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High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth
Moderately Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Keeps People Feeling Full Longer
Polish legal researchers have slammed the 2002 Food Supplements Directive (FSD) for being so vaguely and badly written that it is retarding one of its stated aims – to harmonise and boost trade across the European Union’s 27 member states. ---The researchers say the Directive contains unclear definitions of what a food supplement actually is; what is meant by a “normal diet” in the European Union bloc; as well as remaining ambiguous about the treatment of nutrients such as amino acids, fatty acids, fibre and herbal extracts and yet-to-be-confirmed dosage levels. --The result, they say, is a regulation that “turns out to be useless” and which, “fails to comply not only with the standards of good legislation but even basic legislative requirements.” --Writing in European Food and Feed Law, the University of Warsaw’s Professor Malgorzata Korzycka-Iwanow (Head of Department of Food Law) and Monika Zboralska (doctorate researcher) concluded the FSD’s attempt to ring-fence food supplements was producing a counter effect. --- “…remarkable difficulties associated with qualifying a product as a food supplement, especially against a medicinal product is seen as an impediment of free movement of goods within the EU.” -- FSD interpretation in the European Court of Justice (ECJ) The FSD’s deficiencies have led to a situation where, in the author’s view, the ECJ has been called into the breach, with many cases revolving around the nebulous notion of just what a food supplement is-- In several rulings the ECJ has found a supplement can be classified by factors such as:
· its composition
· its pharmacological properties
· its manner of use
· its distribution
· its familiarity among consumers
· its risk of use
Korzycka-Iwanow and Zboralska noted, however, that a supplement and a medicinal product may contain the same substances albeit at different levels. Similarly both a supplement and a medicinal product could possess pharmacological or therapeutic effects, but the ECJ had attempted to established a ‘threshold of significance’ to determine how to classify a product. That threshold being that medicinal products should prevent or treat disease as had been exemplified in a 2004 ECJ case about how to classify garlic supplements that saw Germany forced to treat them as supplements and not drugs as the government had sought. --ECJ rulings have also found that groups of products cannot be classified as medicines due to the presence of particular substances, vitamins or due to high dosage levels. ---Other aggrieved parties have gone to the ECJ with questions about whether member states should be able to conceive their own maximum permitted limits for nutrients used in food supplements. --Relating the problem of transposing the FSD into member state legislatures, a process that remains incomplete across the EU, they wrote: “Many EU member states, including the Polish legislator, struggle with the problem of the transparency of the procedure of product classification, which should at the same time protect the safety of consumers.”
Responding to the report, the UK Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) said the contamination issues were almost exclusively due to “rogue supplement suppliers”[U2] . “The illegal supplements highlighted in this paper actually form a very small percentage of the European/UK supplement market,” CRN said “All regulated consumer product industries are plagued by some common supply chain failures. Even heavily regulated industries such as the pharmaceutical industry producing drugs or medicines, and as such requiring pre-market approval, do not completely insulate against intentional adulteration or counterfeit products. In fact, globally, the counterfeit drug industry is estimated to be $200 billion annually - more lucrative than narcotics. It added: “The focus in this paper, being solely on food/dietary supplements, is narrow-minded, ignoring the bigger picture and the fact that this is a much larger problem.” CRN highlighted its own technical guide to reducing and managing chemical and microbiological contaminants in supplements and their ingredients, as well as similar materials from the European Federation of Health Product Manufacturer’s (EHPM) and the International Alliance of Dietary Supplement Association’s (IADSA) as proof of the industry’s activity in the area. ---“There is a considerable amount of legislation in place to regulate food supplements within Europe, with which the responsible supplement manufacturers are in compliance,” CRN continued. ---“However, all the trade associations are in agreement that there are varying degrees of control by enforcement agencies in the individual member states and would actually welcome a more consistent enforcement of those supplying totally non-compliant products and who are thereby seriously damaging the reputation of the supplement industry.[U3] ” ---The report noted Italy and Finland detected the most contaminated products, especially in sexual-enhancing or weight-loss supplements.
Source: Food And Chemical Toxicology
‘Mission impossible? Regulatory and enforcement issues to ensure safety of dietary supplements’
Petroczi, A., et al.
Negative European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) health claim opinions cannot be used to block claims, a German court has determined. --The court rejected an injunction request to block a cranberry player from making claims, because it found that such claim-making was not invalidated merely by an EFSA opinion, if permitted under national law. --- Only when the opinions became law after member state and European Commission scrutiny and possible amendment, did the EFSA opinions become legally binding – and even then there was a six month grace period for companies to alter their marketing. The injunction applicant had based its legal argument on the fact that EFSA’s health claims panel had rejected cranberry-urinary tract infection health claim submissions from cranberry leader Ocean Spray and others-Frankfurt-based lawyer, Thomas Buttner, from the firm Forstmann, Buttner, Kruger, said the decision was significant because it affirmed that EFSA opinions were just that – opinions – and not legally binding. ----“The applicant intended to get a provision of advertising claims referring to cranberry capsules and based this application on negative EFSA opinions regarding cranberry and some applied health claims,” he told NutraIngredients. --------It was the first court action, he said, where a court had been asked to rule on the use of EFSA health claim opinions, “before the EC has published a negative regulation prohibiting the health claims on the European level and before the termination of the six month transition period.” “This is a milestone for the food industry and a significant setback for the intended misuse of EFSA opinions in court actions in Germany.”
Glucosamine stripped ---In April another German court took a different view of EFSA health claim opinions by ordering glucosamine and chondroitin products to be stripped from shelves after negative opinions from EFSA’s Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). -In a letter that formed part of a correspondence between Dutch probiotics company, Winclove Bio Industries, and the European Commission about implementation of the NHCR, Buttner claims German firms are using EFSA opinions to attack their competitors in the courts. ---German firms have begun, he wrote, to, “misuse already published Scientific Opinions of EFSA to try to initiate court actions to prohibit all Health Claims which may have something in common with the Health Claim which was … evaluated by EFSA with a negative outcome.”
“Since the Scientific Opinions of EFSA will be published immediately all competitors, authorities and courts can use these scientific opinions for their decisions to evaluate advertising claims. In Germany this has already provoked a lot of court actions with the goal to stop certain health claims immediately.” Buttner said he knew of at least two actions in Frankfurt civil courts that had succeeded in prohibiting chondroitin and glucosamine claims being made on food supplements.
High Carb Diet Linked to Prostate Tumor Growth
ScienceDaily (Nov. 28, 2007) — A diet high in refined carbohydrates, like white rice or white bread, is associated with increased prostate tumor growth in mice.---Having too much insulin in the blood, a condition called hyperinsulinemia, is associated with poorer outcomes in patients with prostate cancer. Vasundara Venkateswaran, Ph.D., of Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre in Toronto and colleagues investigated whether high insulin levels caused by eating a diet high in refined carbohydrates would lead to more rapid growth of prostate tumors in mice.--Forty mice were randomly assigned to either a high carbohydrate-high fat diet or a low carbohydrate-high fat one for nine weeks. The researchers measured the animals' weight, tumor size, and insulin levels weekly. Mice on the high carbohydrate diet gained more weight, had faster growing tumors, and had higher insulin levels than mice on the low carbohydrate diet.---"Our results provide support for the concept that diets associated with a reduction in insulin level may have benefits for prostate cancer patients, particularly for the subset of patients who are hyperinsulinemic," the authors write.---Story Source:-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Journal of the National Cancer Institute, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
A Low-Carb Diet May Stunt Prostate Tumor Growth
---ScienceDaily (Nov. 14, 2007) — A diet low in carbohydrates may help stunt the growth of prostate tumors, according to a new study led by Duke Prostate Center researchers. The study, in mice, suggests that a reduction in insulin production possibly caused by fewer carbohydrates may stall tumor growth.----"This study showed that cutting carbohydrates may slow tumor growth, at least in mice," said Stephen Freedland, M.D., a urologist at Duke University Medical Center and lead researcher on the study. "If this is ultimately confirmed in human clinical trials, it has huge implications for prostate cancer therapy through something that all of us can control, our diets."---Freedland conducted most of the research for this study while doing a fellowship in urology at Johns Hopkins' Brady Urological Institute under the tutelage of William Isaacs, Ph.D., a molecular geneticist there.--The researchers hypothesized that since serum insulin and a related substance known as insulin-like growth factor (IGF) had been linked with the growth of prostate tumors in earlier research in mice, a reduction in the body's levels of these substances might slow tumor growth, Freedland said. --The researchers compared tumor growth in 75 mice that were eating either a low-carbohydrate diet, a low-fat but high-carbohydrate diet, or a Western diet, high in fat and carbohydrates.--The mice that ate a low-carbohydrate diet had the longest survival and smallest tumor size, Freedland said. --"Low-fat mice had shorter survival and larger tumors while mice on the Western diet had the worst survival and biggest tumors," he said. "In addition, though both the low-carb and low-fat mice had lower levels of insulin, only the low-carb mice had lower levels of the form of IGF capable of stimulating tumor growth."---The low-carbohydrate diet definitely had the most significant effect on tumor growth and survival, he said.---The next step will be to test the findings of this study in humans, and further examine the potential positive effects that a low-carbohydrate diet may have on tumor growth, Freedland said. --"We are planning to start clinical trials sometime next year," he said. "The results of this study are very promising, but of course much more work needs to be done."---The researchers published their results on November 13, 2007 in the online edition of the journal Prostate. The study was funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs, the Department of Surgery and the Division of Urology at Duke University Medical Center, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, and the Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Research Program. ---Other study authors include John Mavropoulos, Timothy Fields, Salvatore Pizzo and Bercedis Peterson of Duke; Amy Wang and Medha Darshan of Johns Hopkins University; William Aronson, Pinchas Cohen and David Hwang of UCLA; and Wendy Demark-Wahnefried of MD Anderson Cancer Center.---Story Source:The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Duke University Medical Center
Moderately Reduced Carbohydrate Diet Keeps People Feeling Full Longer
ScienceDaily (June 12, 2009) — A modest reduction in the amount of carbohydrates eaten, without calorie restriction and weight loss, appears to increase a sense of fullness, which may help people eat less, a preliminary study found. The results were presented at The Endocrine Society's 91st Annual Meeting in Washington, D.C.----"There has been great public interest in low-carbohydrate diets for weight loss, but they are difficult to maintain, in part because of the drastic reduction in carbohydrates," said coauthor Barbara Gower, PhD, a professor in the Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham.---In this study funded by the National Institutes of Health, Gower and her co-workers investigated whether a modest reduction in dietary carbohydrates, or "carbs," would improve feelings of fullness better than a carbohydrate level comparable to that of the typical U.S. diet.---In a standard American diet, according to Gower, 55 percent of daily calories consumed come from carbohydrates: sugars, starches and fiber.[U4] The control diet used in their study contained 55 percent of daily calories from carbohydrates, in contrast to their "moderate-carb diet" which was 43 percent of calories from carbohydrates. The moderate-carb diet had more fat than their control diet—39 percent versus 27 percent of calories—so that protein intake could be the same percentage. The researchers matched the protein intake of both diets studied (18 percent of calories) because protein may influence both satiety ("fullness") and insulin secretion.
The authors assigned the moderate-carb diet to 16 adults and the standard diet to 14 adults for a month. Subjects received enough calories to maintain their weight at what it was before the study. During the study they were weighed each weekday, and if a participant gained or lost weight, the amount of food was modified individually so weight could stay the same. After the subjects adjusted to their diet for 4 weeks, they ate a test meal, a breakfast that was specific to their diet.--When carbs are eaten and digested, they change into sugar. Before and after the meal, the researchers measured the subjects' levels of insulin and circulating glucose (nonfasting blood sugar) and asked them to rate their hunger or fullness. They evaluated insulin response to a meal and blood sugar levels, because lower insulin and stable blood sugar levels may contribute to increased feelings of fullness, Gower explained.--Their research showed that, even in the absence of weight loss, a modest reduction in dietary carbohydrates was sufficient to lower insulin and stabilize blood sugar after a meal. Ratings of fullness were higher in the group on the moderate-carb diet before eating breakfast and stayed higher for a longer time after the meal, compared with those eating the standard diet.---"Over the long run a sustained modest reduction in carbohydrate intake may help to reduce energy consumption and facilitate weight loss," Gower said.--Paula Chandler-Laney, PhD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham presented the study results.--Story Source: The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by The Endocrine Society, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
Amazing how the Unilateral excuse is ongoing to deny people free and clear access to supplements---the interesting thing is that if the "steroids" would be in the supplements they would be at a negligible level ---no where to the point where they could make any real significant difference--and yet a doctor will prescribe these steroids to athletes ( professional or otherwise ) without any issue--the reason being is the cost---they the medical field makes money the health food industry which is owned by the pharmaseteucals makes money but not as much---the cost to load a "Supplement" would be cost prohibitive to market them this way---you would make more money through conventional means and through prescription--the other way would be to risky---and even if someone did load a supplement with a steroid ---which they did in the infancy of the Muscle Building Supplement industry---it would only be done on 1 or 2 batches due again to the cost and risk
[U2]this again is another pile of nonsense --"rogue" meaning Independent health food products producers who take a share of the profit marging off the big drug cartel who make the supplement end
[U3]This is Hilarious---the idea that we want "MORE" regulations!!!!---what people really want is to make sure that what they are buying is legitimate--dose is accurate--a potential usage as to what the product can be used for ( which by the way will never happen due to the pharmaseutical intervention )Access free and clear---the only reason they have put this there is to lull an unsuspecting public in the idea that they are consuming something with a potential problem when in fact it is the Drugs that are the problematic substances---and to reduce competition---this waya a smaller number of supplement making companies exist and cna be easily taken over by the drug cartel that sell pharmaseutical drugs "legally ".
[U4]No Wonder there is an obesity issue---this combined with soy will blimp out people without them even knowing it
Show of the Week December 6, 2010
The Pope's genetically modified crop dilemma
Open Letter from World Scientists to All Governments
Food cravings---What You Maybe Wanting or Needing
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Elicits Antinociceptive Properties and Potentiates Morphine-Induced Analgesia
Detroit's Urban Farms Could Provide a Majority of Produce for Local Residents
The Pope's genetically modified crop dilemma
Scientists have both the right and a moral duty to be "stewards of God" by genetically modifying crops to help the world's poor, scientific advisers to the Vatican said this week[U1] .----In a statement condemning opposition to GM crops in rich countries as unjustified, a group of scientists including leading members of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences is demanding a relaxation of "excessive, unscientific regulations" for approving GM crops, saying that these prevent development of crops for the "public good".----The statement was agreed unanimously by 40 international scientists after a week-long closed meeting held in May 2009 at the Vatican, convened by Ingo Potrykus. Potrykus is a member of the Pontifical Academy based at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich, where he developed "golden rice", a variety engineered with extra vitamin A to prevent childhood blindness.---Although the academy has yet to officially endorse the statement, it was approved by the seven members at the meeting, including academy chancellor Marcelo Sánchez Sorondo. "The Catholic Church has 1 billion members,[U2] " says academy member Peter Raven, president of the Missouri Botanical Garden in St Louis, which once received funds from Monsanto. He adds that although this global community will never have a unified official line on GM crops, "our statement is about as close as you can get to one".
Immaterial risks---The academy expressed provisional support for GM crops in 2000, but the scientists say that it can now back the technology with more confidence. The statement calls for a revision of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, agreed in 2000 to regulate the movement of GM organisms between countries.--It says the environmental risks envisaged when the protocol was drafted have not materialised, adding that regulatory hurdles make it too expensive for anyone other than large multinational firms to develop crops benefiting the poor, such as drought-resistant cassava and yams.---Also challenged is the objection made by critics of GM that, by messing with nature, genetic engineers are "playing God---The statement denounces as outdated many allegations made by GM critics. "There has not been a single documented case of harm to consumers or the environment,"[U3] says Potrykus.---He and the co-authors therefore argue for relaxation of what they say are draconian regulations preventing development of crops for the poor[U4] . Potrykus says his attempts to bring golden rice to poor consumers demonstrate the scale of the problem. "It took 10 years longer and $20 million more than a normal variety to commercialise it," he says. "The time and investment required is prohibitive for any public sector institution, so the future use of this technology for the poor totally depends on reform of regulation," he says.---Anti-GM group Friends of the Earth maintains that GM crops are not the solution. "We need food and farming policies that put the needs of people before the profits of a handful of GMO companies," says campaigner Mute Schimpf.---Journal reference: New Biotechnology, vol 27, p 645
Will the Vatican back GM crops? Here are some controversial arguments from the statement
On playing God
"New human forms of intervention in the natural world should not be seen as contrary to the natural law that God has given to the Creation."
"Overly stringent regulation developed by wealthy countries and focused almost exclusively on the hypothetical risks of genetically engineered crops discriminates against developing and poor countries. This has placed [them] at an unacceptable disadvantage."
On unpredictable consequences
"The possible evolutionary risks of genetic engineering events cannot be greater than the risks of the natural process of biological evolution or of the application of chemical mutagenesis."
On opponents of GM
"We urge those who oppose or are sceptical about the use of genetically engineered crop varieties and the application of modern genetics generally to evaluate carefully the science, and the demonstrable harm caused by withholding this proven technology from those who need it most."
On the moral case for GM crops
"There is a moral imperative to make the benefits of genetically engineered technology available on a larger scale to poor and vulnerable populations who want them, and on terms that will enable them to raise their standards of living, improve their health and protect their environments."
Open Letter from World Scientists to All Governments Concerning Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)
Previous versions of this letter were submitted to many governments and international forums including:
Signed by 828 scientists from 84 different countries, including:
Dr. David Bellamy,
Biologist and Broadcaster, London, UK
Prof. Liebe Cavalieri, Mathematical Ecologist, Univ. Minnesota, USA
Dr. Thomas S. Cox, Geneticist, US Dept. of Agriculture (retired), India
Dr. Tewolde Egziabher, Spokesperson for African Region, Ethiopia
Dr. David Ehrenfeld, Biologist/Ecologist, Rutgers University, USA
Dr. Vladimir Zajac, Oncovirologist, Genetisist, Cancer Reseach Inst, Czech Republic
Dr. Brian Hursey, ex FAO Senior Officer for Vector Borne Diseases, UK
Prof. Ruth Hubbard, Geneticist, Harvard University, USA
Prof. Jonathan King, Molecular Biologist, MIT, Cambridge, USA
Prof. Gilles-Eric Seralini, Laboratoire de Biochimie & Moleculaire, Univ. Caen, France
Dr. David Suzuki, Geneticist, David Suzuki Foundation, Univ. British Columbia, Canada
Dr. Vandana Shiva, Theoretical Physicist and Ecologist, India
Dr. George Woodwell, Director, Woods Hole Research Center, USA
Prof. Oscar B. Zamora, Agronomist, U. Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines
Open Letter from World Scientists to All Governments
We, the undersigned scientists, call for the immediate suspension of all environmental releases of GM crops and products, both commercially and in open field trials, for at least 5 years; for patents on living processes, organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes to be revoked and banned; and for a comprehensive public enquiry into the future of agriculture and food security for all.
Patents on life-forms and living processes should be banned because they threaten food security, sanction biopiracy of indigenous knowledge and genetic resources, violate basic human rights and dignity, compromise healthcare, impede medical and scientific research and are against the welfare of animals.---GM crops offer no benefits to farmers or consumers. Instead, many problems have been identified, including yield drag, increased herbicide use, erratic performance, and poor economic returns to farmers[U5] . GM crops also intensify corporate monopoly on food, which is driving family farmers to destitution, and preventing the essential shift to sustainable agriculture that can guarantee food security and health around the world --[U6] The hazards of GMOs to biodiversity and human and animal health are now acknowledged by sources within the UK and US Governments. Particularly serious consequences are associated with the potential for horizontal gene transfer. These include the spread of antibiotic resistance marker genes that would render infectious diseases untreatable, the generation of new viruses and bacteria that cause diseases, and harmful mutations which may lead to cancer.[U7] --In the Cartegena Biosafety Protocol negotiated in Montreal in January 2000, more than 130 governments have pledged to implement the precautionary principle and to ensure that biosafety legislations at the national and international levels take precedence over trade and financial agreements at the World Trade Organization[U8] . --Successive studies have documented the productivity and the social and environmental benefits of sustainable, low-input and organic farming in both North and South. They offer the only practical way of restoring agricultural land degraded by conventional agronomic practices, and empower small family farmers to combat poverty and hunger.--We urge the US Congress to reject GM crops as both hazardous and contrary to the interest of family farmers; and to support research and development of sustainable agricultural methods that can truly benefit family farmers all over the world. ------We, the undersigned scientists, call for the immediate suspension of all environmental releases of GM crops and products, both commercially and in open field trials, for at least 5 years; for patents on living processes, organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes to be revoked and banned; and for a comprehensive public enquiry into the future of agriculture and food security for all. -----
1 Patents on life-forms and living processes should be banned because they threaten food security, sanction biopiracy of indigenous knowledge and genetic resources, violate basic human rights and dignity, compromise healthcare, impede medical and scientific research and are against the welfare of animals(1). Life-forms such as organisms, seeds, cell lines and genes are discoveries and hence not patentable. Current GM techniques which exploit living processes are unreliable, uncontrollable and unpredictable, and do not qualify as inventions. Furthermore, those techniques are inherently unsafe, as are many GM organisms and products. ---
-2. It is becoming increasingly clear that current GM crops are neither needed nor beneficial. They are a dangerous diversion preventing the essential shift to sustainable agricultural practices that can provide food security and health around the world.
