 6 were able to reduce the amount and/or number of medications needed to control their diabetes. There is a patient who had severe mitral valve prolapse. A 35-year old banker who could not walk more than 20 metres without?getting cyanosed. Five cardiologists and surgeons suggested open heart surgery immediately. He decided against the surgery and went to the DaVinci Clinic in Cyrus to my colleague Dr. George Gorgiou. A central part of the pathology was severe mercury toxicity of the heart tissues - he removed 14 amalgams poisoning himself in the process which caused severe mitral valve prolapse. With the correct treatment not only did this man survive but nearly a year later he is now wind surfing 12 miles at competition standard and came first two weeks ago in a race with two others. He is working a full life etc.  The patient actually has registered with the Guiness Book of Records as being the only man on this planet who has completely healed of severe mitral valve prolapse without open-heart surgery. Dr. Georgiou is a naturopathic doctor whose speciality is chelation of heavy metals. He has done research in Russia creating his own natural chelator called HMD. There are doctors out in the field who understand what is actually going on in cardiac patients and treat them in ways mainstream cardiologists don't even dream of. Basic to this man's treatment was magnesium, iodine and natural chelation with the HMD and other naturopathic support medicinals. 


My soon to be released book on Iodine is dedicated to the iodine doctors, brave souls who have risked bringing medicine back to some semblance of sanity. Iodine offers us such a return; it is bedrock medicine and is almost as useful as magnesium chloride. The above is the last chapter written for the book and represents a breakthrough in cardiac care. Having just finished the book it still amazes me the mysteries of iodine. I am known in certain circles as the magnesium man but with the publishing of this book I am definitely in the iodine camp. The experience of the past few days though are transforming me into an iodine man as well.  My whole family came down with something that has been going around the neighborhood, let’s call it the flu. As the first winds of it approached my body?s senses I ran for the iodine and took strong doses of it every hour or two and it beat the invading devils, headed them off right at the pass. I still got the symptoms of cough and running nose but I did not feel or get what most people call sick. I was right on the edge for a day but each time I took the iodine I could feel it giving me strength. The only side effect was that my mind intensified in clarity, my sleep time was reduced and I woke up fresh and ready to run to my work. I just this moment said to one of my son’s, who is suffering from the flu that he and I were both ignorant, meaning he did not think to take the iodine and until this week I never had for this purpose either. I have done so for my little children when they have gotten sick but there is nothing like first hand experience. I was using the Nascent Iodine[xiii], which I believe is the safest and most effective of the iodines available and for the children I would only use this. It is not as concentrated as Lugol’s, even the newer watered down Lugol?s, which is mostly what is available in the United States after some laws changed, is much stronger. I thus recommend Lugol’s for transdermal iodine therapy. Many of the iodine doctors use Iodoral or Iosol and with these one can take iodine dosages up to very high levels safely. The Nascent is something different, having powerful effects at much lower dosages. Feeling it in ones mouth hour after hour gives one a sense of amazement about iodine.  Considering the importance of this element for overall well-being, it is most amazing that no study so far has attempted to answer the very important question about what the optimal amount of daily iodine intake should be for the greatest levels of mental and physical well-being in the majority of a population with a minimum of negative effects. The more one experiences iodine the higher ones estimate goes in this regard.  An important note that the CDC would not like you to know is that Russian researchers and experts in mercury have correlated the flu with mercury toxicity more than with little bugs that crawl around inside of us. And behold, iodine chelates mercury as it does fluoride, bromide and even percolate, the halogen like rocket fuel polluting half of North America . In The Ultimate Heart Medicine book we see that mercury is a huge problem for heart muscles, which concentrate it to levels thousands of times higher than seen in other tissues.  Though iodine is known for its importance for the thyroid, little has been publicized about its other crucial roles. Iodine is needed in microgram amounts for the health of the thyroid on a daily basis but when you factor in the needs of all the other tissues and organs[xiv] much higher doses are needed. Iodine supports the health of many organs in the body but for the heart it is mission critical as is magnesium.  Mark Sircus Ac., OMD Director International Medical Veritas Association  