3. Two simple characteristics account for the nearly 40 million hectares of GM crops planted in 1999(2). The majority (71%) are tolerant to broad-spectrum herbicides, with companies engineering plants to be tolerant to their own brand of herbicide, while most of the rest are engineered with bt-toxins to kill insect pests. A university-based survey of 8200 field trials of the most widely grown GM crops, herbicide-tolerant soya beans - revealed that they yield 6.7% less and required two to five times more herbicides than non-GM varieties(3). This has been confirmed by a more recent study in the University of Nebraska(4). Yet other problems have been identified: erratic performance, disease susceptibility(5), fruit abortion(6) and poor economic returns to farmers(7).
4. According to the UN food programme, there is enough food to feed the world one and a half times over. While world population has grown 90% in the past 40 years, the amount of food per capita has increased by 25%, yet one billion are hungry(8). A new FAO report confirms that there will be enough or more than enough food to meet global demands without taking into account any yield improvementsthat might result from GM crops well into 2030 (9). It is on account of increasing corporate monopoly operating under the globalised economy that the poor are getting poorer and hungrier(10). Family farmers around the world have been driven to destitution and suicide, and for the same reasons. Between 1993 and 1997 the number of mid-sized farms in the US dropped by 74,440(11), and farmers are now receiving below the average cost of production for their produce(12). The farming population in France and Germany fell by 50% since 1978(13). In the UK, 20 000 farming jobs were lost in the past year alone, and the Prime Minister has announced a £200m aid package(14). Four corporations control 85% of the world trade in cereals at the end of 1999(15). Mergers and acquisitions are continuing.
5. The new patents on seeds intensify corporate monopoly by preventing farmers from saving and replanting seeds, which is what most farmers still do in the Third World. In order to protect their patents, corporations are continuing to develop terminator technologies that genetic engineer harvested seeds not to germinate, despite worldwide opposition from farmers and civil society at large(16).
6. Christian Aid, a major charity working with the Third World, concluded that GM crops will cause unemployment, exacerbate Third World debt, threaten sustainable farming systems and damage the environment. It predicts famine for the poorest countries(17). African Governments condemned Monsanto's claim that GMOs are needed to feed the hungry of the world: "We..strongly object that the image of the poor and hungry from our countries is being used by giant multinational corporations to push a technology that is neither safe, environmentally friendly, nor economically beneficial to us… we believe it will destroy the diversity, the local knowledge and the sustainable agricultural systems that our farmers have developed for millennia and …undermine our capacity to feed ourselves.(18)" A message from the Peasant movement of the Philippines to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) of the industrialized countries stated, "The entry of GMOs will certainly intensify landlessness, hunger and injustice.(19)"
7. A coalition of family farming groups in the US have issued a comprehensive list of demands, including ban on ownership of all life-forms; suspension of sales, environmental releases and further approvals of all GM crops and products pending an independent, comprehensive assessment of the social, environmental, health and economic impacts; and for corporations to be made liable for all damages arising from GM crops and products to livestock, human beings and the environment(20). They also demand a moratorium on all corporate mergers and acquisitions, on farm closures, and an end to policies that serve big agribusiness interests at the expense of family farmers, taxpayers and the environment(21). They have mounted a lawsuit against Monsanto and nine other corporations for monopolistic practices and for foisting GM crops on farmers without adequate safety and environmental impact assessments(22).
8. Some of the hazards of GM crops are openly acknowledged by the UK and US Governments. UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF) has admitted that the transfer of GM crops and pollen beyond the planted fields is unavoidable(23), and this has already resulted in herbicide-tolerant weeds(24). An interim report on UK Government-sponsored field trials confirmed hybridisation between adjacent plots of different herbicide tolerant GM oilseed rape varieties, which gave rise to hybrids tolerant to multiple herbicides. In addition, GM oilseed rape and their hybrids were found as volunteers in subsequent wheat and barley crops, which had to be controlled by standard herbicides(25). Bt-resistant insect pests have evolved in response to the continuous presence of the toxins in GM plants throughout the growing season, and the US Environment Protection Agency is recommending farmers to plant up to 40% non-GM crops in order to create refugia for non-resistant insect pests(26).
9. The threats to biodiversity from major GM crops already commercialized are becoming increasingly clear. The broad-spectrum herbicides used with herbicide-tolerant GM crops decimate wild plant species indiscriminately, they are also toxic to animals. Glufosinate causes birth defects in mammals(27), and glyphosate is linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma(28). GM crops with bt-toxins kill beneficial insects such as bees(29) and lacewings(30), and pollen from bt-corn is found to be lethal to monarch butterflies(31) as well as swallowtails(32). Bt-toxin is exuded from roots of bt-plants in the rhizosphere, where it rapidly binds to soil particles and become protected from degradation. As the toxin is present in an activated, non-selective form, both target and non-target species in the soil will be affected(33), with knock on effects on species above ground.
10. Products resulting from genetically modified organisms can also be hazardous. For example, a batch of tryptophan produced by GM microorganisms was associated with at least 37 deaths and 1500 serious illnesses(34). Genetically modified Bovine Growth Hormone, injected into cows in order to increase milk yield, not only causes excessive suffering and illnesses for the cows but increases IGF-1 in the milk, which is linked to breast and prostate cancers in humans(35). It is vital for the public to be protected from all GM products, and not only those containing transgenic DNA or protein. That is because the process of genetic modification itself, at least in the form currently practised, is inherently unsafe.
11. Secret memoranda of US Food and Drug Administration revealed that it ignored the warnings of its own scientists that genetic engineering is a new departure and introduces new risks. Furthermore, the first GM crop to be commercialized - the Flavr Savr tomato - did not pass the required toxicological tests(36). Since then, no comprehensive scientific safety testing had been done until Dr. Arpad Pusztai and his collaborators in the UK raised serious concerns over the safety of the GM potatoes they were testing. They conclude that a significant part of the toxic effect may be due to the "[gene] construct or the genetic transformation (or both)" used in making the GM plants(37).
12. The safety of GM foods was openly disputed by Professor Bevan Moseley, molecular geneticist and current Chair of the Working Group on Novel Foods in the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food(38). He drew attention to unforseen effects inherent to the technology, emphasizing that the next generation of GM foods - the so-called 'neutraceuticals' or 'functional foods', such as vitamin A 'enriched' rice - will pose even greater health risks because of the increased complexity of the gene constructs.
13. Genetic engineering introduces new genes and new combinations of genetic material constructed in the laboratory into crops, livestock and microorganisms(39). The artificial constructs are derived from the genetic material of pathogenic viruses and other genetic parasites, as well as bacteria and other organisms, and include genes coding for antibiotic resistance. The constructs are designed to break down species barriers and to overcome mechanisms that prevent foreign genetic material from inserting into genomes. Most of them have never existed in nature in the course of billions of years of evolution.
14. These constructs are introduced into cells by invasive methods that lead to random insertion of the foreign genes into the genomes (the totality of all the genetic material of a cell or organism). This gives rise to unpredictable, random effects, including gross abnormalities in animals and unexpected toxins and allergens in food crops.
15. One construct common to practically all GM crops already commercialized or undergoing field trials involves a gene-switch (promoter) from the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) spliced next to the foreign gene (transgene) to make it over-express continuously(40). This CaMV promoter is active in all plants, in yeast, algae and E. coli. We recently discovered that it is even active in amphibian egg(41) and human cell extract(42). It has a modular structure, and is interchangeable, in part, or in whole with promoters of other viruses to give infectious viruses. It also has a 'recombination hotspot' where it is prone to break and join up with other genetic material(43).
16. For these and other reasons, transgenic DNA - the totality of artificial constructs transferred into the GMO - may be more unstable and prone to transfer again to unrelated species; potentially to all species interacting with the GMO(44).
17. The instability of transgenic DNA in GM plants is well-known(45). GM genes are often silenced, but loss of part or all of the transgenic DNA also occurs, even during later generations of propagation(46). We are aware of no published evidence for the long term stability of GM inserts in terms of structure or location in the plant genome in any of the GM lines already commercialized or undergoing field trials.
18. The potential hazards of horizontal transfer of GM genes include the spread of antibiotic resistance genes to pathogens, the generation of new viruses and bacteria that cause disease and mutations due to the random insertion of foreign DNA, some of which may lead to cancer in mammalian cells(47). The ability of the CaMV promoter to function in all species including human beings is particularly relevant to the potential hazards of horizontal gene transfer.
19. The possibility for naked or free DNA to be taken up by mammalian cells is explicitly mentioned in the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) draft guidance to industry on antibiotic resistance marker genes(48). In commenting on the FDA's document, the UK MAFF pointed out that transgenic DNA may be transferred not just by ingestion, but by contact with plant dust and air-borne pollen during farm work and food processing(49). This warning is all the more significant with the recent report from Jena University in Germany that field experiments indicated GM genes may have transferred via GM pollen to the bacteria and yeasts in the gut of bee larvae(50).
20. Plant DNA is not readily degraded during most commercial food processing(51). Procedures such as grinding and milling left grain DNA largely intact, as did heat-treatment at 90deg.C. Plants placed in silage showed little degradation of DNA, and a special UK MAFF report advises against using GM plants or plant waste in animal feed.
21. The human mouth contains bacteria that have been shown to take up and express naked DNA containing antibiotic resistance genes, and similar transformable bacteria are present in the respiratory tracts(52).
22. Antibiotic resistance marker genes from GM plants have been found to transfer horizontally to soil bacteria and fungi in the laboratory(53). Field monitoring revealed that GM sugar beet DNA persisted in the soil for up to two years after the GM crop was planted. And there is evidence suggesting that parts of the transgenic DNA have transferred horizontally to bacteria in the soil(54).
23. Recent research in gene therapy and nucleic acid (both DNA and RNA) vaccines leaves little doubt that naked/free nucleic acids can be taken up, and in some cases, incorporated into the genome of all mammalian cells including those of human beings. Adverse effects already observed include acute toxic shock, delayed immunological reactions and autoimmune reactions(55).
24. The British Medical Association, in their interim report (published May, 1999), called for an indefinite moratorium on the releases of GMOs pending further research on new allergies, the spread of antibiotic resistance genes and the effects of transgenic DNA.
25. In the Cartegena Biosafety Protocol successfully negotiated in Montreal in January, 2000, more than 130 governments have agreed to implement the precautionary principle, and to ensure that biosafety legislations at the national and international levels take precedence over trade and financial agreements at the WTO. Similarly, delegates to the Codex Alimentarius Commission Conference in Chiba Japan, March 2000, have agreed to prepare stringent regulatory procedures for GM foods that include pre-market evaluation, long-term monitoring for health impacts, tests for genetic stability, toxins, allergens and other unintended effects(56). The Cartegena Biosafety Protocol has now been signed by 68 Governments in Nairobi in May, 2000.
26. We urge all Governments to take proper account of the now substantial scientific evidence of actual and suspected hazards arising from GM technology and many of its products, and to impose an immediate moratorium on further environmental releases, including open field trials, in accordance with the precautionary principle as well as sound science.
27. Successive studies have documented the productivity and sustainability of family farming in the Third World as well as in the North(57). Evidence from both North and South indicates that small farms are more productive, more efficient and contribute more to economic development than large farms. Small farmers also tend to make better stewards of natural resources, conserving biodiversity and safeguarding the sustainability of agricultural production(58). Cuba responded to the economic crisis precipitated by the break up of the Soviet Bloc in 1989 by converting from conventional large scale, high input monoculture to small organic and semi-organic farming, thereby doubling food production with half the previous input(59).
28. Agroecological approaches hold great promise for sustainable agriculture in developing countries, in combining local farming knowledge and techniques adjusted to local conditions with contemporary western scientific knowledge(60). The yields have doubled and tripled and are still increasing. An estimated 12.5 million hectares worldwide are already successfully farmed in this way(61). It is environmentally sound and affordable for small farmers. It recovers farming land marginalized by conventional intensive agriculture. It offers the only practical way of restoring agricultural land degraded by conventional agronomic practices. Most of all, it empowers small family farmers to combat poverty and hunger.
29. We urge all Governments to reject GM crops on grounds that they are both hazardous and contrary to ecologically sustainable use of resources. Instead they should support research and development of sustainable agricultural methods that can truly benefit family farmers the world over.
1 Dr. Dennis Smith poopy den s Afghanistan
2 Prof.em Calum Wright M.Phil i am a expert on the study of life none Afghanistan
3 Prof. Polycap Dank B.Sc science polycap research institute Angola
4 Prof. Adolfo E. Boy Horticulture and Sustainable Agri. Univ. Moron Chair of Inst. of Sustainble Agriculture Argentina
5 Alfredo Galli Agronomist Groupo de Reflexion Rural Argentina
6 Dr. Jorge Kaczewer M.D MD complementary medicines cientific journalism author of the book in spanish language Transgenic Risks for Human Health ECOMEDICOS Argentina
7 Jorge Eduardo Roulli Ecologist Groupo de Reflexion Rural Argentina
8 Damien Beaumont B.Sc Postgraduate student at the University of New England Armidale Australia
9 Peter Belbin B.Sc Land Management Consultant Tafe Australia
10 Dr. Graeme E. Browne General Practitioner Melbourne PSRAST Australia
11 Dr. Judy A. Carman Epidemiologist Flanders University Adelaide Australia
12 Dr. Catherine Clinch-Jones General Practitioner Adelaide Australia
13 Mr Sid Cowling B.Sc Environmental Biology Consultant Australia
14 Dr. Philip A. Davies Geneticist Adelaide Australia
15 Rocco Di Vincenzo M.Sc Chief Dietitian Swinburne University Hospital Australia
16 Prof. Horst W. Doelle Micobiologist Univ. Queensland retired Chair of International Organisation for Biotechnology and Bioengineering Director MIRCEN-Biotechnology Brisbance and Pacific Regional Network Australia
17 Dr. Lynette J. Dumble Medical Scientist Women's Health and Environment University of Melbourne Australia
18 Doug N Everingham Physician MB BS Univ Syd 1946 Ex MPs Association Australia
19 Angela Fehringer Anthropology Student Sydney Australia
20 Prof. Frank G.H.P. Fisher Graduate School of Environmental Science Clayton Australia
21 Kasia E. Gabrys Environmental Scientist Environmental Science National Trust of Australia Melbourne Australia
22 Prof. Adrian Gibbs Ph.D Virologist retired Australia
23 Dr. Dion Giles Ph.D Analytical chemistry organic chemistry chemical education Stop MAI (WA) Australia
24 Stephen Glanville PDC ECOS Design Australia
25 Dr. Veronica R. Griffin Consultant Nutrition and Environmental Medicine Cairns Australia
26 Vince Halpin B.Sc Acupuncturist Herbalist Pharmacist Australia
27 Dr. Richard Hindmarsh Environmental Social Scientist Univ. Queensland Australia
28 Margaret Jackson B.Sc. Genetics National Genetics Awareness Alliance Australia
29 Dr. Warren Kinne Ph.D Philosopher theologian Society of St Columban Australia
30 Steven Kiss B.Sc Biological/ Organic Farm Manager broad acre crops sheep cattle medicinal herbs Australia
31 Dr. Elmar Klucis Ph.D Biochenistry Biology Retired Australia
32 Keith Loveridge B.Sc Bachelor Environmental Soc Sci RMIT University Croydon Conservation Society Australia
33 Lisa McDonald Agronomist CRC for Sustainable Sugar Production James Cook University Australia
34 Michelle Mclaren Bach Nutrition and Dietetics Australia
35 Dr. Peter J. McMachon Plant Physiologist Genethics Australia Conservation Foundation Australia
36 Elham Monavari B.Sc Bsc Maj Biology Masters in Env. Managemment Student Cities for Climate Protection Project Officer Australia
37 Dr. Angela Morris Ph.D Root nodule development Research School of Biological Sciences ANU Australia
38 Dr. Paul Nelson CSIRO Land and Water PMB Australia
39 Tim Osborn Web Development Australia
40 Dr. Sharron L. Pfueller Biochemistry/Environmental Studies School of Geography and Environmental Sciene Monash University Melbourne Australia
41 Katrina E. Preski Environmental Science Monash University Melbourne Australia
42 Dr. Peter Renowden Strategic Planner Melbourne Australia
43 Sandra Russo Principal of College As a Homoeopath I lecture have a private clinic and mentor students of Homoeopathy Adelaide Training College of Complementary Medicin Australia
44 Frank Samson B.Sc R & D Project Manager (Physics) Sola International Holdings Australia
45 Glenn Sorensen B.Sc Natural Products Chemist/Phytochemist Jurlique Australia
46 Dr. Rosemary Stanton Ph.D Nutritionist Australia
47 Dr. Maarten Stapper Ph.D Farming Systems Agronomist Australia
48 Michelle Starr Ph.D student Natural Therapist none Australia
49 Dr Corinna-Britta Steeb Ph.D Pathophysiology Medical Sceinces Nutrition Klein Research Institute Australia
50 Dr. Ted Steele Molecular Immunologist U. Wollengong Australia
51 Dr. Philip Stowell M.D GP working in Nutritional and Environmental Medicine n a Australia
52 DI Gertrude Kaffenbock Ph.D student Ph.D. candidate Agricultural Economist St. Polton Austria
53 Thomas Klemm Psychologist Konrad Lorenz Institute Austria
54 Dr. Maria G. Neunteufel Economist Vienna Austria
55 Dr. SYED NAZMUL HUDA Ph.D IN NUTRITION AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT NUTRITION AND FOOD SCIENCE UNIVERSITY OF DHAKA Bangladesh
56 Muhammed Saiful Islam M.Sc Entomologist DAE Bangladesh
57 Golam Kibria M.Phil EcologyCultureBiodiversity UBINIG Bangladesh
58 Zakir Kibria M.Phil Ecology Biodiversity Culture BanglaPraxis Bangladesh
59 Dr Farhad Mazhar Ecologist New Agricultural Movement Bangladesh
60 Dhirendra Panda Ph.D student MOBILISATION AND ACTIVISM the collective Bangladesh
61 De Beer Daniel M.Sc Lawyer Lawyers Without Borders and Vrij university Brusse Belgium
62 Dr. Gaëtan du Bus Forest Engineer Univ. Catholique de Louvain INRA Belgium
63 Verstraeten Guy B.Eng have an engineering eductation in biochemistry education I have ethical objections to do work in most of the current industries and research Belgium
64 Pablo Servigne Ph.D agronomist engineer PhD in Biology ULB Belgium
65 Dr. Michel Somville Ph.D GMO s Health environmental risks GREENS EFA group in the European parliament Belgium
66 Els Torreele Ph.D student biotechnology Vrije Universiteit Brussels Belgium
67 Flavia Camargo De Oliveira Biologist UFPR Brazil
68 Prof. MOHAMED HABIB Ph.D 39 years of research experience Biological Control and Agro Ecolgy University of Campinas Brazil
69 Prof. Antonio Carlos Junqueira Do Val Filho B.Sc Engineer Agronomist CDA Brazil
70 Samuel MacDowell Ph.D Plant Molecular Biology IBAMA Brazil
71 Paulo Roberto Martins Research Institute of Technology Brazil
72 Dr. Leovegildo Matos Ph.D Animal nutritionist Research Embrapa Brazil
73 Renata Menasche Anthropologist Federal Un. of Rio Grande do Sul Brazil
74 Prof. Luís César Nunes B.Sc Education PCRJ Brazil
75 Ventura Eduardo Souza Barbeiro Engineer agronomist ABRAMA Brasilian association of Enviroment Brazil
76 Franco Werlagn M.Sc Business Administration GaiaVillage Project Brazil
77 Dr. Stefan Panaiotov Ph.D molecular microbiology National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseas Bulgaria
78 Dr Thomas R. Preston Un. of Tropical Agriculture Cambodia
79 Prof. Lonnie Aarssen Ph.D Ecologist Queen s University Canada
80 Prof. Paul Antze Ph.D medical anthropology Canada
81 Dr. Sandra Awang Ph.D Sociologist/Writer on biodiversity biodemocracy and food security Canada
82 Prof.em Henry Becker Ph.D 7 years in applied biology 35 years teaching research in chemical engineering currently writing book on nutrition health disease Queen s University Canada
83 Dr Warren Bell MD Canad. Assoc. of Physicians for the Environ. Canada
84 Prof. emeritus Alfred M. Braxton Anthropologist Univ. British Columbia Canada
85 John A Brown watchdog on growing power of corporacy in our world and the world s governments lack of will stop it Education Canada
86 Denis Cauchon M.Sc. Ph.D. candidate Toxicology Ecole HEC Montreal Canada
87 Dr. Samit Chakrabarty Ph.D Systems Neurophysiologist Canada
88 Yoon C. Chen B.Sc. DPM Podiatrist Foot Clinic Lethbridge Alberta Canada
89 Bert R. Christie Plant Breeding Research Scientist Agriculture and AgriFood Canada Charlotte Town Canada
90 Dr. E.Ann Clark Ph.D crop physiologist Plant Agriculture University of Guelph Canada
91 Una Coghlan nterested in securing a healthy food chain Voice of Women Canada
92 Prof. Alain Cuerrier Taxonomy/Botany Quebec Univ. of Montreal Canada
93 Prof. Joe Cummins Geneticist University of Western Ontario Canada
94 Prof. Edwin E. Daniel FRSC Health Science McMaster Univ. Ontario Canada
95 Prof. Dennis Dennis poopy none Canada
96 Justin Duncan B.Sc Environmental biology law and policy Queen's University Canada
97 Prof. Chavez Eduardo R Ph.D Animal nutrition production and mangement agricultural production systems McGill University Canada
98 Virginia F. Flamarique AMD Consultant Agrologist Edmonton Canada
99 Glenn Fletcher M.Sc Masters degree research in toxicology occupational health McMaster University Canada
100 Dr. Josh Gallant Ph.D surgery general Canada
101 Dr. Imme Gerke Ph.D Cell biologist BIOTEPP Canada
102 Julie Guenette M.Phil Philosophical enquiry into our relationship to nature Ottawa University Canada
103 Tanya Handa M.Sc. Ecologist Univ. Toronto Toronto Canada
104 Virginia Jacobsen organic growers Canada
105 Aaron Jette Anthrolopogy student McGill Univ. Montreal Canada
106 Prof. Leonard Kasdan Ph.D Social Anthropology and Resource and environmental studies Dalhousie University (retired) Canada
107 Dr. Gavin A. Kemp ret. Researcher Vegetable Crop Breeding Lethbridge Canada
108 Zorica Knezevic M.Sc Senior Consultant Environment Stantec Consulting Ltd Canada
109 Prof. Ronald Labonte Population Health Research Director Ontario Canada
110 William J. Lewis Linguist Univ. of Victoria British Columbia Canada
111 Prof. Abby Lippman Epidemologist & Geneticist McGill Un. Canada
112 Jan Martel B.Sc Student in biology University of Sherbrooke Canada
113 Prof. Ralph C. Martin Plant Science Nova Scotia Agricultural College Truro Canada
114 Prof. Dennis R. McCalla Biochemist & Geneticist emeritus McMaster University Hamilton Canada
115 Laura Mitchell Earth Scientist APEGBG Canada
116 Mary Mitchell teacher Canada
117 Dr. Anne Morgan Waterloo Climate Change Entomolgist/ Univ. of (retired) Canada
118 Dr. M. Murphy Pediatrician NAMBLA Canada
119 Dr. James A. Nero D.C. General Practitioner neuromusculoskeletal medicine Coquitlam Canada
120 Anna D. Noikov B.A.B.Ed. B.A.B.Ed. Wholistic Practitioner Edmonton Canada
121 Lise Norgren Concerned Consumer Canada
122 Prof. Ann Oaks Botany (retired) Univ. Guelph Canada
123 Steve Robak Canadian Department of National Defence Canada
124 Leslirae Rotor Economist consultant Ottawa Canada
125 Dr. Bassam Ismaeil Sam Ph.D Information Systems Ismaeil Consulting Canada
126 Vere Scott ecologist Canada
127 Dr. John Scull Psychologist University of Victoria Victoria Canada
128 Dr. Carolyn A. Simmerman ND.DC Docotr. Whole Health Centre Edmonton Canada
129 Prof. David Suzuki David Suzuki Foundation Geneticist U.B.C. Canada
130 Prof. Stephen Talmage Philospher (retired) Carleton University Ottawa Canada
131 Dr. Wee Chong Tan Ph.D 5 years of reaserch and several papers on sustainable farming and the dangers of GM foods Canadian College for Chinese Studies Canada
132 Mark Thompson Ph.D student Molecular Evolutionary Genetics The University of Calgary Canada
133 Noemi Tousignant M.Sc history of science technology and medicine Canada
134 Caroll Tranchant Ph.D Enseignant chercheur Sciences et technologies des aliments Canada
135 Dr. Pierre Turcotte Ph.D Plant breeder Canada
136 John B. Van Loon M.Sc. Storage Entomologist retired Canadian Grain Commission Winnipeg PSRAST Canada
137 Dr. Susan Walsh Ph.D Phd cultural anthropology Executive Director of NGO focussed on food security in the South USC Canada Canada
138 Roland Wilhelm B.Sc One who choses to think and take on problems that effect the environment Guelph Canada
139 Prof. R.M. Wolfson Physicist Maharishi Vedic College Ottawa Canada
140 Prof. Howard Woodhouse Ph.D Philosopher of Education and Co Director of Saskatchewan Process Philosophy Research Unit University of Saskatchewan Canada
141 Dr. John C. Worketin Retired computer scientist Ontario Canada
142 Werner Zimmermann interested informed and concerned citizen Canada
143 Tea Garcia-Huidobro M.Sc Biochemistry (B.Sc) and Environmental Technology (M.Sc) Chile
144 Diana Medel Studies on Anthropol Soc Soc Psy Member Anthroposophic Society Volunteer for Children sRights Garden s Constr Inv Med Plants Food Environm Stud ONG to supervise Children s Rights Chile
145 JUAN DU B.Eng civil Engineering Warwick U K China
146 Dr. Ye Hua over 20 000 pieces hand painted oil painting and picture frames in stock for sale at lowest prices http www art98 com China
147 Dr. Alexander Jablanczy General Practitioner Doctor’s Building Saulte Ste. Marie China
148 Dr. Jesse LiLing M.D Bioinformation Tsinghua University China
149 William Bingbin Lui Ph.D student I strongly support such an effort I think both National and International legal regimes should accept this open letter Law School Fudan Universitry Shanghai China
150 Elias Gomez Ph. D. student Dept. of Geology University of Cornell Colombia
151 Dr. Jaime E García González Ph.D Pesticides Organic Agriculture Universidad Estatal a Distancia UNED Costa Rica
152 Damjan Bogdanovic Ph. D. student Un Zagreb Croatia
153 Prof. Marijan Jost Plant Geneticist Agricultural College Krizevci Croatia
154 Damir Magdic Food Scientist Osijek Un Croatia
155 Dr. Zora Matrovic MD MD MS Vice-President Croatia Natural Law Party Croatia
156 Vesna Samobor M.Sc. Agricultural College Krizevci Croatia
157 Prof. Drasko Seman Ecologist Univ. Zagreb Medical School Croatian Man and Biosphere Committee UNESCO South Eastern Mediterranean Sea Project UNESCO Comm. Ed. & Communication INCN European Committee on Environmental Ed. IUCN Croatia
158 Prof Anton Svajger Un Zagreb Medical School Croatia
159 Prof. Valerije Vrcek Ph.D organic chemistry University of Zagreb Croatia
160 Dr. Vladimir Zajac Ph.D oncovirology genetics microbiology Cancer Research Institute Czechoslovakia
161 Henrik Westergaard Odense University Hospital Odense Denmark
162 Alexandra Almeida biochemist Accion Ecologica Ecuador
163 Dr. Elizabeth Bravo biologist Accion Ecologica Ecuador
164 Ziad Abdel Razak Aly Ph.D student Radar and Optic remote sensing images analysis applied on soil Université de Sherbrooke Qc Canada Egypt
165 Ziad Aly Ph.D student Soil survey and classification Optic and Radar Images Analysis CARTEL Université de Sherbrooke Qc Canada Egypt
166 Dr. Bahaa Awwad M.Sc oncology hematology bmt landguardians Egypt
167 Mahrous Kandil Ph.D student soil microbiology and concerning with Genetics Univ. of Minnesota (USA) Egypt
168 Ahmed Said Mohamed Kamel sweet corn Egypt
169 Dr. Mohamed Salem Ph.D Molecular Plant Pathology Biological Control Genetic Engineeering and Biotechnology Research In Egypt
170 Prof. Fathy Mahmoud Salem Ph.D Professor of Nematology Faculty Of Agriculture Shibin El Kom Minufiya Univ Egypt
171 Dr. Ehab Zayed Ph.D student tissue culture Breeding ARC FCRI CRD Egypt
172 Dr. Gennadi Kobzar Senior Scientist Biomedicine Institute of Chemistry Tallinn Technical Univ. Estonia
173 Prof. Anne Luik Ph.D Entomology plant protection Estonian Agricultural University Estonia
174 Sue Edwards M.Sc botanist and scientific editor lover of all life forms Institute for Sustainable Development Ethiopia
175 Dr. Tewolde Egziabher Agronomist Min. of the Environment Spokesperson for African Region Ethiopia
176 Dr. Liisa Kuusipalo Ph.D cellbiologist North Carelian Central Hospital Finland
177 Dr. Mark Rawlings Ph.D Astrophysicst Finland
178 Sylvain Allombert M.Sc. Ph.D. Student Ecology Centre National de la Recherche Scientificque Monpellier PSRAST France
179 Dr. Thierry Baussant Biochemist Senior Scientist Pharmaceutical Industry Bellegard France
180 Dr. Jean-Pierre Berlan Directeur de Recherches INR/CTESI France
181 Dr. Luc G. Bulot Researcher ESA CNRS 6019- Centre de Sedimentologie- Paleontologie Marseille PSRAST France
182 Dr. Pierre Calinaud Ph.D organic chemistry France
183 Dr. George Capouthier Biologist Univ. Paris France
184 MORAND CEDRIC c LCR Faucheurs Volontaires France
185 Dr. Dominique Cellier Prof Statistics in Bioinformatics Laboratoire LMRS ABISS Université France
186 Dr. Marie Christine BRGM Environment & Procedes Unite Biotechnologie Orlean France
187 Nathalie Cialdella Ph.D student agronomist France
188 Olga Daric M.Phil linguistics France
189 Bertrand desClers M.Sc Scientific research/Aeronautics/Conservation/Environment IGF France
190 Dr. QUEIROS CONDE Diogo theoretical biology turbulence geometry of multi scale systems Ecole des mines de Paris France
191 Dr. Jean Estrangin MK General Practice Grenoble France
192 Alain Fardif Certificat of therapist Paris France
193 PRAT Frederic B.Sc Information about GMO Geyser France
194 Dr. Du Bus De Warnaffe Ga Tan sustainable management of temperate forests INRA France
195 Dr. Du Bus De Warnaffe Gaetan Ph.D Sustainable forest management INRA France
196 Prof. Pierre Henri Gouyon Ph.D Geneticist specialist of Evolutionary biology Population biology and Plant breeding Université de Paris Sud France
197 Jacques Hallard Plant breeding Plant pthology Genetics Independant France
198 BAZIN Jean Pierre B.Eng Medical Imaging INSERM France
199 Dr. Arthur MacKenzie Ph.D physical chemistry France
200 Etienne Maillet Logic Philosophy Mathematic Ethic Polititics Anthropology China France
201 Dr. Herve Le Meur Biomathematician Univ. Paris France
202 Cécilia Meynet Ph.D student géographe France
203 Ruby Michel B.Eng chicken breeder ATTAC France
204 Dr. Birgit Müller Ph.D Social Anthropologist LAIOS CNRS France
205 Dr. Vic Norris IFR Systems Integres Univ. Rouen France
206 Dr. Jean-Michel Panoff Microbiologist Univ. of Caen Caen France
207 Dr. J. Pelt Institut Europeen d'Ecologie France
208 Dr. Bernard PINTUREAU Ph.D Entomologist INRA France
209 Dr. Christian PRAT Soil Scientist Agronomist in Latin America Institut de Recherche pour le Développement France
210 Thierry Raffin Sociologue President de ‘Inf’OGM France
211 Prof. Gilles-Eric Seralini Laboratoire de Biochimie& Moleculaire Univ. Caen France
212 Dr. Jean Staune Ph.D Post Darwinian Evolutionist Interdisciplinary University Paris France
213 Dr. Christophe Vieren Ph.D Automatique Universit des Sciences et Techonlogies de Lille France
214 Anwar Abo Amer Ph.D student fluorine chemistry and organometallic chemistry Duisburg Essen University Germany
215 Hudson Angeyo Ph.D student Physics: Analytical atomic spectroscopy and nuclear techniques in analysis University of Duisburg Germany
216 Dr. Elisabeth B?cking Ph.D Biologist Germany
217 Dr. Jurgen Boxberger Ph.D Cell and tissue culture ProCellula Germany
218 Dr. Reinald Doebel Institute of Sociology Rural and Development Soc. Westfaelische Wilhelms Univ. Germany
219 Dr. Tarek Elsherif Molecular Biologist TU Munich Germany
220 Lotz Frank Wolfgang Expert in The Vedic Health System Bestselling Author Germany
221 Brian Gentry Ph.D student Soft matter physics biophysics Germany
222 Dr. Anita Idel Author and Zoologist Op’n Dorp 17 Barsbek Germany
223 Dr. Martha Martens Biologist Bund Naturschutz in Bayern e. V. Munich Germany
224 Ilaria Mazzini Ph.D paleontologist Germany
225 Dr. Werner Mittelstaedt President Future Research/Peace Studies Gelsenkir Germany
226 Dr. Jennifer Schmid Ph.D Plant Ecology; Plant Population Genetic OEko Institut e.V.; Institute for Applied Ecology Germany
227 Dr. Eckart Stein Physicist Univ. Regensburg Germany
228 Dr. Beatrix Tappeser Head of Dept. Risk analysis of genetic engineering Institute for Applied Ecology Freiburg Germany
229 Dr. Stefan Thiesen Ph.D Astronomer and Geographer author of several popular science books one on climate change one on the perils of Biotech German Genterror und Lebenspatente independent Germany
230 Dr. Rebecca C. Wade Molecular Biology Heidelberg Germany
231 Dr. Christine von Weisaeker Ecoropa Germany
232 Frank Wolfgang Research on Vedic Health Food and Bestselling Author Germany
233 EMMANUEL KWAW M.Sc FOOD SCIENCE STUDENT Ghana
234 Prince K.N Nkrumah B.Sc Biochemist Development and Advocacy Foundation Ghana
235 Dr. Maria Caparis Marine Biologist Greece
236 Yannis Coconis translation Greece
237 Prof. Nicholas Fanourakis Ph.D Vegetable geneticist Technological Education Institute of Crete Greece
238 Dr. Costas Giannakenas Consultant Nuclear Medicine Univ. Patras Medical School Rion-Patras Greece
239 Prof. Tasos Kourakis B.Sc Geneticist Dept. General Biology & Genetics Medical Faculty Aristotelian University Thessaloni Greece
240 Harry Papageorgiou M.Sc Agricultural Sciences Environmental Impact Assessment Greece
241 Anna Gigli statistical modelling for medicine and biology national research council Greenland
242 Dr Christiane Boecker MCommH MCommH Community Health Haiti
243 Kevin Li B.Sc. Hong Kong
244 Prof. Julissa Martin Ph.D student i do not know what your talking abou t idk Hong Kong
245 Iren Karacsony B.Sc social medicine Hungary
246 Prof. Ervin Laszlo President The Club of Budapest Hungary
247 Prof. Dr Fenyvesi Peter Ph.D ONCOVIROLOGY MTOKKFI Hungary
248 Dr. Nikki Broglowskhini Ph.D I am well equipped with all things scientifical. The society for science Iceland
249 Dr. Ibrahim Abdul Azeez Ph.D Effect of acidification on the ecophysiology of freshwater fishes Fathima college of pharmacy kadayanallur 627759 India
250 Dr. Muhua Achary Environmentalist St. Joseph's College Bangalore India
251 Dr. TANVEER ANSARI Ph.D Natural Product Chemistry DABUR GROUP India
252 Dr. Muthukumarasamy Arunachalam Ph.D fish biodiversity fish ecology conservation of ecosystems Manonmaniam Sundaranar university Alwarkurichi Tir India
253 Prof. Jayapaul Azariah Ecology Environmental Ethics Head of Dept.of Zoology and Director of School of Life Sciences Univ. Madras Chennai India
254 MOHAN BAJIKAR B.Sc Has introduced important first entry in India biotechnologies Was a Member of Task Force Mission Mode Program of the Dept of Biotechnology Govt of India Fetchus Consultancy Innovators Pvt Ltd India
255 Dr. Sarath Babu Balijepalli Ph.D Research Scientist withexperience in collection evaluation and conservation of agrobiodiversity and natural resources management for crop protection National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources India
256 Dr. CHANDRESH BORAD Ph.D Ecology Evolution and Conservation Biological Control Research Laboratory India
257 Dr. Tushar Borse Ph.D Biochemistry University of pune India
258 Dr. Gopal Yadav Boyina Ph.D In organic chemistry Sanmar speciality chemicals India
259 Dr. Gopal Yadav Boyina Ph.D In organic chemistry Sanmar speciality chemicals India
260 Dr. Sreenivas Burra Ph.D consultant in Natural Resource management Agronomist AMR APARD India
261 Dr. Amar Chouhan Ph.D master in enviroment analysis i i f t r India
262 candice coates M.Sc Lecturer in Biotechnology, Mumbai University. India
263 Dr. Thomas S. Cox Research Geneticist U.S. Dept. of Agriculture Manhattan KS (retired) - present address Hyderabad India
264 Dr. M I H Farooqi Ph.D Plant Chemist NBRI India
265 Prof.em Jahnavi Jahnavi M.Sc mol bio agri university India
266 Dr. Harry Jeyaprakash Ph.D IPM expert cotributed to farming communities 35 years in agricultural extention retired as joint director of agriculture India
267 Dr. Dr Dinesh Kacha M.D Obesity management Benmoon Pharma Research India
268 Dr. Sudhir Kaura Ph.D Organic Farming Molecular Genetics Natural Farming Network India
269 Dr. Nelson Kochappavu Ph.D Natural Health Rural health India
270 Prof Rayana Bhavan Kovutarapu M.Sc AgricultureNatural Resorces biotech agroeconomy and management withadministration (IAMMA) India
271 Dr. Dr Bellie Krishnan Ph.D Biological Control Sun Agro Biotech Research Center India
272 Prof.em Ranjeet Ku Sah B.Eng no study India
273 Dr. RAJEEW KUMAR Ph.D Crop growth modelling fertilizer reccommendation Barssica wheat NFCL Hyderabad India
274 Rajesh Kumar Ph.D student Vegetable Insect Pests of Lepidoptera Indian Agricultural Research Institute India
275 Dr. Joban Modha M.D ayurvedic onco heametologist nisargayurveda India
276 C. Nanjunda Murthy M.Sc. Plant Scientist Karnataka India
277 Dr. Divyesh Nagar Ph.D organic synthetic chemistry alembic ltd India
278 Dr. Dr Sankar Narayanan Ph.D Environmental Microbiologist KSR college of Arts Science India
279 Satheesh P M.Sc Grassroots work on food security and organic agriculture in dryland areas and gender Deccan Development Society India
280 Dr. DR GEEVEE PANDALA M.D virologost India
281 Dr. DR GEE VEE Pandala Ph.D INVENTIONAL SCIENTIST GVSRC India
282 Dr. Parvaiz Qazi Ph.D Recombinant DNA technology regional research laboratory canal road Jammu India
283 Dr. N. Raghauram Plant Molecular Biology Univ. Mumbai India
284 Dr. Atul Sahai Ph.D Remote Sensing GIS Specialist for Natural Resource Disaster Management HOPE Technologies India
285 Dr. Shreekant Sapatnekar M.D Community Medicine Haffkine Institute Mumbai India
286 Prof.em Thangavelu Saravanan M.Sc Scientist in organic Agriculture Agronomist NaturalResourcesProtectionAndDevelopmentSociety India
287 Dr. Sathan Sathan Ph.D Kill Sulthan India
288 Dr. Chaitanya Sathe Ph.D industrial water pollution and waste water treatment Hindustan Dorr oliver Ltd India
289 Dr. Bala Ravi Sekhara Pillai Ph.D Geneticist and Plant Breeder India
290 Sharad Shah Director of Ace natural foods Vadodara India
291 Devinder Sharma Geneticist Plant Breeder and Writer Forum for Biotechnology and Food Security New Delhi India
292 Dr. Vandana Shiva Research Institute for Science and Ecology India
293 Dr. Dr Shirish Shrivastava M.D Herbal and ethnobotany expert do not favour GM plmts since they disturb the local flowra SAPRC India
294 Dr. Dr Shirish Shrivastava M.D Herbal and ethnobotany expert do not favour GM plmts since they disturb the local flowra SAPRC India
295 Prof. Arun Shrivastava Management Consultant SEDEM India
296 Priya Srinivas M.Phil Food Science Katra Phytochem Private Ltd India
297 Dr. Parshotam TANDON Ph.D Entomophagous Insect Behaviour Biological Control of Crop Pests Project Directorate of Biological Control India
298 Prof. Thomas Tharayil Ph.D tiuiruiuiuiuiruriy India
299 Dr. RAMA KRISHANA THOTA M.Sc I ve done project in aqua related to pro biotics and anti biotic in ecology vesper biotech india ltd India
300 Dr. R.P. Upadhyay Ph.D Lecturer in Physics India
301 Prof.em Durga Bhushaiah Vakkapatla M.Sc VIRAL RNA can be expressed in cytosol on HIV infected T cells university of hyderabd India
302 Dr. Sanjay Vasoya Ph.D organic synthetic chemistry alembic ltd India
303 Gustav Vaz B.Sc Biothechnology India
304 Gustavo Vaz B.Sc Biotechnology India
305 Erwin Adriawan B.Sc Campaigner on Anti GMOs Biotani Foundation Indonesia
306 Dr. Ernawati Gender and Rural Development Institute of Rural Development Indonesia
307 TOTO HARA Senior Consultant Coordinator ICRD Indonesia Chamber of Resources Development Indonesia
308 Wasis Krisnadi forest product forest faculty GMU Indonesia
309 Dr. Sina Ahmadi Ph.D Bio technologits Iran