[i] P. Pitchford, Healing with Whole Foods, Revised Edition, North Atlantic Books, 36, 1993. [ii] Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1-11 (2006) Hypothesis: Dietary Iodine Intake in the Etiology of Cardiovascular Disease [iii] ibid [iv] Cann SAH. Hypothesis: dietary iodine intake in the etiology of cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25(1):1-11. [v] Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. Danzi S, Klein I. Minerva Endocrinol. 2004 Sep;29(3):139-50. Review. [vi] ibid [vii] ibid [viii] The Original Internist, 12(2):57-66, 2005 [ix] Health Alert, Vol. 22, No. 12 [x] Iodine deficiency in cardiovascular diseases Molnar I, Magyari M, Stief L. Orv Hetil. 1998 Aug 30;139(35):2071-3. Hungarian. [xi] Atrial Fibrillation, Arrhythmias and Iodine. West B Health Alert, June 2006, Volume 23, Issue 6 [xii] [xiii] Toll Free (800) 257-3315 [xiv] Other organs are also able to take up iodine, too, by the same transport protein as the thyroid. Research has shown that the receptor for iodine uptake is in the thyroid gland, salivary gland, parotid gland, submandibular gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, testis, mammary gland, gastric mucosa, prostate, ovary, adrenal gland, heart, thymus, lung, bladder, kidney, endometrium, and also breast, ovary and colon and the lacrimal gland The ovaries hold the second highest concentration of iodine, after the thyroid.? The breasts also have a high concentration of iodine. Most secretions in the body, whether gastric, nasal, tears, sweat, etc., have iodine in them if sufficient iodine is present in the body.




Middle Eastern herb shows potential against pancreatic cancer

An extract from the Middle Eastern herb Nigella sativa may not only stop the growth of pancreatic cancer, but inhibit the development of the tumours, suggest new results from the US.

Thymoquinone, the major constituent of the herb’s oil, was found to have anti-inflammatory activity resulting in lower levels of inflammatory compounds linked to pancreatic cancer, according to findings presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 100th Annual Meeting 2009 in Denver.

The study findings, which have been accepted for publication in the Oxford journal Hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB), suggest that, if future studies back up the early promise, the herb extract could offer potential benefits to people with chronic pancreatitis or those at risk of development or recurrence of pancreatic cancer.

The seed and oil of Nigella sativa have been used extensively in traditional medicine in many Middle Eastern and Asian countries, said the researchers, for the treatment of a range of conditions, including some immune and inflammatory disorders. "These are very exciting and novel results," said lead researcher Hwyda Arafat, MD, PhD, from Thomas Jefferson University. “These potent effects show promise for the herb as a potential preventive and therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer. More importantly, the herb and oil are safe when used moderately, and have been used for thousands of years without reported toxic effects," she added. According to the US National Cancer Institute almost 38,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are diagnosed every year in the US, with almost 34,000 deaths from the disease. British charity Cancer Research UK states that the pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis overall since most cases are diagnosed quite late. Indeed, only one in every 50 cases will still be living five years after diagnosis, highlighting the importance of prevention for this type of cancer. Dr Arafat told that his team first reported the potential anti-cancer benefits of the herb last year at the Digestive Disease week in San Diego. This year, we're showing the anti-inflammatory activities and the effect of treating animals with xenografts of human pancreatic cancer,” she said. So, yes, you can consider this as the first (or second) report about the anticancerous effect of NS in pancreatic cancer by our group. To my knowledge, no one else published about NS in pancreatic cancer.”


The herb is available on many websites, according to Dr Arafat. “There are few websites that sell good product that is well manufactured and packed. So, it is available,” she explained.

Study details

The earlier results showed that thymoquinone could inhibit compounds called histone deacetylases (HDACs), which play a role in gene expression and have been linked to cancer progression. For the new study, Dr Arafat and her colleagues compared the anti-inflammatory properties of thymoquinone with trichostatin A, a known HDAC inhibitor previously reported to improve inflammation-associated cancers. Using pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells pre-treated with the cytokine TNF-alpha to induce inflammation, the researchers report that the Nigella sativa extract could almost completely inhibit the expression of several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, interleukin-1beta (IL-1b), IL-8, Cox-2 and MCP-1. Moreover, the effect was superior to that observed from trichostatin A. Furthermore, when animal with pancreatic cancer were given thymoquinone, 67 per cent of the tumours significantly shrank, with corresponding levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly reduced.