310 Arman Ardalan Ph.D student Molecular Evolution NIGEB Iran
311 Dr. Kamran Haeri M.Sc research scientist MPT Iran
312 Dr. Amir Jalali M.D TIM TCM Unani Ayurveda also I have created a new kind of workout called Jalali System Traditional Iranian Medicine TIM Iran
313 Dr. Saeid Malekzadeh M.Sc yekom Iran
314 Sajad Noor industrial ergineering economic asd Iran
315 Dr. Saeed Yadranji Aghdam M.Sc none university of tehran Iran
316 Prof. Sean McDonagh M.Sc I am a theologian and anthropologist I worked for over 20 years in the Philippines I have written extensively on ethics and genetic engineering catholic priest Ireland
317 Barry Jude McGuinness Student Of BSc Biomedical Sciences University College Cork Ireland
318 Iris Atzmon represent the public opinion we are not lab animals Israel
319 Prof. Rita Alicchio Plant Geneticist Univ. Bologna Italy
320 Dr. Andrea Amadei Molecular Biophysics Assistant professor Un. of Rome Tor Vergata Italy
321 Prof. Drago Antonino B.Sc History of Physics Bioethics Scientific Committe of Inter Univ. Center on Bioet Italy
322 Prof. Livia Armandi Ph.D Agronomist Italy
323 Dr. Ciro Aurigemma Ph.D psicologist member of csa CEU/IPV Italy
324 Dr. Giampiero Barbieri Ph.D Chemists GMO analysis laboratory Stazione Sperimentale Industrie Conserve Alimentar Italy
325 Dr. Giovanni G Bazzocchi Ph.D Entomologist Agroecologist Universita di Bologna Italy
326 Dr. Stefania Biondi M.Sc Plant Physiologist University of Bologna Dept. of Biology Italy
327 Dr. Ernesto Burgio pediatrician attac Italy
328 Dr. Tiziana Camorani psicologa private Italy
329 Paola Capozzi plant and soil ecology Italy
330 Dr. Ferdinando Cerbone psicologo Italy
331 Dr Giorgio Cingolani Agricultural Economist Italy
332 Dr. Alberto Clarizia M.Sc Physicist University of Naples Italy
333 Dr. Raffaella Comito B.Sc General Practitioner holistic medicine Italy
334 Dr. Immacolata Coraggio Ph.D Plant Molecular Biologist Counseil National Research Italy
335 Dr. Bruno D'Udine Behaviour Ecologist University of Udine Italy
336 Dr. Simone De Ph.D Mathematics Combinatorics National Council of Research Italy
337 Prof. Adriano Decarli Cancer Epidermiology INST Univ. Milan Italy
338 Prof. Stefano Dumontet M.Sc soil microbiologist Universit. Basilicata Italy
339 Dr. Enzo Ferrara M.Sc Metrology in Chemistry IEN EURACHEM Italy
340 Dr. Sergio Francardo B.Sc Anthroposofical medical doctor Gruppo Medico Antroposofico Italiano Italy
341 Dr. Alessandro Giuliani Ph.D Biophysics Multidimensional Statistics Istituto Superiore di Sanita Italy
342 Elena Del Grosso Geneticist Researcher Deptl Evolutionary & Exptl. Biology Univ. Bologna Bologna Italy
343 Dr. Nicolas Kropacek M.D Public Health Free Lance Researcher Italy
344 Dr. Agostino Letardi M.Sc ecotoxicologist E.N.E.A. Italy
345 Prof. Ignazio Licata Full Professor of Theoretical Physics Ist Cibernetica non lineare Italy
346 Dr. Marco Mamone Ph.D mathematician University of Perugia Italy
347 Prof. Marco Mamone Capria Ph.D mathematician historian of science epistemologist University of Perugia Italy
348 Dr. Paolo Manzelli M.Phil Research in Education on Biochemistry LRE EGO CreaNET University of Florence Italy Italy
349 Dr. Bussolati Mariella M.Sc science writer Italy
350 Dr. Carlo Maurizio Modonesi Animal and environmental biology Università di Parma Italy
351 Dr. Karin Munck B.Sc comunication & science Fondazione Medikinale International Parma Italy
352 Prof. Valeria NEGRI Ph.D geneticist teaches 'Agricultural Genetic Resources' University of Perugia Italy
353 Prof. Francesco Palmirotta Ph.D psycho somatic clinicssocial work AOP Italy
354 Prof. Mariuccia Papa M.Sc biologist high school teacher Italy
355 Dr. Pietro Perrino Ph.D Plant Genetic Resources expert in collection conservation characterisation evaluation and utilasation From time to time Prof in Botany and Ecology C N R Germplasm Institute Italy
356 Dr. Francesca Salvemini Ph.D Biologist Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Italy
357 Prof. Steven N Shore Ph.D Physicist University of Pisa Italy
358 Prof. Leopoldo Silvestroni Endocrinologist Univ. of Rome Italy
359 Dr. Francesco Spinazzola M.D infectivologist Italy
360 Roberto Stefani Ph.D student Student of Political Science writing final thesis on GMOs Greenpeace Italia Italy
361 Prof. emeritus Shingo Shibata Hiroshima University; Environmental Sociology and Biosafety Tokyo Japan
362 Prof. Atuhiro Sibatani Molecular Biologist Osaka Japan
363 Dr Shiron Sugita Plant Geneticist Nagoya U. Japan
364 Dr Noboru Yagishita Plant Geneticist Jap. Assoc. Agro-Nature Tokyo Japan
365 Dr Machiko Yasukohchi PLAN - International Japan Public Relations Team Japan
366 Prof. Julian BAUER Ph.D Ecologist Forest Scientist working against any GE Tree development and or planting No GEO introductions without PIC of local people GE free zones a must ECOTERRA Intl var East African Universities Kenya
367 Wycliffe Wanzala Ph.D student Naturalist University of Nairobi Kenya
368 Dr. Georges Mailliet B.Sc Pulmonologist Luxembourg
369 Mohd Roshdi Hassan M.Sc Smart Material university Putra Malaysia Malaysia
370 Al Hanisham Mohd Khalid International Law Lawyer University Utara Malaysia Malaysia
371 Dr. Rosli Omar Ph.D Arificial Intelligence Universiti Malaya Malaysia
372 Prof. Elena Alvarez Buylla Ph.D Molecular Genetics of Plant Development and Evolution UNAM Mexico
373 Douglas Hinds Dir Gral Center for Community and Rural Development National Coordinator for Organic Production National Confederation of Rural Property Owners Dir of Sp CeDeCoR CNPR CSNI ISHS Mexico
374 Prof. Andres F Keiman Ph.D student Populations Ecology and Forest Conservation Universidad de la Ciudad de Mexico Mexico
375 Prof. Alberto R. Miranda Biologist Environmental Public Education Cuernavaca Mexico
376 Rodriguez Mitchell Nemesio Anthropologist PNUD INI Mexico
377 Dr. Ronald Nigh Ph.D anthropology specialty in agroecology biodiversity environment; member of SNI CIESAS Mexico
378 Dr. Enrique Vargas Ph.D Molecualr Immunology Universidad Veracruzana Grupo L dico Mexico
379 Dr. Ilya Trombitsky Ph.D BIOTICA Ecological Society Moldova
380 Prof. Si Bennasseur ALAOUI Ph.D Organic farming and alternative crops Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II Morocco
381 Prof. Lahcen Kenny Ph.D Oraganic Agriculture and Horticulture IAV Hassan II Morocco
382 Mukti Ram Chapagain Organic agriculture Nepal Organic Agriculture Ctr NOAC Pvt Ltd Nepal
383 M R Chapagain Organic Suistainable Agriculture and Rural Development Nepal Organic Agriculture Ctr Nepal
384 Maheswar Ghimire Organic Agriculture Promotion and Inspection Ecoscentre Nepal
385 Prof. Jiwan Rai M.Sc biochemist nepal organic association Nepal
386 Prof.em Bechan Raut M.Sc Medicinal Botanist Pokhara University Nepal
387 David Baillie B.Sc Deep Ecologist Naturopath NZ Forest Gardening Research Harmony Farmof Harmony Farm New Zealand
388 Dr. Robert Anderson Physicist Nuclear Medicine Technical Institute Hamilton New Zealand
389 Dr. Troy Baisden Ph.D Ecosystem Science (Soil Science/Ecology) Landcare Research New Zealand
390 Marie Buchler M.Sc Zoology masters editor and journalist and university tutor Bio Dynamic Farming and Gardening Association New Zealand
391 Dr. George Coghill Software Engineering University of Auckland New Zealand
392 Dr. Bernard Conlon B.Sc Rural GP New Zealand
393 Dr. Tim Ewer Physician Mapua Health Centre Nelson New Zealand
394 Dr. Michael Godfrey Environmental Toxicologist General Practitioner Taura New Zealand
395 Brendan Hoare M.Sc Organic systems sustaianble design integrated land managment UNITEC econation2020 Orgnaic Federation of NZ New Zealand
396 Sigrid D. Houlette B.Sc. B.Sc. Solid Waste Manager Environmental Engineering Local Government Lower Hutt New Zealand
397 Jessica Hutchings Ph.D student Maori environmentalist Maori science and resource management Lecturer Faculty of Science Victoria University New Zealand
398 Hussila Keshaw M.Sc Molecular Biology The University of Auckland New Zealand
399 Dr. Peter King Ph.D Sociologist Family Centre Social Policy Research Unit New Zealand
400 Dr. Nick Lambrechten Consultant Revegetation Ecologist Wellington New Zealand
401 Dr. Shona L. Lamoureaux Plant Ecology Christchurch New Zealand
402 Dr. Ruth Lawson Ph.D Parasite Epidemiologist and GE Campaigner New Zealand
403 Helmut Lubbers M.Sc ecologist ecology discovery foundation new zealand New Zealand
404 Dr Robert Mann Ecologist Auckland New Zealand
405 Dr. Ted Ninnes Ph.D Sociology and Psychology University of Waikato New Zealand
406 Robin W. Ord Molecular Geneticist Law Student Hamilton New Zealand
407 Tara Satyanand M.Sc Molecular genetics University of Auckland New Zealand
408 Dr. Sean Weaver Ph.D Environmental Policy Victoria University of Wellington New Zealand
409 Dr Colin Wells Director of Energy Management Dept of Physics University of Otago New Zealand
410 Katharine White I am an experienced artist and G E Free H B N Z campaigner I am and have been in the position to put my graphic expertise to use in the cause of the planet T L C Wellington and E I T Hawke s Bay New Zealand
411 Dr Peter R Wills Theoretical Biology Univ. Auckland New Zealand
412 Prof. Leong Yap Ph.D Ergonomist Industrial Designer Massey University New Zealand
413 Dr. Emmanuel AFOLABI Ph.D come and be healed physiotherapy and ecology Nigeria
414 Dr. Ralph Nwaokoro Ph.D ECOTOXICOLOGIST UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS Nigeria
415 Dr. Azeez Bolaji Odewenu M.Sc National association of science students Nigeria
416 Dr Ingrid Olesen Senior Research Scientist Institute of Aquaculture Res. Ltd Norway
417 Dr. Lars Rasmussen MD MD General Practitioner Univ. Oslo Mesnali Norway
418 Prof. Terje Traavik Virologist University of Tromso Norway
419 Dr. Hussain Ahmad M.Sc fermentation sold state fermentation koji university of veterinary and animal sciences lahor Pakistan
420 Dr. Obaid Ali M.Phil Bioavailabilitiy and Pharmacokinetic studies Govt of Pakistan Pakistan
421 Prof. Muhammad Bilal M.Sc research work on maize mmri yusafwala sahiwal pakistan Pakistan
422 Dr. Shakeel Farooqi Ph.D Genetics University of Karachi Pakistan
423 Muhammad Imran Imran Biochemist damask_786 Pakistan
424 Farhat Jabeen Jabeen B.Sc biotech biotech Pakistan
425 Prof. Omer Khayyam M.Sc food research programe food research Pakistan
426 Dr. Washdev Malhi Ph.D student whole soules and mind control jai ma jee Pakistan
427 Sajjad Naqvi M.Sc University of Karachi Pakistan
428 Dr. Mian Qaseem Ph.D Nuclier Magnetic Resonance Retired Educational Adviser Govt of Pakistan Pakistan
429 Dr. Tasneem Rizvi Ph.D Molecular Biophysics. PCSIR Laboratories Complex Lahore PAKISTAN. Pakistan
430 Madiha Saeed Rizvi B.Sc Deptt of Biotechnology Univerity of Karachi Pakistan
431 Dr. Naveed Yusuf M.Phil veterinarian university of veterinary and animal sciences lahor Pakistan
432 Prof.em Eric Jimenez Ph.D none Aquatic Panama
433 Ethel Japeth B.Sc none police Savings & Loan Papua New Guinea
434 Dr. Sergio Barrio Tarnawiecki Science Policy National Research Council of Lima Peru
435 Prof.em Pedro Angco Jr H2O limpyobaybay founder Philippines
436 GEONATHAN BARRO Doing Anti GMO campaigns coordinates with other NGOs on our Anti GMO GE stand KALITAWHAN WORKING GROUP ON BIODIVERSITY Philippines
437 GEONATHAN BARRO Coordinator Coordinates with NGOs POs and other Organizations on Anti GMO campaigns and other related issues and concerns KALITAWHAN WORKING GROUP ON BIODIVERSITY Philippines
438 Paterno Borlagdan M.Sc Agricultural Engineer Filipino Inventors Society Philippines
439 Javier M Claparols Agriculture Rice Sugar Aquaculture Milkfish Bangus shrimp Businessman Ecologist Ecological Society of the Philippines Philippines
440 Antonio M CLAPAROLS M.Sc Ecologist farmer marine and terrestial biodiversity economics Ecological Society of the Philippines Philippines
441 Johnny Danganan B.Sc lay out artist in publications Sustainable Agriculture advocate Philippines
442 Dr. Clint ESco Ph.D student Expert in psychology concerning students PICHES and PIDO Philippines
443 Dr. Pamela G. Fernadez Agronomist U. Philippines Los Banos Philippines
444 Delilah Galang B.Sc Natural Therapy Consultant Cancer Council Philippines
445 Dr. Richard Kharpungal Ph.D Agronomist U Philippines Philippines
446 Prof. Mark Erick Magbanua Ph.D student no Philippines
447 Prof. Mark Erick Magbanua M.Sc metro manila Philippines
448 Ben Malayang University of Philippines Los Banos Laguna Philippines
449 FRANCIS MORALES M.Phil Advocacy Officer of MASIPAG Mindanao MASIPAG Philippines
450 Charles T. Olsen D.C. Chiropractic Clinic Davao Clinic PSRAST Philippines
451 Prof. Marlon Pareja Ph.D student Cell and Molecular Biology Wildlife Conservation Society of the Philippines Philippines
452 Nicanor Perlas B.Sc Agricultural Scientist and Ecologist Sustainable Agriculture Specialist Center for Alternative Development Initiatives Philippines
453 Dr. Romeo F. Quijano Pesticide Action Network Pharmacologist/Toxiologist Philippines
454 Dr. Dante Jr Simbulan Ph.D Neurophysiology De La Salle University Health Sciences Campus Philippines
455 Dr. Jaime A Sison Animal Nutrition and Feed Milling Aqua Ace Nutrition Inc Philippines
456 Dr. MARVIN UMALI M.D pediatrician doctors of the philippines Philippines
457 Prof. Oscar B. Zamora Agronomist U. Philippines Los Banos Philippines
458 Prof. Joel Mckevin Zamora Ph.D b s of s and t psu Philippines
459 Dr. Szymczyk Ryszard Ph.D methodology of cultivar testing wildlife conservation Poland
460 Prof. Vicinzineddu Itunculu M.D biochemistry portug univrsity Portugal
461 Rui Pereira M.D General Practice Portugal
462 Prof. Clara Queiroz Ph.D Geneticist Retired University of Lisboa Portugal
463 Teresa Silva Ph.D student Coconut Portugal
464 Dr. Margarida Silva Molecular Biologist Portuguese Catholic Univ. Portugal
465 Dr. Franciso J.C.M. Teixeira Researcher Geophysics Geological and Mining Institute Lisbon Portugal
466 Fatima C. Teixeira Researcher Marine Geology Lisbon Portugal
467 Carlos Altieri M.Sc Toxicity and pesticides in water Health Environmental Department Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
468 Nelson Alvarez JD Sociologist and Lawyer Agriculture and development consultant Puerto Rico
469 Dr. Clara Carrasco Ph.D Molecular Biology and Genetics Puerto Rico
470 Dr. Shridhar Devidas Ph.D Basically an Ecologist turned environmental management system specialist advocating sustainable resource use among the industires Bureau Veritas Qatar
471 Dr. Joseph Mezei M.D quantum medicine Medical Center Tongtian Romania
472 Prof. Vladimir Kuznetsov Ph.D Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Institute of Plant Physiology RAS Russia
473 Dr. Ali Mohammed Ph.D Chief executive officer Companies Saudi Arabia
474 Prof. WAIL SALAH B.Sc BIOTECH Saudi Arabia
475 Prof. Vladimir Ajdacic Ph.D nuclear physics carcinogenecity none retired Serbia
476 Peter Sevich Ph.D student Serbia
477 Glenn Ashton Director Ekogaia Foundation and Green Party South Africa
478 Dr. Brigitte N.B. Schwabe-Berg Medical Officer Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town South Africa
479 Ben Van Der Walt Director in Nutritional Advisory Forum Agree on the concern of Genetically Manipulated Food GNLD South Africa
480 Nicole Venter The Southern Health Ecology Institute SHAE Institute South Africa
481 Dr. SangSoo Hur Ph.D Lecturer Sociology of Science and Technology Sungkonghoe University South Korea
482 Prof. Suk Hwan Kim Ph.D Sociology of Science and Technology Kookmin University South korea
483 Bingbin LU International Law Transnational Law and Business University TLBU South Korea
484 Dr Gregorio Alvar Biotechnologist. Computense U. Madrid Spain
485 Javier Blasco Aragonese Ctr for Rural European Information Spain
486 Prof. F. Pura Duart-Soler Sociology Univ. Valencia PSRAST Spain
487 Prof. Ernest Garcia Ph. D. Ph. D. Sociology Univ. Valencia Dept. Sociologia I Antropologia Social Valencia Spain
488 ANDRES MAGANA B.Eng electronic instrumentation escorial sostenible Spain
489 Andres Magana Garcia B.Sc world heritage freelance consultant escorial sostenible Spain
490 Dr. Pablo Malo Psychiatrist Consultant Mental Health Center Bilbao Spain
491 Jose Ramon Olarieta Ph.D Soil Science Agriculture Land use Universitat de Lleida Spain
492 Dr. Rosario Sierra De Grado Ph.D Forest geneticist University of Valladolid Spain
493 Dr. Jagath Perera B.Eng electrical engineering uom SriLanka Sri Lanka
494 Adil Hassan Ahmed Abdelmageed Ph.D student Breeding of vegetable crops Vegetable Physiologist and researcher and lecturer University of Khartoum Sudan Sudan
495 Dr. Kamal El Siddig Ph.D Tree eco physiologist Sudan
496 Dr. Isameldeen Khair Ph.D Education and training Sennar University Sudan
497 Dr. Balgis Osman Elasha Ph.D Environmentalist Higher Council for Environment Natural Resources Sudan
498 Dr. Bo Dahlin Education Science Karlsbad University Karlsbad Sweden
499 Folke G Nther Ph.D student Sustainability issues and Ecological Engineering Systems Ecology Sweden
500 Prof. Every N. Gummesson Management Stockholm Univ. PSRAST Sweden
501 Folke Gunther Ph.D student Sustainability issues and Ecological Engineering Systems Ecology Sweden
502 Said O. Holmin Lic. Technology Rector Computer Science College of Creative Computer Science Stockholm Sweden
503 Dr. Katarina Leppanen History of Ideas Gothenburg Uni Sweden
504 Dr. Jaan Suurkula Physician Physicians and Scientists for Responsible Assessment of Science and Technology Stockholm Sweden
505 Dr. Daniel Amman Cell Biologist Tech. Switzerland
506 Dr. Charles Beard M.D General Practitioner CNBPharma Switzerland
507 Dr. Ruth Goseth Dermatologist ISDE Switzerland
508 Florianne Koechlin Biologist World Wildlife Fund Switzerland
509 Dr. Nicole Maestracci Beard Ph.D Microbiologist Virologist Immunologist Serono International Switzerland
510 Yvan Maillard dipl. Sc. Nat. ETH Environementalist Ecology Fribourg PSRAST Switzerland
511 Yves Schatzle Agronomist and Economist Switzerland
512 Verena Soldati Biotechnologist Basler Appell Switzerland
513 Dr. KuoChi Yeh M.D Geriatric Publich Health and Hospital Administration medical legal Taipei City Hospital Zhongxing Branch Taiwan
514 Arend De Haas M.Sc Conservation Ecologist African Conservation Foundation Tanzania
515 Mwanaidi Kafuye M.Sc HOLDER IN BIOCHEMISTRY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH Tanzania
516 Dr. William Kisinza Ph.D Epidemiology Public Health Specialist National Institute for Medical Research Tanzania Tanzania
517 Danial Minja B.Sc PARASITOLOGY & MICROBIOLOGY NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR MEDICAL RESEARCH. Tanzania
518 Acleus Rutta M.Sc Immunologist National Institute For Medical Research Tanzania
519 Dr. Peter Burt Ph.D Water Quality Management Prince of Songkla university Thailand
520 Dr. Jidbhong Jayavasu Ph.D Medical Virologist Arogya Smasai Thailand
521 Prof. Omboom Luanratana Pharmacologist Univ. of Mahedol Bangkok Thailand
522 Piengporn Panutampon biology/medical biology Biothai (Thai Network on Community & Biodiversity) Thailand
523 Prof. Reungchai Tansakul Ph.D Biologist Prince of Songkla University Thailand
524 Lianchamroon Witoon Sustainable agriculture Biothai Thailand
525 Jaroen Compeerapap Environmental Law and Development Center The Netherlands
526 Jaap Hamers M.Sc Ecologist The Netherlands
527 Tedje Van Asseldonk M.Sc biology phytotherapy inst f ethnobotany zoopharmacognosy The Netherlands
528 Dr. Siirsel Tas Dizdar Ph.D Radiation Oncology Turkey
529 Prof. KANYANDAGO Peter Ph.D Expert and researcher in endogenous knowledge and African cultures Uganda Martyrs University Uganda
530 Dr. Michael L. Abrahams (retired) Aeronautics Bristol PSRAST UK
531 Maryam Al Alami Ph.D student Science in Society civic and stakeholder participation GM food law Manchester Metropolitan University UK
532 Michael Alexander M.Phil Theoretical Physics UK
533 Chris Anthony B.Sc Qualified amateur UK
534 Janey Antoniou M.Sc Molecular Biologist UK
535 Dr. Michael Antoniou Molecular Geneticist Guy's Hospital UK
536 Paula F. Baillie-Hamilton Academic Researcher on Pesticides Perthshire UK
537 Dr. Susan Bardocz Geneticist Aberdeen UK
538 Dr. Jeremy Bartlett Plant Molecular Geneticist (formerly John Innes Institute) UK
539 Manoel Bascoi Geneticist PhD Candidate JII UK
540 Dr. David Beasley Genetic Algorithm University of Bath UK
541 Dr. David Bellamy Biologist and Broadcaster London UK
542 Lynda Birke Biologist Liverpool Uni. Veterinary School UK
543 Dr. David A.H. Birley General Medical Practitioner Swindon UK
544 Sarah Blenkinsop B.Sc Environmental Consultant/Campaigner/Organic grower Planet Services Environmental Consultancy UK
545 Gerard C. Bodeker Ed. D. Senior Clinical Lecturer in Public Health Univ. Oxford Medical School UK
546 Dr. Jeffrey Boss Cell Biologist Dept. of Physiology Bristol University UK
547 Sophie H. Bown Ph.D. Candidate Zoology Manchester Univ. UK
548 Paul Breslaw Computer Scientist Consultant Financial Research Forest Row UK
549 Dr. Allan Britton Ph.D Environmental Health and Safety UK
550 Prof. Roy Butterfield DSc.DIC CEng. MICE MIStruct.E. Civil Engineer Southampton UK
551 Dr. Alessandra Cavalletti Ph.D Research Associate Imperial College STM UK
552 Maureen Childs B.Sc Internet Developer British Computer Society UK
553 Emma Churchman B.Sc Social Scientist UK
554 Dr. Janet Cotter-Howells Environmental Geochemist Lecturer in Soil Science Aberdeen University UK
555 Dr. Stephen Cross Molecular Population Geneticist Birmingham University UK
556 Dr. Alan Currier Taxonomist IRBV UK
557 Gordon Daly Ph. D. student Gene Therapist Kennedy Inst. London UK
558 Stuart Daly Ph. D. student Transgenic group Charing Cross Hosp. UK
559 Dr. Yuliya Demydchuk Ph.D Molecular biology of producers of antibiotics Cambridge university UK
560 Dr. Mike Dodd Ecologist Open University UK
561 Prof. Jane Eberlynne M.Sc enviromental studdies conscerning health erzats peace co. UK
562 Tom Fox Amateur neurology biochemistry psychology sociology and philosophy enthusiast UK
563 Joseph A. Gari Marie Curie Research Fellow Political Ecology University of Oxford UK
564 Dr. Mike Gillman Ecologist Open University UK
565 Dr. Alassandro Gimona Research Scientist Ecology MLURI Aberdeen UK
566 Edward Goldsmith Editor The Ecologist London UK
567 Zac Goldsmith Editor The Ecologist London UK
568 Prof. Brian Goodwin Biologist Schumacher College UK
569 Lale Gurel Bec. Manager Nature – Macmillan Publishers London UK
570 Adrian Haffegee B.Eng B.Eng Electronic Engineer UK
571 Julian Haffegee M.phil Biophysicist Institute of Science in Society UK
572 Dr. Keith H. Halfacree Univ. Lecturer Geography Univ. of Wales Swansea UK
573 Dr. John E. Hammond Engineer Highfield UK
574 Dr. David J Heaf Biochemist Wales UK
575 Dr. Marion Hersch Assistive Electonic Technologies Dept. Electronics & Electrical Engineering Univ. Glasgow Glasgow Scotland UK
576 Dr. Mae-Wan Ho Geneticist and Biophysicist Open University UK
577 Dr. Caroline Hoffmann Ph.D Ecotoxicologist Centre for Human Ecology UK
578 Patrick Holden Director Soil Association UK
579 Dr. Vyvyan Howard Toxipathologist U. Liverpool UK
580 G. D. Humphreys M.Sc technologist aerodynamics UK
581 Gerald Humphreys B.Sc Aerodynamics Operational Research Information Technology Hemel hempstead GM action group UK
582 Dr. Brian Hursey ex FAO Senior Officer for Vector Borne Diseases Neath UK
583 Prof. Tim Ingold Anthropologist University of Aberdeen UK
584 Lorna Jackson M.Sc Ecology soil science HDRA the organic organisation UK
585 Magnus L. Johnson School of Science & Management U.C. Scarborough UK
586 Peter Preston Jones MSc Environomental Campaigner UK
587 Dani Kaye M.Sc. Scientists for Global Responsibility London UK
588 David Kaye M.Sc. Scientists for Global Responsibility London UK
589 Dr J. M. Kerr Bioethics Winchester College: Oxford U. UK
590 Dr. Philip Kilner Cardiac Imaging Specialist Royal Brompton Hospital UK
591 Prof. Richard Lacey Microbiologist Leeds UK
592 Dr. Jonathan R. Latham Molecular Virologist previously JII and Genetics Dept. Wisconsin-Madison Univ. Exeter UK
593 Dr. Colin L.A. Leakey Plant Geneticist Cambridge UK
594 Chris Lucas MIMIS Complexity Scientist CALResCo UK
595 Dr. Paul Marchant Ph.D Chartered Statistician UK
596 Jan Martinez social visionary holistic entrepreneur Just Rural Development Trust S W E N UK
597 Dr. Joan Mason Chemist Cambridge UK
598 Druvananda Mauree B.Sc graphic designer school of design UK
599 Dr. Alan Mayne Statistician Scientists for Global Responsibility London UK
600 Darl N. Middleton Ph. D. student Environ. Science Dept. Civil Engineering Univ. Manchester UK
601 Dr. Erik Millstone Science & Techology Policy Research Sussex Univ. Brighton UK
602 Patrick Mulvany C Biol Food Security Policy Adviser specialising in Agricultural Biodiversity Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) UK
603 Dr. Harash Narang Pathologist BSE expert UK
604 Dr. Eva Novotny Astrophysicist Univ. Cambridge (retired) UK
605 Prof. Bob Orskov Ph.D Animal nutrition Rural development in developing countries macaulay research Institute UK
606 Dr. David Packham Material Scientist U. Bath UK
607 Nicholas Papadimitriou M.Sc conservation and eco philosophy Institute of science in society UK
608 Dr. Barnaby Peacocke Ph.D Agricultural Science International Development ITDG UK
609 Fatima Pelica Biochemist PhD Candidate JII UK
610 Marcus Petz B.Sc Biology/Geology Environmental Politics UK
611 George Pilkington M.Sc Countryside management UK
612 Dr. Michel Pimbert Agricultural Ecologist International Institute for Environment and Development London UK
613 Dr. Robert C. Poller Organic Chemist U. London UK
614 Michael Pooler A Level Biology Student human relations People Of The Earth UK
615 Dr. Malcolm Povey Ph.D Food Scientist Reader in Food Physics University of Leeds UK
616 Dr. Ronald Press Ph.D Chemical engineer UK
617 Bala Puspa UK
618 Prof. Arpad Pusztai Biochemist Formerly from Rowett Institute UK
619 Dr. Jerry Ravetz Philosopher of Science London UK
620 Dr. Irene Ridge Biologist Open University UK
621 Dr. Barry T. Rubin Physical/Electro Chemist Director Davis-Rubin Associates Ltd Northhants UK
622 Dr. Barry T Rubin Ph.D Physical Electro Chemistry Business Consultant CD DVD Replication for Business Davis Rubin Associates Ltd UK
623 Angela Ryan Molecular biologist Open Univ. UK
624 Dr. Jean A.D. Saunders BDS BDS LDS RCS Dental Surgeon (retired) Faringdon UK
625 Prof. Peter Saunders Biomathematician U. London UK
626 Dr. Wendy Seel Ph.D Plant Sciences University of Aberdeen UK
627 Martin Shaw Geneticist UK
628 Dr. Ellis Snitcher M.D Teaching and research in integrative medicine Middlesex University UK
629 Dr. Peter Sollich Theoretical Physics Dept. Mathematics King’s College London UK
630 Vanessa Spedding M.Phil science and science policy journalism None UK
631 Dr. Gesa Staats.de.Yanes Veterinarian Toxicologists U. Liverpool UK
632 Prof. Ian Stewart Biomathematics U. Warwick UK
633 Dr. Gene S. Thomas Agriculturist UK
634 Simone Turchetti Ph.D student History of Science Technology and Medicine CHSTM UK
635 Dr. Margaret J. Tyson Glossop PSRAST UK
636 Dr. Rob Verkerk Ph.D Sustainable agriculture and health UK
637 Dr Tom Wakeford Biologist U. of East London UK
638 Barry Weir B.Sc Physics Engineering OGL HMAF UK
639 Martyn Wells Astronomer UK Astronomy Technology Centre Edinburg UK
640 Barbara Wood-Kaczmar M.Sc. Science writer UK
641 Julian Wootton Conservationist London UK
642 Dr. Karen Wren University teacher Geography St. Andrews Univ. St. Andrews Fife UK
643 Linda Yeodal B.Sc MNIMH Medical Herbalist UK
644 Dr. JOHN ZARB Ph.D Small scale farming systems Senior Research Fellow Newcastle University NEWCASTLE UNIVERSITY UK
645 Dr. Grygoriy Petjuch Ph.D Ecology genetics Institute of Agroecology and Biotechnology Ukraine
646 Dr. Maulud Betaieb Ph.D environmental microbiology managment United Arab Emierates
647 Nelson Alvarez JD Sociologist and Lawyer Agriculture and development consultant Uruguay
648 Dr. Rayane Abusabha Senior Research Associate Department of Nutrition College of Health and Human Development Penn State University USA
649 Prof. Miguel A. Altieri Environment Science Policy and Management Univ. Calif. Berkeley USA
650 Ruth Alviola Posadas M.Sc Aquaculturist State Food Safety Officer MS DMR USA
651 Biff Appia autism USA
652 Dr. Catherine Badley Biologist University of Michigan USA
653 Dr. Britt Bailey Senior Researcher CETOS Ca USA
654 Prof. Phil Bereano Council for Responsible Genetics U. Washington USA
655 Prof. Stephen Bialkowski Ph.D Analytical Environmental Chemistry Department of Chemistry Utah State University USA
656 Andrew Bigler Infrared Systems USA
657 Dr. Walter Bortz Physician Palo Alto USA
658 Dr. Douglas H Boucher Ecologist Hood College USA
659 Nancy Brokaw M.Sc Identifying and treating disease through organic whole food Nutrition Foundation for Nutritional Therapy and Application USA
660 Nancy Brokaw Gerchak M.Sc Dedicated to finding Causes rather than treating SYMPTOMS of disease researcher CRA Practitioner Holistic Healthcare Consultant Foundation for Nutritional Therapy and Application USA
661 Claire Cabeza M.Sc Envionmental Scientist W.A.T.E.R.S. for Salmon People USA
662 Dr. Neil J. Carman Clean Air Program Director Sierra Club Austin Texas USA
663 Ricardo Carvajal Ph.D student agricultural ecology University of Michigan USA
664 Liane Casten M.Phil M.Phil journalist and author on food pesticides public policy public health etc. Chair Chicago Media Watch USA
665 Prof. Liebe F. Cavalieri Mathematical Ecology Evolution and Behaviour Univ. Minnesota St. Paul USA
666 Claire Caveza M.Sc Project leader for Chum Salmon genetic sampling fisheries biologist for Native American tribe in the Pacific NorthWest W.A.T.E.R.S. for Salmon People USA
667 Vijaykumar V.C. Chalasani MS Consultant East Brunswick USA
668 Dr. Ignacio Chapela Microbiologist & Ecologist U.C. Berkeley USA
669 Dr. Frederick Cichocki Ph.D Ecologist Graves Museum of Natural History USA
670 Kristin Cobelius M.Sc. Student M.Sc. Student U. Michigan USA
671 Dr. Alan Connor Ph.D Ph D in Communty Planning Development Univ Of Mich Practiced in Zambia and the U S Taught at Univ of Mich and Headed program at Siena Heights College Friends Committee on Unity with Nature Democratic USA
672 BARBARA CRAWFORD SURVIVAL INDEPENDENT USA
673 Dr. Martha Crouch Biologist Indiana University USA
674 Jill Davies Stream Ecologist Organic Farmer Montana USA
675 Dr. Carolyn F.A. Dean MD ND MD ND Consultant Integrative Medicine Holeopathic Pharmakeia NY USA Board of Women for a Safe Future USA
676 Tricia Deane Certified Organic and nonGMO Food Supplier USA
677 Burgess Dillard Natural Scientist Self USA
678 Earth Duarte Trattner Ph.D student Social and Ecological Impacts of Biotechnology UC Berkeley USA
679 Dr. Chris Duffield Ph.D Visiting scientist Stanford University USA
680 Dr. David Ehrenfeld Biologist/Ecologist Rutgers University New Jersey USA
681 Mr Irucka Embry Studying civil and environmental engineering and Spanish University of Tennessee student USA
682 Andrew Epstein B.Sc Environmental Policy/planning sustainable development The Nature Conservancy USA
683 Dr. Samuel Epstein School of Public Health Univ. Illinois Chicago USA
684 Juiet S Erazo Ph. D. student PhD student U. of Michigan USA
685 Sanek Erem USA
686 Sanekus Erem USA
687 Prof. John B. Fagan Maharishi University of Management Fairfield Iowa USA
688 Dr. Don Fitz Research Psychologist and Editor Synthesis/Regeneration: A Magazine of Green Social Thought USA
689 Dr. Ty Fitzmorris Ecologist Hampshire College USA
690 Dr Michael W Fox Veterinarian & Bioethicist Washington DC USA
691 Dr. Chris Francovich Ph.D Learning Through Participation Practice Lightfiled Inc USA
692 Cynthia A. Frye FS/MS Student Biology Univ. Texas Medical Branch USA
693 Prof. John Garderineer Biologist U. Michigan USA
694 Dr. Barbara K. Given Faculty Researcher George Mason Univ. Fairfax USA
695 Dr. Jay L. Glaser MK Medical Director Maharishi Ayurveda Medical Center Lancaster USA
696 Dr. Parameswaran Gopikrishnan Ph.D Financial Enginner Physicist USA
697 Panatey Great Company inc USA
698 Dr Herve Grenier Atmospheric Sciences and Climate Change Univ. Washington USA
699 Dr. Don Hall Ph.D Intermolecular adiabatic bioag marine Bear Creek Research USA
700 Dr. Gayle Robin Hamilton Assoc. Prof. Centre for the Advancement of Public Health Fairfax VA USA
701 Rev. Dorothy A. Harper Biotethics Washington USA
702 Maria Harrington currently working on my Masters of Science in Nutrition at Bastyr University USA
703 Prof.em Kristi Harris B.Sc plant molecular biology murray state USA
704 Paul C. Helgeson BSME Senior Engineer Middleton WI USA
705 Gosha Hello Company inc USA
706 Prof. Martha Herbert Pediatric Neurologist Mass. Gen. Hosp. USA
707 Patrick Hickey Ph.D Resource renewability and quality of life Sedona Recycles USA
708 Daniel J. Highkin Internist Vancouver Washington USA
709 Dr. Joseph Hilou Clinical Nutrition Chiropractic USA
710 Dale Hoover Organic food eater USA
711 Heidi Horn interested in what i eat sebastian USA
712 Prof. emeritus John Hotchkiss Ph.D Ethnography of Indigenous Botanical Systems USA
713 Dr. Paul Houle Ph.D Theoretical Physics USA
714 Dr. Philip H Howard Ph.D Rural Sociology Rural Coalition Washington DC USA
715 Prof. Ruth Hubbard Biologist Harvard University USA
716 Andrew J. Hund Sociologist Arcata USA
717 Panatey I Like Your Site Company inc USA
718 Alex Jack Planetary Medicine Jushi Institute Becket Mass USA
719 Soraya Jacob student USA
720 Eric Jacobson Ph.D Medical anthropologist Dept. of Social Medicine Harvard Medical School USA
721 Dr. Michael Janson General Practitioner Nutrition Cambridge USA
722 Emile C Joel B.Sc Research Chemist Retired Smithsonian Institution USA
723 Robert W. Johnson Material Scientist DSM Desotech Elgin Illinois USA
724 Christine Johnston Ph.D student oncology USA
725 Dr. Gary P. Kaplan Assoc. Prof. Neurology North Shore Univ. Hosp. NYU School of Medicine Mass USA
726 Dr. Arlene M. Kellman D.O. Physician Tucson USA
727 Prof. Jonathan King Molecular Biology MIT Cambridge Council for Responsible Genetics USA
728 Rev Thomas Klein Orthodox Priest USA
729 Dr Jack Kloppenburg Un. Wisconsin Rural Sociologist USA
730 Heidei A. Kratsch R.D./Graduate Student Plant Physiology Univ. Wisconsin USA
731 Dr. Louis H. Krut MK CHB.:MD St. Louis Univ. Medical School Missouri USA
732 U.V. Kutzli Ph. D. student U of Michigan USA
733 Dr. Marc Lappe Geneticist and Director CETOS Ca USA
734 Dr. Chris Lawrence Ph.D Extensive work in science education outside the box USA
735 Prof. Mark X M Lei Plant genomics and breeder in rice and kenaf University of California Chinese Alumni Associatio USA
736 Prof. Xiaomao Lei Research and Education in agricultural sciences University of California Chinese Alumni Associatio USA
737 Dr. Herman Lerner M.D Nutritionally oriented physician USA
738 Dr. Barry Lia Ph.D sustainable agriculture USA
739 David Lindley USA
740 Sean Lyman Student Gettysbury College USA
741 A J Maimbourg Keen desire to see GM foods banned due to potential health problems USA
742 Dr. Timothy Mann Geographer Hampshire College USA
743 Hugh Mann non pharmaceutical health education organicMD org USA
744 Anne-Marie Mayer Ph. D. student Nutrition Cornell Univ. USA
745 Christine McCullum Ph. D. student Nutritional Sciences Cornell University USA
746 Lynn V. McIndoo Student Environmental Resources Engineering Humboldt State Univ. Arcata USA
747 Dr. Dwight McKee M.D Am Board of Int Med certified in Internal Medicine Medical Oncology and Hematology Strong background in clinical nutrition immunology and holistic med USA
748 Vuejuin McKersen M.Sc Natural Resource Manager U. Michigan USA
749 Dr. Joan P Mencher Ph.D Culturao Anthropologist work on issues of agriculture including sustainable agriculture primarily in India Involved in fights against GMOs and issuesof the co Lehman College of CUNY and CUNY graduate Center USA
750 Dr. Stephen L. Mikesell Anthropology and Political Ecology Univ. Wisconsin Madison USA
751 Dr. Bill Misner Ph.D Nutrition E CAPS Inc USA
752 Leuren Moret Ph.D student Independent Scientist expert in radiation and public health Past President Association for Women Geoscientist USA
753 Dr. Usha Mukhtyar M.D. Consultant Gynecology Obstetrics Bronx New York USA
754 Najeeba Naja Ph.D THE QURAN IS TRUE MANKIND ARE U DEAF DUMB BIND WERE U OR WERE U NOT A DROP OF SPERN ISNT THE ONE WHO GIV E LIFE able to GIVE LIFE TO THE dead THE HUMAN RACE I ISLAM IS TRUE USA
755 Elaine Needham illustrator researcher writer speaker none USA
756 Prof.em JB Neilands Ph.D Professor of Biochemistry Univ Calif Berkeley USA
757 Prof. Stuart A. Newman Developmental Biology New York Medical College Valhalla New York USA
758 Panatey Nice To See Your Site Is Being Updated Company inc USA
759 Lena S Nicolai Ph. D. student University of Michigan USA
760 Dr. Ingrid C. Northwood Biochemist Simon Fraser University USA
761 Dr. Ronald E. Openshaw Adjunct Faculty Geology Physics Maharishi University of Management Fairfield USA
762 Trina Paulus food issues sculpture writing Hope For the Flowers USA
763 Marial Peelle Biol./Anthropologist Undergrad. Swarthmors College USA
764 Dr. Ivette Perfecto Associate Professor, School of Natural Resources and Environment University of Michigan USA
765 Dr. Ilya Sandra Perlingieri Ph.D author The Uterine Crisis 2003 independent scholar USA
766 Chris Picone M.Sc. Soil Microbiologist U. Michigan USA
767 John Pierne B.Sc Concerned Citizen USA
768 William Pizer Many years as an organic farmer Schoharie Certified Organic Hydroponic Greenhouses USA
769 Dr. Vasiliki Plerou Ph.D Physics USA
770 Dr. Gregory Pratt Ph.D Air pollution Minnesota Poll Contr Agncy Univ of Minnesota USA
771 Dr. James W Prescott Ph D Ph.D Developmental Neuropsychologist Cross Cultural Psychologist See www violence de Institute of Humanistic Science USA
772 Linda Prout M.Sc nutrition writer speaker consultant Lifehift USA
773 Dr. Caros R Ramirez Biologist St Lawrance University USA
774 Prof. Philip J. Regal Dept. Ecology Evolution and Behavior Univ. Minnesota St. Paul USA
775 Corinna Richards Ph.D student sociologist (health and biotechnology) AmbiguousMedia USA
776 Prof. R.H. Richardson Professor of Integrative Biology University of Texas Austin USA
777 Claudia Riumallo Mother concerned about her children future health Mother USA
778 John Robb permaculture USA
779 Dr. Susan L. Roberts MSRDLD Health and Nutrition Sue Roberts Health Concepts USA
780 Annika Rockwell Certified Nutritionist Consultant RockwellNutrition com USA
781 James Rose Ceptual Institute USA
782 Dr. Peter M. Rosset Ins. for Food and Development Policy USA
783 Prof. Philip B. Rudnick Emeritus Chemistry West Chester Univ. Pennsylvania PSRAST USA
784 Dr. Arthur Rybeck D.D.S. Dentistry and Organic Farmer Wheeling USA
785 Dr. Elizbet Sahtouris Biologist & Author USA
786 Dr. Elisabet Sahtouris Ph.D evolution biologist futurist Living Systems Design USA
787 Dr. Barnett Salzman M.D 30 yrs of medical research expertise public health board cert psychiatrist USA
788 Thomas J. Saunders Student Environmental Science Humboldt State Univ. Arcata USA
789 Dr. Stephen Scanlan Ph.D Global inequalities international development and food security University of Memphis Department of Sociology USA
790 Dr. Derek Scholes Ph.D Geneticist New York State Dept of Health USA
791 Dr. Nancy A Schult Entomologist U of Wisconsin-Madison USA
792 Dr. Brian Schultz Ecologist Hampshire College USA
793 Dr. Kathy Schwab Health Researcher MPH RD LD Center for Health Research Portland Oregon USA
794 Prof. David Schwartzman Geochemist Howard Uni. Washington DC USA
795 John Scibetta B.Sc Protein Chromatography Amersham Pharmacia Biotech USA
796 Dr. Linda Jean Sheperd Biochemist Gaia Blessings USA
797 Colleen Sheppard Wholistic Energy Therapist USA
798 Prof. Michael Sheridan Ph.D Environmental Anthropologist Middlebury College USA
799 Dr. Jacob Silver Ph.D Political Scientist Social Analyst Huron Mountain Research Services USA
800 Dr. Joseph Simcox Ph.D student Food Plant Diversity and Germplasm The Rare Vegetable Seed Consortium USA
801 Witold Skiba Ph.D Theoretical Physics MIT USA
802 Dr. Gerald Smith Zoologist U. Michigan USA
803 Kim Smith I consume only organic food and desire to see a ban put on GM as soon as possible USA
804 Kristina Smith Jacoba B.Sc agronomist USA
805 Dr. John Soluri Historian of Science Carnegie Mellon U USA
806 Doreen Stabinsky Geneticist International Environmental Politics and Policy California State University at Sacrament USA
807 Irl Stalcup Corporate Training LA County Dept of Parks and Recreation USA
808 Emma Steen Dietician (retired) Portland USA
809 Dr. Jesse Stewart concernment for the application of education and assuring the liberty freedom and unity in life F F H USA
810 Pamela Stimler B.Sc Board Certified Internist USA
811 Prof.em Budalur Thyagarajan Ph.D organic chemistry retired USA
812 Dr. Patricia Patterson Tursi Ph.D My Dissertation concerned Mind Body Interactions I have studied health for 40a years I am a master gardener and former organic farmer SW Missouri Organic Association USA
813 Prof. John Vandermeer Biologist Univ. Michigan Ann Arbor USA
814 Rosa Vazquez Student in Biology Ohio State University USA
815 Susan Vegors Psychologist Consultant Solutech Indianapolis USA
816 Prof. Robert Vernon Heimer Ph.D The study of brain chemistry during psychotic episodes none USA
817 Paul Von Hartmann B.Sc Ecologist biodynamic agriculturist Project P E A C E USA
818 Prof. Kenneth G. Walton Neurochemist Vedic Medicine Maharishi Univ. IA USA
819 Dr. Bruce West Ph.D DC Editor Health Alert Most renowned expert in the use of phytonutrients for cardiac patients with more patients than any living doctor Health Alert Newsletter USA
820 Ryan White Student St Lawrence University USA
821 Paul Whitson M.Sc healthcare administrator USA
822 Dr. George M. Woodwell Director The Woods Hole Research Center USA
823 Dr. Suzanne M. Wuerthele Toxicologist Toxicology & Risk Assessment federal regulatory agency Denver USA
824 Dr. John Zamarra M.D. Cardiology Fullerton USA
825 Dr. M Zamir Ph.D Research Scientist University USA
826 Prof. Miguel Angel Nunez M.Sc 14 years working and researching in Agroecological Scienes in the tropical areas of Latin America IPIAT Venezuela
827 Julio Eduardo Perez Genetics of Marine Organisms Universidad de Oriente Venezuela
828 Taurai Mutanda M.Sc Biotechnologist University of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe
Food cravings---What You Maybe Wanting or Needing
If you crave this...