On-going study

Dr Arafat confirmed that this remains a very active area of investigation. She is currently in the process of attaining funding for a “more aggressive program to get more information from preclinical studies”. Once funding is in the place, the researchers would “actively proceed to a phase I clinical trial. I'm currently in discussions with the medical oncologist to write a clinical trial for a small number of patients. After we obtain some preliminary data, we can then proceed to bigger trials for either prevention or therapy,” he said.



Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against lead-induced hepatorenal damage in male rats.

Nigella sativa seeds--- Black Seed


Pak J Biol Sci. 2007 Sep 1;10(17):2809-16

Authors: Farrag AR, Mahdy KA, Abdel Rahman GH, Osfor MM

Heavy metals are widely distributed in the environment and some of them occur in food, water, air and tissues even in the absence of occupational exposure. Among of these lead, (Pb) is a hazardous substance to human and animals. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible protective effect of co-administered Nigella sativa seeds on lead acetate-induced rats' toxicity in particularly on liver and kidney. Thirty-six male rats were divided into six groups, 6 rats each. The first group was served as a control, while the second group was fed on the basal diet with Nigella sativa addition, whereas the other groups contained lead acetate (10 and 20% of LD50) with and without Nigella sativa supplementation for six weeks. At the end of the feeding period, rats were fasted over night and anesthetized and blood and tissue samples were taken for biochemical and histopathological studies. The results of this study revealed that lead acetate caused significant elevations in AST, urea, creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum. Lead treatment also produced significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin. Histopathological observations showed severe damage in the liver and kidneys. Its damaged areas were measured using Image analyzer. Combined treatment of lead-exposed animals with Nigella sativa showed marked improvement in both biochemical and histopathological findings as well as reduction in the damaged areas. These experimental results strongly indicate the protective effect of Nigella sativa against toxic effect of lead on liver and kidney tissues.

PMID: 19090181 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Nigella sativa relieves the deleterious effects of ischemia reperfusion injury on liver.

World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Sep 7;14(33):5204-9

Authors: Yildiz F, Coban S, Terzi A, Ates M, Aksoy N, Cakir H, Ocak AR, Bitiren M

AIM: To determine whether Nigella sativa prevents hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury to the liver. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into three groups as sham (Group 1), control (Group 2), and Nigella sativa (NS) treatment group (Group 3). All rats underwent hepatic ischemia (is a restriction in blood supply, generally due to factors in the blood vessels, with resultant damage or dysfunction of tissue) for 45 min followed by 60 min period of reperfusion. Rats were intraperitoneally infused with only 0.9% saline solution in group 2. Rats in group 3 received NS (0.2 mL/kg) intraperitoneally, before ischemia and before reperfusion. Blood samples and liver tissues were harvested from the rats, and then the rats were sacrificed. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels were determined. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), total oxidative status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in hepatic tissue were measured. Also liver tissue histopathology was evaluated by light microscopy. RESULTS: The levels of liver enzymes in group 3 were significantly lower than those in the group 2. TAC in liver tissue was significantly higher in group 3 than in group 2. TOS, OSI and MPO in hepatic tissue were significantly lower in group 3 than the group 2. Histological tissue damage was milder in the NS treatment group than that in the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Nigella sativa treatment protects the rat liver against to hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model.

Nigella sativa oil for prevention of chronic cyclosporine nephrotoxicity: an experimental model.

Am J Nephrol. 2008;28(3):517-22

Authors: Uz E, Bayrak O, Uz E, Kaya A, Bayrak R, Uz B, Turgut FH, Bavbek N, Kanbay M, Akcay A

Nephrotoxicity is the main secondary effect of cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment. The antioxidant action of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) may explain the protective effect of these agents against various hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic models in vivo and in vitro. This study was designed to investigate the possible protective effects of NSO, in prevention of chronic CsA-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Animals were randomly divided into four experimental groups: the control group received sunflower oil, the other groups were treated with CsA (25 mg/kg/day b.w. orally) or NSO (2 ml/kg orally) or CsA + NSO, respectively. Urine and serum creatinine levels, tissue superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzyme activities, and nitric oxide and malondialdehyde levels were measured, and histological examination was performed. In our study, CsA caused a significant deterioration in the renal function, morphology and gave rise to severe oxidative stress in the kidney. NSO significantly improved the functional and histological parameters and attenuated the oxidative stress induced by CsA. In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time that NSO protects kidney tissue against oxygen free radicals, preventing renal dysfunction and morphological abnormalities associated with chronic CsA administration.

PMID: 18223305 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats.

J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):419-24

Authors: Meddah B, Ducroc R, El Abbes Faouzi M, Eto B, Mahraoui L, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Martineau LC, Cherrah Y, Haddad PS

AIM OF THE STUDY: Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) seeds have been used traditionally for centuries, notably for treating diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the effects of the crude aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds on intestinal glucose absorption in vitro using a short-circuit current technique and in vivo using an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa (0.1 pg/ml to 100 ng/ml) exerted dose-dependent inhibition of sodium-dependent glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum. Maximal inhibition exceeded 80% and IC50 was close to 10 pg/ml. An oral glucose tolerance test was carried out in rats after the initial dose and after a 6-week treatment of Nigella sativa (2 g/(kg day)), and compared to metformin (300 mg/(kg day)). Chronic Nigella sativa treatment improved glucose tolerance as efficiently as metformin. Nigella sativa and metformin also reduced body weight without any toxic effect. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that Nigella sativa directly inhibits the electrogenic intestinal absorption of glucose in vitro. Together with the observed improvement of glucose tolerance and body weight in rats after chronic oral administration in vivo, these effects further validate the traditional use of Nigella sativa seeds against diabetes.

PMID: 19061948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]



Take 1 tsp of ground Black Seed and powder it fine in a blender ….then add this honey about 3 tablespoons and add 1 cap of brandy…..blend til smooth may take about 5-8 minutes


Add to a glass jar and use 1 tsp increments…use it 1-3 times a day if ill with different conditions…will strengthen the system and give added materials to the body to rebuild and restore the system




MRSA Recovery

Effect of a glutamine-supplemented diet on response to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in mice.

Suzuki I, Matsumoto Y, Adjei AA, Asato L, Shinjo S, Yamamoto S.

Department of Food and Nutrition, Kumamoto Women's University, Japan.

The following study was undertaken to determine whether dietary supplementation with glutamine can be used to modulate the immune response following challenge with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) organisms in mice. Thirty BALB/c female mice were randomized into 3 groups: group A (n = 10) were fed 20% casein diet (control), whereas the mice in Groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) were given 20% casein diet supplemented with 2 and 4% glutamine, respectively. The diets were made isonitrogenous by glycine and alanine supplementation. On the 10th day on these treatments, each mouse was challenged intravenously with 2 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/ml of MRSA organisms and mortality was noted for 20 days. The survival rate in Group A (20%) tended to be lower than the rates in Group B (40%), and Group C (70%). CFU values of spleen and kidney of the surviving mice 20 days post challenge were not different among the three groups (p < 0.05). The present results suggest that dietary glutamine supplementation may be effective as a nutritional immunomodulator for the recovery from MRSA infection.


Aromatherapy oils 'kill superbug'
« on: December 22, 2004, 04:59:51 PM »



Essential oils could kill the deadly MRSA hospital 'superbug', scientists have claimed.  University of Manchester researchers found three of the oils, usually used in aromatherapy, destroyed MRSA and E.coli bacteria in two minutes. They suggest the oils could be blended into soaps and shampoos which could be used in hospitals to stop the spread of the superbug. Hospital-acquired infections, such as MRSA, kill an estimated 5,000 a year. The Manchester study was triggered when complementary medicine specialists at Christie Cancer Hospital asked university researchers to test essential oils.  Our research shows a very practical application which could be of enormous benefit to the NHS and its patients
Jacqui Stringer, Christie Hospital, Manchester They wanted to ensure they could not harm the patients, whose immune systems are weakened by the treatments. Dr Peter Warn, who carried out the research, said: "When I tested the oils in the lab, absolutely nothing grew. Rather than stimulating bacteria and fungi, the oils killed them off." Soaps and shampoos The team then tested 40 essential oils against 10 of the most infectious agents found in hospitals, including MRSA (methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus). 
Two of the oils were found to kill MRSA and E.coli almost instantly, while a third was found to act over a longer period of time. However, the researchers say they are unable to reveal which oils carry benefits because of commercial sensitivities. MRSA is often carried in patients' nostrils, and is currently treated by putting disinfectant on the area to kill the bacterium - which many patients often find unpleasant. Dr Warn says the essential oils could be used to create much more pleasant inhalation therapies - which he said were likely to have a much higher success rate than the current treatment, which is only effective in around 50% of cases." Dr Warn said: "We believe that our discovery could revolutionise the fight to combat MRSA and other superbugs." But he said the team now needed around £30,000 in order to continue its research. Jacqui Stringer, clinical leader of complementary therapies at Christie Hospital in Manchester, instigated the oils research. She said: "Our research shows a very practical application which could be of enormous benefit to the NHS and its patients. "The reason essential oils are so effective is because they are made up of a complex mixture of chemical compounds which the MRSA and other superbug bacteria finds difficult to resist." The Department of Health evaluates products which are claimed to prevent or treat HAIs before it permits them to be used across the NHS.



Vapour-phase activities of essential oils against antibiotic sensitive and resistant bacteria including MRSA.

Doran AL, Morden WE, Dunn K, Edwards-Jones V.

School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK.

AIMS: To determine whether essential oil (EO) vapours could reduce surface and airborne levels of bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). METHODS AND RESULTS: The antibacterial activity of geranium and lemongrass EO individually and blended were evaluated over a range of concentrations by direct contact and vapour diffusion. The EO were tested in vitro against a selection of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria, including MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE), Acinetobacter baumanii and Clostridium difficile. An EO blend containing lemongrass and geranium was used to formulate BioScent that was dispersed into the environment using the ST Pro machine. The effects were variable depending on the methods used. In a sealed box environment, MRSA growth on seeded plates was reduced by 38% after 20 h exposure to BioScent vapour. In an office environment, the ST Pro machine dispersing BioScent effected an 89% reduction of airborne bacteria in 15 h, when operated at a constant output of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: EO vapours inhibited growth of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant bacteria in vitro and reduced surface and airborne levels of bacteria. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: Results suggest that EO vapours, particularly Bioscent, could be used as a method of air disinfection



The effect of essential oils on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using a dressing model.

Edwards-Jones V, Buck R, Shawcross SG, Dawson MM, Dunn K.

Department of Biological Sciences, the Manchester Metropolitan University, Chester Street, Manchester, M15GD, UK.

Patchouli, tea tree, geranium, lavender essential oils and Citricidal (grapefruit seed extract) were used singly and in combination to assess their anti-bacterial activity against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus: Oxford S. aureus NCTC 6571 (Oxford strain), Epidemic methicillin-resistant S. aureus (EMRSA 15) and MRSA (untypable). The individual essential oils, extracts and combinations were impregnated into filter paper discs and placed on the surface of agar plates, pre-seeded with the appropriate strain of Staphylococcus. The effects of the vapours of the oils and oil combinations were also assessed using impregnated filter paper discs that were placed on the underside of the Petri dish lid at a distance of 8mm from the bacteria. The most inhibitory combinations of oils for each strain were used in a dressing model constructed using a four layers of dressings: the primary layer consisted of either Jelonet or TelfaClear with or without Flamazine; the second was a layer of gauze, the third a layer of Gamgee and the final layer was Crepe bandage. The oil combinations were placed in either the gauze or the Gamgee layer. This four-layered dressing was placed over the seeded agar plate, incubated for 24h at 37 degrees C and the zones of inhibition measured. All experiments were repeated on three separate occasions. No anti-bacterial effects were observed when Flamazine was smeared on the gauze in the dressing model. When Telfaclear was used as the primary layer in the dressing model compared to Jelonet, greater zones of inhibition were observed. A combination of Citricidal and geranium oil showed the greatest-anti-bacterial effects against MRSA, whilst a combination of geranium and tea tree oil was most active against the methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (Oxford strain). This study demonstrates the potential of essential oils and essential oil vapours as antibacterial agents and for use in the treatment of MRSA infection.