What you really need is...
And here are healthy foods that have it:
Raw nuts and seeds, legumes, fruits
Broccoli, grapes, cheese, dried beans, calves liver, chicken
Chicken, beef, liver, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, legumes, grains
Cranberries, horseradish, cruciferous vegetables, kale, cabbage
Cheese, liver, lamb, raisins, sweet potato, spinach
High protein foods: fish, meat, nuts, beans
Oily snacks, fatty foods
Mustard and turnip greens, broccoli, kale, legumes, cheese, sesame
Coffee or tea
Chicken, beef, liver, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy, nuts, legumes
Egg yolks, red peppers, muscle protein, garlic, onion, cruciferous vegetables
Sea salt, apple cider vinegar (on salad)
Meat, fish and poultry, seaweed, greens, black cherries
Alcohol, recreational drugs
Meat, poultry, seafood, dairy, nuts
Mustard and turnip greens, broccoli, kale, legumes, cheese, sesame
Supplement glutamine powder for withdrawal, raw cabbage juice
Sun-dried black olives, potato peel broth, seaweed, bitter greens
Meat, fish, poultry, seaweed, greens, black cherries
Soda and other carbonated drinks
Mustard and turnip greens, broccoli, kale, legumes, cheese, sesame
Raw goat milk, fish, unrefined sea salt
Raw nuts and seeds, legumes, fruits
Preference for liquids rather than solids
Flavor water with lemon or lime. You need 8 to 10 glasses per day.
Preference for solids rather than liquids
You have been so dehydrated for so long that you have lost your thirst. Flavor water with lemon or lime. You need 8 to 10 glasses per day.
Walnuts, almonds, pecans, pineapple, blueberries
Red meats (especially organ meats), seafood, leafy vegetables, root vegetables
Nuts, seeds; avoid refined starches
Cheese, liver, lamb, raisins, sweet potato, spinach
Vitamin C supplements or orange, green, red fruits and vegetables
Lack of appetite
Nuts, seeds, beans, liver and other organ meats
Tuna, halibut, beef, chicken, turkey, pork, seeds and legumes
Walnuts, almonds, pecans, pineapple, blueberries
Raw goat milk, unrefined sea salt
Nuts, seeds; avoid refined starches
Vitamin C supplements or orange, green and red fruits and vegetables
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) Elicits Antinociceptive Properties and Potentiates Morphine-Induced Analgesia in the Rat Radiant Heat Tail-Flick Test.
J Med Food. 2010 Dec;13(6):1397-401
Authors: Sepahvand R, Esmaeili-Mahani S, Arzi A, Rasoulian B, Abbasnejad M
Abstract Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger is a calcium channel blocker; however, its influence on morphine analgesic effects has not been elucidated. We examined the effect of ginger root extract on nociceptive threshold and morphine-induced analgesia in male Wistar rats. To determine the effect of ginger on morphine analgesia, ginger extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg i.p.) was injected before a subeffective dose of morphine (2.5 mg/kg i.p.). The radiant heat tail-flick test was used to assess the nociceptive threshold before and at different times after drug administration. Our results showed that ginger extract elicited a significant antinociceptive effect. In addition, in groups that received both morphine and ginger, the observed analgesia was higher than that in groups treated with either morphine or ginger extract alone. Thus, the data indicate that ginger extract has a beneficial influence on morphine analgesia and can be an efficacious adjunct for pain management.---PMID: 21091253 [PubMed - in process]
Detroit's Urban Farms Could Provide a Majority of Produce for Local Residents
ScienceDaily (Nov. 20, 2010) — Transforming vacant urban lots into farms and community gardens could provide Detroit residents with a majority of their fruits and vegetables.--As city officials ponder proposals for urban farms, a Michigan State University study indicates that a combination of urban farms, community gardens, storage facilities and hoop houses -- greenhouses used to extend the growing season -- could supply local residents with more than 75 percent of their vegetables and more than 40 percent of their fruits.--The study, which appears in the current issue of The Journal of Agriculture, Food Systems, and Community Development, evaluates many aspects of the production potential of the Motor City's vacant properties, from identifying available parcels of land to addressing residents' attitudes toward blending agrarian traits with their urban lifestyles.--"What's clear from our production analysis is that even with a limited growing season, significant quantities of fresh fruits and vegetables eaten by Detroiters could be grown locally," said Kathryn Colasanti, the graduate student who led the study for the C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Food Systems at MSU. "And investments in produce storage facilities and hoop houses would increase this capacity substantially."--As part of the analysis, MSU cataloged available land that had no existing structures. Using aerial imagery and the city's database of vacant property, researchers identified 44,085 available vacant parcels, which span 4,848 acres. To paint a more realistic picture, the database excluded land in and around parks, golf courses, cemeteries, churches, schools and more, said Mike Hamm, who leads the C.S. Mott Group for Sustainable Food Systems.--"Our totals are conservative," he said. "But it may be closer to representing the quantity of land more readily available for urban farms and gardens because these parcels are publicly owned and clear of any buildings."--Along with pinpointing properties, the study also addressed public opinion on the issue. Different groups value urban farms for different reasons. Some groups see farms and gardens as a means to provide for their families and to bring in some additional income. People connected with urban agriculture organizations emphasized how such efforts strengthen neighborhood bonds. Some senior citizens and youth embraced the concept as a way to access higher-quality foods.--These attitudes could be tempered by a variety of factors related to implementing urban farms and gardens, such as increased activity and noise, perimeter fencing, free gardens used to draw neighborhoods together versus those that sell their products profit, altering the urban landscape with a semi-rural feel and more.--"These different opinions can co-exist," Hamm said. "But because they could also come into conflict, there is a need to engage in diverse communities to create a vision for the form and scale of urban agriculture in Detroit."--The study was supported in part by the W.K. Kellogg Foundation and the Fair Food Foundation.
Story Source:--The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Michigan State University.
[U1]The Issue here as being a "Steward of God" is not to poison the poorfeeding the poor with foods that are foods and not a genetic aberration of what God Had created is again something that is not being said but being overlooked to seduce an unknowing people of a faith who follow the canon laws and dogma rather then hearing the word of God as it was intended---Life begats Life---and this "Life " that is being produced in a lab is Death and Disease
[U2]It May appear that the RC is trying to induce it's own version of Population Control--by accepting this form of food poisoning to it's members---Soon there will be some kind of nonsense about the Dark forces trying to stop people from accessing a good and Even a God ordained food which would be totally deceiving---Since God does Not need a Genetist to produce a planet full of life--Makes me wonder where was the pope when God Created the earth and it's riches---seems to me they could use some education from the Almighty
[U3]This is Truly Alarming ---that a statement such as this is coming from the bowels of the vatican----there has been study after study on how this has altered and effected and affected not only the plants---the soil---the bacteria inthe soil --the insects ( look at teh Bee fiasco ) the people them selves who harvested GMO Cotton who died just from the exposure
[U4]Preventing Crops for the Poor---hmm does this imply that these were for the rich and now we need to feed the poor to rid the poor--makes you think---Once these measures Are incorproated as global law the human race 's days are numbered!!!!
[U5]What we have here is a definite differing of Opinions--or Should I say FACTS---rome and there scientist or scientific community is say it is all good and then we have here a global consortium of Scientist and they are all saying the contrary---makes you wonder who has the agenda going --monsanto who used to ( and possibly is still donating to the RC chirch--or the scientific community who gets no support and as a result can be objective with the science and the studies
[U6]This alarming planned famine-- and preventing the essential shift to sustainable agriculture that can guarantee food security and health around the world
[U7]The Papacy is saying this is safe??? and I would have to say for who---this is a blight toward Humanity and a downward spiral to causing uncurable type of ill will toward the planet---makes me think that we are going to use biological warfare on common citizens-
[U8]AN Now Rome wants to dismantle the Safety net due to the HIGH COST of utilizing the GMO technology in the name of feeding the poor and the obligation to feed them THIS POISON--seems to me that there will be bigger issues to pay over the infecting of the human race
Show of the Week December 10 2010
The Wonders of Rosemary
Bay Leaf—benefits and Uses
Recipe for a Vinegar Wash
Recipe for a Cleansing and Penetrating Oil
Anti Larval-Microbial-Fungal-Viral and Bacterial Formula
The Wonders of Rosemary--
Augmentation by carnosic acid of apoptosis in human leukaemia cells induced by arsenic trioxide via upregulation of the tumour suppressor PTEN.
Carnosic acid is a strong dietary antioxidant derived from rosemary. Here, we have demonstrated that carnosic acid decreased viability of the human promyelocytic leukaemia cell line, HL-60, in dose- and time-dependent manners, and induced G(1) arrest and apoptosis. Carnosic acid also augmented these effects when induced by a low (physiological) concentration of arsenic trioxide, which was associated with upregulation of p27 and activation of caspase-9. These effects appeared to be mediated by the induction of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) expression. These findings indicate that PTEN plays an important role in the coordinated induction of apoptosis and G(1) arrest by carnosic acid and arsenic trioxide. Carnosic acid may have potential as an adjuvant in arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis therapy due to its anticipated safety and great potency in enhancing the apoptosis-inducing action of a low concentration of arsenic trioxide.--*Antineoplastic-Agents-pharmacology; *Antioxidants-metabolism; *Apoptosis-drug-effects; *Arsenicals-pharmacology; *Diterpenes,-Abietane-metabolism; *Oxides-pharmacology; *Plant-Extracts-metabolism
Inhibitory effect of Turkish Rosmarinus officinalis L. on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes.
In the current study, we have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol extracts, rosmarinic acid as well as the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in Turkey by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL concentrations. In addition, quantification of rosmarinic acid, a common phenolic acid found in rosemary, was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC in the methanolic extract of the plant, which was found to have 12.21+or-0.95% (122.1+or-9.5 mg/g extract) of rosmarinic acid. Rosmarinic acid was also tested for its AChE and BChE inhibitory effect and found to cause 85.8% of inhibition against AChE at only 1.0 mg/mL. Besides, the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS technique, which was shown to be dominated by 1,8-cineol (44.42%) and followed by alpha -pinene (12.57%).-- Brain Protecting effect by preserving the Acetylcholine
In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits
Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect
Oregano and rosemary extracts inhibit oxidation of long-chain n-3 fatty acids in menhaden oil
Capabilities of methanol extracts from oregano and rosemary in retarding oxidation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid C22:6 (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid C20:5 (EPA), in menhaden oil were investigated. The fish oils after mixing with the extracts at different concentrations were oxidized in an accelerated study by heating at 150 degrees C for 30 min or incubating at 60 degrees C for 5 d. After heating at 150 degrees C, only 15.9% of DHA and 18.5% of EPA remained in the fish oil without extract, while 38.8% to 65.9% of DHA and 44.7% to 69.0% of EPA were retained in the fish oil mixed with 1% to 5% of oregano extract. The highest retained DHA (56.9%) and EPA (58.0%) in the fish oils mixed with rosemary extract were observed at 2.5% addition. Increasing rosemary extract to 5% lowered its capability of inhibiting DHA and EPA oxidation. After incubation at 60 degrees C for 5 d, the highest inhibition capability was also found at 2.5% of added rosemary extract, and the oil retained 88.2% DHA and 88.3% EPA. However, only 18.8% DHA and 23.6% EPA were retained in the fish oil mixed with 5% of oregano extract and no DHA and EPA were detected in the fish oil without extract after 5-d incubation at 60 degrees C. Thus, antioxidant activity of the rosemary extract was greater than that of oregano extract, but was sensitive to heat. The rosemary extract also demonstrated higher DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging capability, which was approximately 3 times higher than oregano extract, although there was no significant difference in the total phenolic contents between both extracts.
Modulation of radiation-induced biochemical alterations in mice by rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract.
Radioprotective effect of leaves extract of Rosemarinus officinalis (ROE) has been studied against 6 Gy gamma -radiations in the liver of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals between 12 h and 30 days. In control animals (without ROE treated irradiated), an elevation in glycogen, protein, acid and alkaline contents was found till day 5th, but thereafter decreased at successive intervals without returning to normal. Cholesterol level was found to be lower than normal till 10th day, then increased up to 20th day but later declined without restoring normal level. A similar trend of variation in these biochemical parameters was observed in experimental group (ROE pretreated irradiated) also but to a lower extent. ROE significantly delayed and inhibited the rise in these biochemical parameters. Almost normal values of such constituents were regained by day 30th in experimental animals; whereas in control animals, normal values were not ever attained. In control animals, there was an elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPx) and a decrease in glutathione (GSH) in blood and liver; whereas in experimental group, decline in LPx accompanied by an increase in GSH concentration was observed.
Potential of rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) diterpenes in preventing lipid hydroperoxide-mediated oxidative stress in Caco-2 cells.
The effects of 24 h supplementation of Caco-2 cells with carnosic acid and carnosol, and their activities against 5 microM oleic acid hydroperoxide (OAHPx)-mediated oxidative stress, were investigated. At 24 h of incubation, under nonstressed and stressed conditions, both compounds at 25, 50, and 100 microM supplement concentrations reduced catalase activity, whereas changes in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities varied depending upon the concentrations. Relative to control cultures, carnosic acid and carnosol reduced membrane damage by 40-50% when stressed by OAHPx. Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibited lipid peroxidation by 88-100% and 38-89%, respectively, under oxidative stress conditions. Both compounds significantly lowered DNA damage induced by OAHPx. Results of this study suggest that antioxidant activities of carnosic acid and carnosol could be partly due to their ability to increase or maintain glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities.
Low-density lipoprotein, collagen, and thrombin models reveal that Rosemarinus officinalis L. exhibits potent antiglycative effects.
Using the low-density lipoprotein (LDL), collagen, and thrombin models, we report here that the rosemary extracts (REs), either the aqueous (REw)[U1] [U2] or the acetonic (REA), all possessed many antiglycation-related features, and the effective concentrations required were as follows: 0.1 mg/mL for suppressing the relative electrophoretic mobility, 1.3 microg/mL for anticonjugated diene induction, 0.5 mg/mL for inhibition of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances production, 0.1 mg/mL for AGEs (advanced glycation end products) formation, 0.1 mg/mL to block glucose incorporation, and 0.05 mg/mL as an effective anti-antithrombin III. Using high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified five major constituents among eight major peaks, including rosmarinic acid, carnosol, 12-methoxycarnosic acid, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. In the LDL model, REA was proven to be more efficient than REw; yet, the reverse is true for the collagen and the thrombin III models, the reason of which was ascribed to the higher lipid-soluble antioxidant content (such as rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, 12-methoxycarnosic acid and methyl carnosate) in REA than in REw and the different surface lipid characteristics between LDL and collagen; although to act as anti-AGEs, both extracts were comparable. To assist the evidence, a larger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capability with less total polyphenolic content was found in REA. We conclude that rosemary is an excellent multifunctional therapeutic herb; by looking at its potential potent antiglycative bioactivity, it may become a good adjuvant medicine for the prevention and treatment of diabetic, cardiovascular, and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis
Constituents in rosemary have shown a variety of pharmacological activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy in in vitro and in vivo models. In order to further explore the chemopreventive properties of crude extracts of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L), we studied its anti-proliferative property on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Our study shows that crude ethanolic rosemary extract (RO) has differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was estimated at 1/700, 1/400, 1/150 and 1/500 dilutions, for the HL60, K562, MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells, respectively. Non-cytotoxic concentrations of RO at 1/1000 dilution minimally induced HL60 cell differentiation into granulocyte lineage at 9.5+/-2.2% compared to 2.8+/-0.8% in the untreated control (p<0.001), and did not induce HL60 cell differentiation into monocyte/macrophage lineage. The 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-chroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox) equivalent antioxidant capacity assay showed that RO has substantial antioxidant activity with RO at 1/10 and 1/5 dilutions having 8.1 and 12.6 microM Trolox equivalents, respectively. RO at non-cytotoxic 1/2000 and 1/1000 dilutions did not affect nitric oxide (NO) production by non-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. However, at the same dilutions RO significantly reduced NO production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated cells in a dose-dependent manner from 32.6+/-2.3 microM in the LPS-activated cells to 19.2+/-2.2 microM (p<0.01), and 7.7+/-1.2 microM (p<0.001), respectively. RT-PCR analyses showed that RAW 264.7 cells treated with 1/1000 and 1/500 dilutions for 5 h did not affect TNFalpha, IL-1beta, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in these cells when compared to the untreated controls, nor did the 1/1000 dilution of RO affect TNFalpha, IL-1beta, iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression in the LPS-activated cells. At 1/500 dilution, RO significantly reduced IL-1beta (p<0.01) and COX-2 (p<0.05) mRNA expression and non-significantly reduced TNFalpha and iNOS mRNA expression in the LPS-activated cells. In view of the chemopreventive potentials, further studies are needed to explore other biological properties of this popular spice used by many cultures in the world.
Rosmarinic acid, a photo-protective agent against UV and other ionizing radiations.
Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Feb;47(2):386-92-Authors: Sánchez-Campillo M, Gabaldon JA, Castillo J, Benavente-García O, Del Baño MJ, Alcaraz M, Vicente V, Alvarez N, Lozano JA
Solar UV and other ionizing radiations cause a generation of reactive oxygen species, induce cellular DNA damage and alter skin homeostasis. The use of exogenous antioxidants is increasingly frequents, we attempt to demonstrate that a rosmarinic acid extract acts as photo-protector; both free radical scavenger as an inducer of the body's own endogenous defence mechanisms by regulating tyrosinase activity and stimulating melanin production. Malonyldialdehyde formation (TBARS) was delayed when RA was used. The protection factor was 3.24 times vs AA. TEAC value for RA was 1.6 times vs AA. The radioprotective-antimutagenic effects of RA were measure using the micronucleus test. The level of micronucleous for treatments before irradiation was: RA <AA <DMSO <Control , and after irradiation was: RA <AA <DMSO <Control . RA increased the Tyr activity and its expression level in B16 melanoma cells after stimulation lasting 48 h compared with the negative control. In vivo experiments show the capacity of RA orally administered to inhibit cutaneous alterations caused by UVA exposure (skin photocarcinogenesis). Therefore, according all these experiences, RA can be proposed as a proper photo-protective agent.--PMID: 19084569 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Bay Leaf—benefits and Uses
Bay Leaf has been used as an herbal remedy for headaches. It contains compounds called parthenolides, which have proven useful in the treatment of migraines. Bay Leaf has also been shown to help the body process insulin more efficiently, which leads to lower blood sugar levels. Bay Leaf has also been used to reduce the effects of stomach ulcers. Bay Leaf contains eugenol, which has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties. Bay leaf is also an anti-fungal and anti-bacterial. Bay Leaf has also been used to treat rheumatism, amenorrhea, and colic
Parts Used: Leaves The Romans used bay leaves and berries for the treatment of liver disorders. The French at one time used bay as an antiseptic. Now the Lebanese steep the berries and leaves in brandy in the sun for a few days and drink it to calm queasy stomachs. Bay oil from the berries and leaves can be used in salves and liniments for rheumatism, bruises and skin problems. Both fruit and leaves also stimulate the digestion. A decoction of fruit or leaves made into a paste with honey or syrup can be applied to the chest for colds and other chest problems. The oil contains a powerful bacteria killing chemical that is used in some dentifrices. For frequent migraines add bay leaves to feverfew. Bay leaves have demonstrated to help the body used insulin more efficiently at levels as low at half-teaspoon. An experimental convalescent home in Russia encourages patients to smell bay leaves to sharpen the memory. Ancient Romans and Greeks placed a rolled bay leaf in the nose or stuck a leaf on the forehead when troubled by headaches. A tea of bay leaves is excellent for the digestion and is somewhat astringent as well. A facial steam bath, for cleansing and clearing the skin, is made in the same way as the tea, with the addition of chamomile flowers, rosemary leaves, and rose petals. For hysteria: to calm the patient, have them drink tea made from a bay leaf. Pour 1 cup boiling water over 2 bay leaves. Remove the leaves after steeping 10 minutes and sweeten with honey. In one study, laboratory animals were given a fatal dose of strychnine, then promptly treated with a bay oil preparation. They all lived, but researchers weren't sure why
Astringent, bitter, carminative, diuretic, emetic, emmenogogue, narcotic, nervine, aromatic, stimulant, digestive aid, locally antiseptic, antiparasitic, expectorant (use as steam inhalation therapy).
Leaves, berries and oil have excitant and narcotic properties Lesser doses are diaphoretic while large doses are emetic.
Believed to assist the body in utilizing insulin more efficiently. In experiments, the leaves have lowered blood sugar levels in animals.
Contains parthenolides which help prevent migraines.
Tea was once used for its gentle tonic effect and to ease headache, stomach upset or flatulence, colic, indigestion (taken with meals), poor appetite, to remove obstructions, to promote menses and colic. Is considered alkalizing for overacidity.
The leaves and fruit are rarely used internally now except in veterinary medicine. They were also used at one time for hysteria. A powder was also made of the berries and used for the same purposes as well as for ague.
Has been used externally as a poultice on the chest for bronchitis and coughs.
Warm tea has been taken for coma (3 to 4 cups), cramps, as a hair rinse for dandruff, high blood pressure (1 cup, or two 00 capsules of powder), to promote perspiration,
as a sexual stimulant (said by Sanskrit writers to increase semen in men),
and whooping cough.
Has also been used to soothe sore throat and general coughs.
Tea (both internally and as a gargle) has also been taken during times of epidemics such as smallpox, thypoid fever, measles and diptheria.
Has also been used in cases of
tonsillitis and lung trouble.
COOL tea was used to counteract poison (strychnine and others) and prevent convulsions and death (3 to 5 cups). Unknown if it was helpful.
The bark is slightly astringent and has been used for stones in kidney and bladder. Has also been used for trouble in pancreas, spleen and liver.
In the past a strong tea of the berries was used internally and externally for colds, flu, fever, poisonous insect bites, snake bite and wasp sting.
Berries have also been considered useful in the past for suppressed menstruation and womb problems, as well as taken during childbirth when the delivery is imminent to help expel afterbirth.
It is also said to clear the brain, eyes and lungs.
In some herbal disciplines it is considered a cleanser and remedy for chronic coughs, consumption and asthma, as well as a vermifuge.
Hands and feet were soaked in a strong decoction to cure fungus. Decoction also used as a douche for vaginitis and uterine infections.
A tea of the leaves, bark, or berries has been added to a sitz bath for problems of the bladder, the uterus and for pain in the bowel.
A tea of the berries, leaves, or bark has been used to shrink a swollen palate.
A strong tea of the berries has been applied to arthritic or rheumatic joints and for nerve troubles and pain in the bowels or womb.
Has also been used for pain or cramps in the chest or numbness in any part of the body.
Berries have been used to make a cough syrup and were once used in several French carminative formulas.
In the Middle Ages berries were used to promote the onset of menses (amenorrhea) and as an abortifacient.
Oil of bay is bactericidal (contains 1,8-cineole) and fungicidal and has been used externally for itch, eczema, sunburn, dandruff, rheumatism (tincture was also used together with heat packs), sprains, bruises, atonic ulcers, scabies, aching joints, skin rashes and bruises as well as being used in some toothpastes (more likely those sold at health food outlets).
Was also applied to cotton then placed in cavity for toothache.
It was once used as an antiseptic by the French, but is rarely used so today, except possibly in Lebanon where it is steeped in brandy in the sun for a few days, then drunk for queasy stomachs.
Its primary use remains
external for bruises and sore muscles (where skin is NOT broken), and earache.
Greeks and Romans rolled a bay leaf, then stuck in in the nose or on the
forehead for headache.
Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for amenorrhea, colic, and hysteria. They consider the berry to be aromatic, narcotic, and stimulant and apply it for the same uses. In China it has a history in folk medicine as an anti-cancer herb. They also utilize it for condylomata (warty growth around anus or vulva), indurations of liver and spleen, sclerosis of the liver, liver tumors, parotids, spleen, stomach, testicles and uterus, tuberosities of the face
Bay has also been used for epilepsy, leucorrhea and deficient sex drive.
OIL of BAY has been used externally applied to rheumatic and arthritic aches and pains, as well as sprains and swellings.
Has been combined with rosemary to make a liniment for sore muscles. Also, the leaves are used in the bath for aching limbs.
Recipe for a Vinegar Wash—
Take 3 oz of vinegar ( any will do ) 1 oz of water –Essential oils 5-6 drops of hyssop -5-6 drops of Myrrh-percuss 100 times or shake vigourously for about 2 minutes-then apply with a cloth directly to the area that might be infected or need to be cleansed—this will remove pathogens in the skin-cleans the skin deeply and remove hard built up toxins or residue of insect bites or microbial infections or infestations
Recipe for a Cleansing and Penetrating Oil- you will need 3-4 oz of Peanut oil ( an store bought brand will do even fresh ground nut oil ) ½ oz of alcohol-agin your choice use either vodka-gin-rum-tequila-ever clear- or even rubbing alcohol ) the take 1 tsp of salt-and then add the essential oils at 5-6 drops of camphor and 5-6 drops of pine—again shake well—this to will assist in not only penetrating the skin but to allow for a dissolving and removing of the pollutants—infections- bug bites-tick and scabie—can be used with the Vinegar wash
Anti Larval-Microbial-Fungal-Viral and Bacterial Formula—
You will need onions-2-3 small to medium—a bottle of white wine—laruicidn ( or a good lauric acid )take the onions and peel and pop into a blender—then take 1 tablespoon of the laruicidin or use coconut powder or bay leaf either extract or powder---take the mix and blend all together---then when completed the pour into a glass container and use ½ -1 oz several times a day---will kill parasites-knock out fungi- improve the immune system-can regulate insulin—supports the liver-lungs-intestines-fights cancer-is anti viral-anti bacterial
Show of the Week December 12 2010
The role of food supplements in the treatment of the infertile man
Muscle effect of Astaxanthin
Oxidized Form Of A Common Vitamin May Bring Relief For Ulcerative Colitis
RECIPE FOR CARTENOIDS
Astaxanthin has potential health-promoting effects in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as cancers, chronic inflammatory diseases, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, liver diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, eye diseases, skin diseases, exercise-induced fatigue, male infertility, and HgCl2-induced acute renal failure. In this article, the currently available scientific literature regarding the most significant activities of astaxanthin is reviewed.
Astaxanthin helps to prevent Atherosclerosis (by inhibiting the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol). research
Astaxanthin helps to prevent Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD).
Astaxanthin protects against the development of some types of Cancer: research
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent Bladder Cancer
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent and treat Breast Cancer.
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent Colon Cancer.
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent Liver Cancer.
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent Mouth Cancer (oral Cancer).
· Astaxanthin helps to prevent Stomach Cancer.
· Astaxanthin enhances the function of the Immune System
· Astaxanthin reduces Inflammation
Astaxanthin possesses potent Antioxidant properties (under some conditions its Antioxidant properties are greater than those of either Beta-Carotene and Vitamin E): research
· Astaxanthin quenches Hydroxyl Free Radicals. research
· Astaxanthin scavenges Peroxyl Free Radicals. research
· Astaxanthin quenches Singlet Oxygen Free Radicals (it is approximately ten times more potent at quenching Singlet Oxygen than Beta-
Carotene but is not as potent as Lycopene or Gamma-Carotene in quenching Singlet Oxygen). research
· Astaxanthin is a Cell Membrane surface Antioxidant. This means that it can quench Free Radicals on the surface of Cell Membranes before they penetrate the Cell Membrane and penetrate into Cells.
· Astaxanthin (3.6 mg per day) inhibits the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol.
Astaxanthin Protects Neuronal Cells against Oxidative Damage and Is a Potent Candidate for Brain Food-- Astaxanthin (AST) is a powerful antioxidant that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. Based on the report claiming that AST could cross the brain-blood barrier, the aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of AST by using an oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell damage system. The treatment with DHA hydroperoxide (DHA-OOH) or 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), either of which is a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing neurotoxin, led to a significant decrease in viable dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells by the MTT assay, whereas a significant protection was shown when the cells were pretreated with AST. Moreover, 100 nM AST pretreatment significantly inhibited intracellular ROS generation that occurred in either DHA-OOH- or 6-OHDA-treatedcells. The neuroprotective effect of AST is suggested to be dependent upon its antioxidant potential and mitochondria protection; therefore, it is strongly suggested that treatment with AST may be effective for oxidative stress-associated neurodegeneration and a potential candidate for natural brain food.
Fassett RG, Coombes JS.
School of Human Movement Studies & School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia. email@example.com
It is accepted that oxidative stress and inflammation play an integral role in the pathophysiology of many chronic diseases including atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The xanthophyll carotenoid dietary supplement astaxanthin has demonstrated potential as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent in models of cardiovascular disease. There have been at least eight clinical studies conducted in over 180 humans using astaxanthin to assess its safety, bioavailability and clinical aspects relevant to oxidative stress, inflammation or the cardiovascular system. There have been no adverse outcomes reported. Studies have demonstrated reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and improved blood rheology. A larger number of experimental studies have been performed using astaxanthin. In particular, studies in a variety of animals using a model of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion have demonstrated protective effects from prior administration of astaxanthin both intravenously and orally. Future clinical studies and trials will help determine the efficacy of antioxidants such as astaxanthin on vascular structure, function, oxidative stress and inflammation in a variety of patients at risk of, or with, established cardiovascular disease. These may lead to large intervention trials assessing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.PMID: 19656058 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Astaxanthin (1), a red-orange carotenoid pigment, is a powerful biological antioxidant that occurs naturally in a wide variety of living organisms. The potent antioxidant property of 1 has been implicated in its various biological activities demonstrated in both experimental animals and clinical studies. Compound 1 has considerable potential and promising applications in human health and nutrition. In this review, the recent scientific literature (from 2002 to 2005) is covered on the most significant activities of 1, including its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, its effects on cancer, diabetes, the immune system, and ocular health, and other related aspects. We also discuss the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis, the richest source of natural 1, and its utilization in the promotion of human health, including the antihypertensive and neuroprotective potentials of 1, emphasizing our experimental data on the effects of dietary astaxanthin on blood pressure, stroke, and vascular dementia in animal models, is described.--PMID: 16562856 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Chew BP, Park JS.
Department of Animal Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6351, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
Early studies demonstrating the ability of dietary carotenes to prevent infections have left open the possibility that the action of these carotenoids may be through their prior conversion to vitamin A. Subsequent studies to demonstrate the specific action of dietary carotenoids have used carotenoids without provitamin A activity such as lutein, canthaxanthin, lycopene and astaxanthin. In fact, these nonprovitamin A carotenoids were as active, and at times more active, than beta-carotene in enhancing cell-mediated and humoral immune response in animals and humans. Another approach to study the possible specific role of dietary carotenoids has used animals that are inefficient converters of carotenoids to vitamin A, for example the domestic cat. Results have similarly shown immuno-enhancement by nonprovitamin A carotenoids, based either on the relative activity or on the type of immune response affected compared to beta-carotene. Certain carotenoids, acting as antioxidants, can potentially reduce the toxic effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS). These ROS, and therefore carotenoids, have been implicated in the etiology of diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Recent studies on the role of carotenoids in gene regulation, apoptosis and angiogenesis have advanced our knowledge on the possible mechanism by which carotenoids regulate immune function and cancer.--PMID: 14704330 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Comhaire FH, Mahmoud A.
Centre for Medical and Urological Andrology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan, 185, B 9000 Gent, Belgium. email@example.com
Recently, concerns have been raised about the presumptive increased risk of serious undesirable side effects in children born after IVF and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These treatments must, therefore, be reserved as the ultimate option after evidence-based and cause-directed treatment of the male patient with deficient semen has been exhausted. The present authors found that sperm quality and function improved with the intake of complementary food supplementation using a combination of zinc and folic acid, or the antioxidant astaxanthin (Astacarox), or an energy-providing combination containing (actyl)-carnitine (Proxeed). Also, double blind trials showed that the latter two substances increase spontaneous or intrauterine insemination- (IUI-) assisted conception rates. Extracts of Pinus maritima bark (Pycnogenol), which inhibits the cyclo-oxygenase enzyme, reducing prostaglandin production and inflammatory reaction, and extracts of the Peruvian plant Lepidium meyenii were shown to improve sperm morphology and concentration, respectively, in uncontrolled trials. Linseed (flaxseed) oil contains alfa-linolenic acid and lignans. The former corrects the deficient intake of omega-3 essential fatty acids, which is correlated with impaired sperm motility among subfertile men. Lignans are precursors of enterolacton, which inhibits aromatase and reduces the ratio of 16-OH over 2-OH oestrogen metabolites. The resulting reduction in oestrogen load may favourably influence Sertoli cell function.-- PMID: 14656398 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Muscle effect of Astaxanthin
Free radicals are generated in our muscles and the amount increase radically during exercise and heavy physical activity. Those free radicals can directly damage the muscle cells and also trigger a inflammation reaction which we experience as stiffness and muscle pain. Natural astaxanthin can increase muscle performance and boost endurance levels . The mechanism is not fully understood but this benefit is supported by several reports (Malmsten et al 2008). The first is protection of skeletal muscle cell membrane from ROS damage during strenuous physical activity (Figure 5). After strenuous exercise astaxanthin reduced peroxidation damage of heart and leg muscle cells, reduced DNA damage, and lowered inflammatory markers (Aoi et al 2003). This means less muscle soreness and shorter recovery times between exercise sessions. Secondly, natural astaxanthin improves the blood rheology which means more oxygen and fuel reaches the muscles and better removal of waste (Miyawaki et al 2005). The underlying benefits could explain why there is significantly lower lactic acid build-up and increased endurance levels in animals and humans during swimming or running (Sawaki et al 2002, Ikeuchi et al 2006). Endurance benefits will make physical activity more enjoyable which is perhaps the most important factor to tackle metabolic syndrome
Oxidized Form Of A Common Vitamin May Bring Relief For Ulcerative Colitis
ScienceDaily (Oct. 1, 2009) — Here's another reason why you should take your vitamins. A new research report appearing in the October 2009 print issue of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology suggests that retinoic acid, the oxidized form of vitamin A, could be a beneficial treatment for people suffering from ulcerative colitis and other irritable bowel diseases. Specifically they found that retinoic acid helps suppress out-of-control inflammation, which is a hallmark of active ulcerative colitis.--"Pharmaceutical strategies based on this research may offer a promising alternative to our current approaches of managing immune diseases including, IBD, arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and so on," Aiping Bai, a researcher involved in the work from Nanchang University in Nanchang City, China.--To make this discovery, Bai and colleagues conducted in vitro studies with human tissue and in vivo studies in mice. Both studies ultimately found that treatment with retinoic acid reduced the inflammation in the colon by increasing the expression of FOXP3, a gene involved with immune system responses, as well as decreasing the expression of IL-17, a cytokine believed to cause inflammation. Because many experts believe that IL-17 directly relates to the uncontrolled inflammation seen in ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel disease, the discovery that retinoic acid reduces IL-17's ability to cause inflammation could accelerate the development of treatments for these chronic diseases.--"Runaway inflammation is serious problem, no matter where it occurs in the body, but in many instances, the root cause is a mystery," said John Wherry, Ph.D., Deputy Editor of the Journal of Leukocyte Biology. "This research helps scientists better understand what causes and controls inflammation in the colon, which in turn, helps lay the groundwork for new classes of drugs to treat this devastating condition."---Story Source--The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.---Journal Reference--Bai et al. All-trans retinoic acid down-regulates inflammatory responses by shifting the Treg/Th17 profile in human ulcerative and murine colitis. Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2009; 86 (4): 959 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.0109006
RECIPE FOR CARTENOIDS
Recipe for Carrot---add vinegar to carrot juice to get the fermentation going to increase the retinol or the retinoic acid going so when consuming this it will already have been broken down and will be more effectively absorbed by the body
Recipe for Cartenoids Antioxidant mix—using blue berries--black berries--carrots—tomatoes-squashes-pumpkin—when heated they actually increase the antioxidant levels—and as a result if you dehydrate these same things the heat will actually bring out these properties more---now if you ferment these by adding a vinegar to them and allow for a 5 days of fermenting –will again increase the levels of antioxidant properties—doing this to papaya will increase the S.O.D ( super oxide dismutase) levels as well
Recipe for Carrot Juice—Take a blender and add 1 ½ cups of water and ½-3/4 cup of chopped carrot blend til fused ( about 4 minutes high speed depending on blender) strain through a handkerchief or jelly bag – then take the juiced water and re-insert in the blender and add another chopped carrot to this—and repeat the process til you get the carrots done ( 3 lb bag will give you 2 20 oz containers full of concentrate juice) add as well a teaspoon of paprika to get the astaxanthin content as well –do this with every load of carrots
Show of the Week December 17 2010
Zhan T, Digel M, Küch EM, Stremmel W, Füllekrug J.
Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory Internal Medicine IV, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Silybin, the major flavonoid of Silybum marianum, is widely used to treat liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis-associated insulin resistance. Research so far has focused on its anti-oxidant properties. Here, we demonstrate that silybin and its derivative dehydrosilybin inhibit glucose uptake in several model systems. Both flavonoids dose-dependently reduce basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with dehydrosilybin showing significantly stronger inhibition. However, insulin signaling was not impaired, and immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation showed that insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane is also unchanged. Likewise, hexokinase activity was not affected suggesting that silybin and dehydrosilybin interfere directly with glucose transport across the plasma membrane. Expression of GLUT4 in CHO cells counteracted the inhibition of glucose uptake by both flavonoids. Moreover, treatment of CHO cells with silybin and dehydrosilybin reduced cell viability which was partially rescued by GLUT4 expression. Kinetic analysis revealed that silybin and dehydrosilybin inhibit GLUT4 mediated glucose transport in a competitive manner with Ki = 60 µM and 116 µM, respectively. We conclude that silybin and dehydrosilybin inhibit cellular glucose uptake by directly interacting with GLUT transporters. Glucose starvation offers a novel explanation for the anti-cancer effects of silybin. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.--PMID: 21140442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
SUPERFOOD-JELLO—Using Gelatin we are going to make a super food---what we are going to do is measure off 1 cup of water—add to the blender-1/8 cup-1/4 cup of gelatin—Now add any herb you like—any dried fruit or vege you have made—any supplement to this---and then blend for 5 minutes at high speed—pour into a bowel or glass jar—allow to set til hard---then consume at leasure—the only thing that gelatin will not harden with is papapya or pineapple or any fruitor vege that is high in protolytic enzymes
Remedy Adaptogen—an adaptogen is what gives you strength or endurance or both—and can make you more resistant to becoming ill and can assist in healing an infirmary or ailment—some adpatogens are Ginseng—Rhodiola-Cordyceps—B1-B12-Creatine—B5-Fo Ti- Astragulus-Ginger-Garlic-Onion-Shizandra Berry-Goji Berry-Hawthorn Berry—
What you are going to do is choose any of the above or whatever you utilize or discover—and make a tea out of these or blend them in a juice extract ( either one you make or bought at places where they sell this ) for instance a grape extract that would be used in making wine add ¼ cup---add 3-4 oz of the tea or water ( you can go either way with this ) and add Carrot Powder/Parika/Blueberry---then add the gelatin and water and blend for 5-7 minutes or til everything is smoothly fused --pour into a glass bowl—let chill and you have A Super food that is great on the eyes and heart and brain –and remember gelatin converts to collagen and some of these herbs benefit more when they are combined with gelaton
Repeat the process but this add a different combination—use rosemary –bay leaf-thyme and add in there water and in the blender at 1 cup and blend til smooth orrr make a tea out of this and then use the tea water—with this combo we are enacting the brain and it’s many uses as well as increasing antioxidant levels in the body making us more resistant to becoming ill
Repeat the process but instead use Juice—preferrably home made like carrot or apple and again once the juice is made add to the blender and add 1 /4 cup of gelatin to 1 cup juice—and then add cinnamon and cardamom and nutmeg—this will increase antioxidant level as well as nut meg ,cinnamon, and cardamion will be used for colon issues--Gelatin will carry with it all nutrients and carry them into the cells
This can be done in teas-juices—water---you can make protein puddings using whey and or egg protein and can utilize either honey-maple syrup - xylitol-or stevia as your sweetner nd add whey with either the juice tea –or water
Show of the Week December 20 2010
Vinegar and it’s USES
Vinegar of the 4 thieves
ACV- Mass Reduction Formulas—Body Regulator
Vinegar and it’s USES
Vinegar of the 4 thieves
Epidemics, sudden outbreaks of diseases, have hit populations since humans began living in close proximity. The most infamous of the epidemics were the cyclic plagues or "Black Death" that hit during the Middle Ages starting around 1346. Looking back, we attribute the causes to Yersinia pestis, a plague which has three forms--pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic--smallpox, influenza, gonorrhea, and tuberculosis. Estimates guess that anywhere from twenty-five to forty percent of the populations were killed with any one plague.---During the dreadful years of the Black Death, a few people found the way to survive the plague that was decimating the population. Among the more colorful of these were four thieves from Marseilles who while plundering for treasures protected themselves with garlic and a concoction of herbs extracted in vinegar. The tale is a fascinating exploration of herbal lore, but there are so many versions of the story that it is up to you to choose which to believe.--
Nostradamus, 1503-1566, was a famous doctor and prophet who not only survived the plague but cured many others with what came to be known as the famous "rose petal pills." In fact, we do not know very much about the lozenges. They might have included rose hips, a rich source of natural vitamin C, as well as sawdust from green cypress, iris of Florence, cloves, odorated calamus, and perhaps some lign-aloes. Nostradamus owned a perfume manufacturing enterprise, which in his time meant distillation of plants to make essential oils. People who worked in these facilities did not succumb to the plague [U1] . . . and we are just now emerging from our skepticism in such a way as to enable us to understand what is so effective about these highly concentrated aromatic oils.--This formula is so popular in herbal circles that some people have organized "Four Thieves" parties where groups of people produce big batches of the formula during times of epidemics. There are, as one might imagine, many versions of the formula, all, of course, claimed to be authentic.--The famous French aromatherapy doctor, Jean Valnet, has two recipes in his book. He claims the original recipe was revealed by corpse robbers who were caught red-handed in the area around Toulouse in 1628-1631. His story is the more credible of the many one can find. Given the virulence and deadliness of the plague, the judges were astonished by the indifference of the thieves to contagion. Valnet quotes the archives of the Parliament of Toulouse:----During the Great Plague, four robbers were convicted of going to the houses of plague victims, strangling them in their beds and then looting their dwellings. For this, they were condemned to be burned at the stake, and in order to have their sentence mitigated, they revealed their secret preservative, after which they were hanged.[U2] -Given the source, I choose to believe the Valnet account, but there have obviously been many spins of the tale. Here is the recipe stated to be the original:
Original Recipe for Four Thieves Formula
white wine vinegar
Dr. Valnet has a variation of his own described as an antiseptic vinegar:
Marseilles Vinegar or Four Thieves Vinegar
greater wormwood, Artemesia absinthum
lesser wormwood, Artemesia pontica
camphor (do not use synthetic camphor it is poison!)
crystallized acetic acid
Instructions: steep the plants in the vinegar for 10 days. Force through a sieve. Add the camphor dissolved in the acetic acid, filter.
Valnet says this remedy, i.e., his formula is useful in the prevention of infectious diseases. He says to rub it on the face and hands and burn it in the room. It can also be kept in small bottles that are carried on the person so that the vapors can be inhaled.
Dr. John Christopher had a slightly different story and a variation of the formula that is clearly American, not French. His "Four Thieves" story is that there was a man named Richard Forthave who developed a remedy for the plague that was marketed under his name, a name which was corrupted to "Four Thieves." There might indeed have been grave robbers who used this remedy to protect themselves while they divested corpses of treasures they would no longer need. The King of France had the thieves arrested and they bought their freedom with the remedy they had been using. Thus, the remedy did not fall into obscurity and has been used for centuries since to protect against contagion.
Dr. John Christopher Plague Formula
apple cider vinegar
garlic juice, fresh
comfrey root concentrate*
lobelia leaf and/or seed concentrate
marshmallow root concentrate
oak bark concentrate
black walnut bark concentrate
mullein leaf concentrate
skullcap leaf concentrate
uva ursi, hydrangea, or gravel root concentrate
Mix the ingredients well!
How to make the concentrates:--Each concentrate should be made individually. Start by soaking the herb for four hours or more in enough distilled water to cover it completely. After soaking, add more distilled water so that the total added equals 16 oz. (.5 liter) water per 4 oz. (113 grams) herb. Use a multiple of these amounts for a larger quantity of formula. Using these amounts approximately one gallon (3.75 liters) of the formula will be produced.--
After adding the appropriate amount of distilled water to the soaked herb, simmer the herb on very low heat in a covered pan or double boiler for thirty minutes. Then strain the liquid into a clean pan. Put the liquid into a double boiler or on very low heat (uncovered) and simmer (steam) it down to one fourth of the original volume (4 oz. 1256 ml). Only after all ingredients have been prepared should the liquids be mixed.---Do not use aluminum, Teflon, or cracked porcelain. Glass, corning ware or stainless steel or whole porcelain are best.
Dosage: 1 tsp. 3 times a day; or 1 tablespoon every 1/2 hour if infected.
unpasteurized apple cider vinegar
black pepper oil
garlic finely diced
ginger finely sliced
Rosemary, being a strong antiseptic, was one of the choice herbs. Wormwood and rue are the bitterest of herbs. Both are antiseptics and vermifuges (kill worms.) Wormwood has been used internally, and excessive amounts can cause convulsions. Lavender and peppermint are high in volatile oils, hence excellent ingredients for a very good insect repellent, as well as being pleasant smelling. Sage, among other good things, is a lymphatic, which is an important fact to remember in case of a bubonic-type disease outbreak. Of course, garlic, as the king of herbs, is a wonder drug. Within its paper-thin wrapping is found a host of beneficial properties, far too many to list. But it does have specific properties that are antiseptic, antimicrobial, antibiotic and, antifungal—chemicals that kill parasites. If I were ever lost in a sick, hostile world, I would not take medicine; I would take garlic. Always keep a sack in your kitchen, and go to the library to learn how to use it.
The Vinegar of the Four Thieves is a super-strong insect repellent. It should be diluted with water to half strength if you spray it directly on your skin. This repellent can be used many ways. Splashed on your socks or shoes will discourage ticks, chiggers, and mites. An herbal cloth kept in your pocket and rubbed on your skin every hour or so would be very beneficial during outdoor work or recreation. Or, a nightly bath with a little herbal vinegar and oil will keep it on your skin for many hours and could prove helpful for families who live in the country or while out on camping trips.
Vinegar of the 4 Thieves
2 quarts of apple cider vinegar
2 tablespoons lavender
2 tablespoons rosemary
2 tablespoons sage
2 tablespoons wormwood
2 tablespoons rue
2 tablespoons mint
2 tablespoons fresh, chopped garlic
Combine dried herbs (except garlic) and vinegar in a one-gallon jar with lid, and soak in the sun for 2 weeks, shaking often. Then strain out the used herbs, and retain the herbal liquid mixture. Add several cloves of crushed garlic, and close lid. Let soak for three days, and strain out the garlic fiber and discard. This liquid tincture needs to be stored in a cool place, like the refrigerator, or it can be preserved by canning. Fill canning jar with boiling liquid tincture to within one-half inch of top. Cap with rubber seal canning lid, tighten ring, and turn hot jar upside down; leave it undisturbed until it cools to room temperature. This will cause the jar to seal. Don’t forget to date and label it.
Four Thieves Vinegar: Antiviral, Germicide and Possible Alternative for Flu Shots
According to herbalist Elizabeth Kastner, "During the height of the plague in France in 1721, it was discovered that the homes of disease victims were being ransacked. At first, no effort was made to find the criminals, since all knew they were fools, soon to die of the plague.
"As time went on, it became apparent that the thieves were continuing in their raids... and quite inexplicably, avoiding falling victim to the disease. Soon, they became highly sought -- not due to their crimes, but in an effort to learn their secret.
"When they were finally captured, they refused to speak until a bargain was offered: remain silent and hang. Divulge the secret to their resistance to the deadly plague and walk away.
"It seems that the mother of several of the boys was a midwife and had a recipe which used plants which were easily wildcrafted... yet, she knew that this would change immediately if anyone learned the formula, so she swore her children to secrecy. Her sons saved their necks and shared the recipe for the disinfectant, which is still used in France to this day."
Given the simple ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar and with all the yammering about smallpox, bioterrorism diseases, and flu vaccine shortages in the news these days, it seems prudent to me to prepare a home stock of this historical preventative for dread diseases. According to Kastner, the traditional recipe for Four Thieves Vinegar "makes a lot of sense, medicinally speaking."
You can make your own "Four Thieves Vinegar" by following the simple recipe below.
Use equal parts of the following herbs:
* Melissa (lemon balm)
* A handful of garlic cloves
Blend ingredients in a glass jar and cover completely with organic, unpasteurized apple cider vinegar, which is available in most health food stores. Cold infuse (let sit at room temperature in a cool place) for six weeks and then strain off herbs and garlic.
You can take Four Thieves Vinegar by the teaspoonful, use it as a salad dressing, or even add a spoonful to your bath water for personal protection. Four Thieves Vinegar and warmed organic coconut oil make an excellent salad dressing.
You can also use it as a topical spray to disinfect surfaces -- including skin -- and/or you can take it as a tincture. All of the ingredients in Four Thieves Vinegar are either potent antibacterials or antivirals!
Four Thieves Vinegar
In my explorations of the history and uses of lavender, I came across some interesting information about Four Thieves Vinegar. I'd heard of it before, but didn't know what it meant:
ØThe Legend of Four Thieves Vinegar×
One version goes that in the 1630's, when the plague was raging in France, the town of Toulouse was beset with looters. Four looters were apprehended, but rather than punish them, the judge offered them a deal. Amazed at their continued health after wandering though homes and businesses abandoned by their terrified (or dead) owners, the judge offered to let the thieves go if they gave him the secret of their resistance to the plague.
What was their famous secret? It was a vinegar made from thyme, rosemary, sage, and lavender. This infusion was termed thieves vinegar. Although garlic was added to the mixture later, this basic infusion became famous, and was used for hundreds of years, both internally and externally, to provide protection from the dreaded plague.
ØHow to make Four Thieves Vinegar×
There are a number of recipes available for four thieves vinegar, but the original was probably something like this--Use equal parts thyme, rosemary, sage, and lavender. Place herbs in a jar and cover with (apple cider) vinegar. Seal and place in a cool, dark place for six weeks. Strain into a spray bottle or clean jar and use as a disinfectant.--The original herbal ingredients are all strong antibacterial agents, as is the vinegar.---Variations on the recipe add sweet smelling herbs like mint and lemon balm to the mixture. Garlic was also added, and although it was probably an excellent addition from an antibacterial standpoint, it was not one of the original herbs used.---NOTE: the four thieves originally used vinegared red wine, not apple cider vinegar.[U3] ---Natural antiseptics can be made at home instead of buying commercial disinfectants that we are now finding out may cause drug resistance.--
ØPlace a small handful each of dried lavender, rosemary, sage, rue and mint in a large jar, and cover completely with organic apple cider vinegar. Cover tightly and set for six weeks. Strain into a spray bottle. Whereas no home can be made to be sterile, spray the powerfully antiseptic Vinegar of Four Thieves recipe in areas of concern, such as on cutting boards and door knobs, always making sure to avoid your eyes.
ØFour Thieves Vinegar—Easiest and Effective and should super boost the immune system from Viruses—Fungals –Bacterials Microbials
2 QT Apple Cider Vinegar
2 Tbls Lavender
2 Tbls Rosemary
2 Tbls Sage
2 Tbls Wormwood
2 Tbls Rue
2 Tbls Mint
The herbs can be fresh, powdered or whole. Please understand and make sure that you know this is absolutely not for drinking. Wormwood can kill a person. ( The precaution here maybe unwarranted due to the fact that this is vinegar and most people do not go out of there way to gorge themselves on vinegar but rather the alcohol)
Put the herbs in the vinegar. Shake well. Let is sit in the sun for two weeks.
Open. Drop in six cloves of garlic. Cap it. Shake well. Let sit in sun for one week.
Strain. Pour into bottles or jar. Seal with wax or add glycerin to preserve it.
ØFOUR THIEVES VINEGAR: ANTIVIRAL GERMICIDE Possible Alternative for Flu Shots
Current theorists suggest that this formula, now called “Four Thieves Vinegar”, may offer protection against fearsome possible threats, such as the flu, smallpox, and biological weapons, which concern us today, as all of its ingredients are either strong anti-bacterial agents, or have potent anti-viral properties.
FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
1 part lavender, dried
1 part sage, dried
1 part thyme, dried
1 part lemon balm (melissa), dried
1 part hyssop, dried
1 part peppermint, dried
1 handful garlic cloves
Raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar
• In a glass jar, place all dry ingredients.
• Add raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar to cover
• Place jar in a cool place and let sit, at room temperature, for six weeks.
• Strain off herbs and garlic, and decant to a glass bottle or jar with a tight fitting lid.
HOW TO USE FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
• Take a teaspoonful several times daily.
• Add to salads either directly or in a salad dressing.
• For personal protection, add a teaspoonful to bath water.
• Use as a topical spray for disinfecting surfaces and/or skin
ALTERNATIVE FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
white wine vinegar
Essential Oil Mixes
FOUR THIEVES OIL
1 part eucalyptus
1 part rosemary
1 part cinnamon
1 part clove
1 part lemon
Carrier oil (olive, jojoba, or your choice)
10 drops of each oil in a 2 oz. bottle and then top it off a carrier oil of your choice
An alternative recipe:
10 drops Clove Bud Oil
5 drops thyme
10 drops Cinnamon Oil
5 drops Eucalyptus Oil
10 drops Rosemary
Mix with jojoba oil.
• Apply 1-2 drops of Four Thieves on the bottoms of the feet and on the nape of the neck.
• Apply under the arms and on the chest.
• Diffuse for 20 minutes or less at work or at home.
Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is an alcohol compound that is most commonly found in the diet as a component of fat or triglycerides and serves as the backbone onto which fatty acid molecules are attached. Glycerol is marketed as a dietary aid for "hyperhydrating" the body by increasing blood volume and helping to delay dehydration. Therefore, endurance athletes training and competing in hot, humid environments might be interested in the common claims for glycerol that it can increase blood volume, enhance temperature regulation, reduce dehydration, and improve exercise performance in the heat. --For endurance athletes engaged in strenuous training or competition in hot environments, consumption of glycerol-containing beverages may help hydrate tissues, increase blood volume, and delay the fatigue and exhaustion associated with dehydration.---Several studies support the theory that glycerol added to fluids will increase tissue hydration compared with drinking fluid without glycerol added. Following glycerol consumption, heart rate and body core temperature are lower during exercise in the heat (Jimenez 1999), suggesting an ergogenic (performance-enhancing) effect. In long-duration activities, such as running and cycling in the heat, a larger supply of stored water may lead to a delay in dehydration and exhaustion (Wagner, 1999). Both laboratory and field studies confirm the modestly ergogenic effects of glycerol on endurance performance (Inder 1998; Meyer 1995; Montner 1996).. It is important to note that these benefits, although noted for trained endurance athletes exercising in hot, humid environments, are not necessarily observed in athletes who are less well trained or are exercising in more temperate climates (Arnall and Goforth, 1993; Wagner, 1999).---No significant adverse side effects are associated with glycerin diluted with fluids, but some subjects may experience headaches, nausea, and diarrhea following glycerol consumption (Wagner, 1999).---In patients for whom increased blood volume may be undesirable, including those with conditions such as pregnancy, high blood pressure, diabetes, or kidney disease, glycerol supplementation should be avoided. Because the recommended dose of glycerol relates to the amount of total body water, larger people typically require more glycerol to obtain the desired hydration effects. Approximately 1 g of glycerin per kilogram (2.2 Ib) of body weight is diluted in 20-25 ml of liquid.
Natural Sources: Starting materials used for making commercial grade Glycerol Stearate (a normal byproduct of digestion) can be obtained from animal fats and plant oils including soya bean, palm kernel and corn oil ( And Coconut as well). Glycerol Stearate is generally prepared commercially from glycerine and fatty acids derived from corn or hydrogenated soya bean oil and coconut.
Forms: Glycerol Monostearate; Glycerol monohydroxystearate
Therapeutic Uses: - Drug Delivery - Eczema – Emollient – Emulsifier – Moisturizer
Overview: Glycerol stearate is a natural fatty compound often used as an emulsifier, emulsion stabilizer, emollient, moisturizer and viscosity builder in creams and lotions. It is also used as an opacifying and pearlizing agent in cosmetics. Glycerol stearate can be of plant origin (corn-based), animal source or synthetic and is considered to be biodegradable, practically non-toxic orally and causes no skin and minimal eye irritation. It is dispersible in water and is also soluble in oil and alcohol, making it an ideal ingredient for cosmetics. Glycerol monostearate (GMS) is also used as an ingredient in cosmetics as well as in food products. In a clinical trial with over 1,200 patients with eczema, glycerol monostearate was found to produce absolutely no adverse reactions in a test of common emulsifiers (all other emulsifiers tested did cause adverse reactions in a significant percentage of patients). It is used to keep bakery goods fresh, improve flour quality, and as an emulsifying and whopping agent for ready-to-eat products. It is also used in ice cream formulations, starch products, milk products, chewing gum, chocolates and other foods. It also serves as a softer in textiles and as an external lubricant for plastics. Another form of this chemical often used in cosmetics is glycerol monohydroxystearate, an off-white wax with physical properties similar to beeswax. It provides the functional characteristics of glycerol stearate and enhanced properties such as improved emulsion stability, bodying and thickening properties and greater dispersability of colorants and active materials. Semi-synthetic forms of glycerol stearate often use stearic acid isolated from palm oil as a starting material, another waxy fatty acid widely used in cosmetics and soap. The glycerol component of glycerol stearate can be from beef fat, petroleum, or vegetable source and is itself used as a solvent and humectant (maintains the desired moisture level).
Chemistry: Glycerol stearate is a fatty compound (C17H35COO)3C3H5). The formula for the hydrocarbon radical (R) in the fat glycerol stearate is C17H35. Glycerol stearate has a melting point of 58°C / 136°F, an acid value of 15, and an iodine value of 1.5. Fats are technically described as esters of fatty acids and glycerol (soaps are metallic salts of fatty acids). The reaction of glycerol stearate with sodium hydroxide to produce the soap sodium stearate has the following chemical equation: C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3 NaOH -> C3H5(OH)3 + 3 C17H35COONa. Glycerol monostearate has an acid value of 2% and a maximum iodine value of 5. It is classified as an anionic modified emulsifier recommended for use in oil or water emulsions that are in the pH range of 5 - 9. It has a melting point of between 54º - 60ºC, monoglyceride content between 42-45%, maximum free glycerine content of 10% and water content of 1.5%. Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) are a normal part of digestion, prepared commercially from glycerine and fatty acids. These are normally obtained from hydrogenated soya bean oil ( Coconut oil as well )so may be GMP grade.
Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Surber C. Bioskin, Seydelstr. 18, 10117 Berlin, Germany. firstname.lastname@example.org
Glycerol is a trihydroxy alcohol that has been included for many years in topical dermatological preparations. In addition, endogenous glycerol plays a role in skin hydration, cutaneous elasticity and epidermal barrier repair. The aquaporin-3 transport channel and lipid metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit have been evidenced as potential pathways for endogenous delivery of glycerol and for its metabolism in the skin. Multiple effects of glycerol on the skin have been reported. The diverse actions of the polyol glycerol on the epidermis include improvement of stratum corneum hydration, skin barrier function and skin mechanical properties, inhibition of the stratum corneum lipid phase transition, protection against irritating stimuli, enhancement of desmosomal degradation, and acceleration of wound-healing processes. Even an antimicrobial effect has been demonstrated. Topical application of glycerol-containing products improves skin properties in diseases characterized by xerosis and impaired epidermal barrier function, such as atopic dermatitis. The increase of epidermal hydration by glycerol is critical in skin conditions aggravated by dry and cold environmental conditions, e.g. winter xerosis. This paper provides a review on effects of glycerol on the skin, the mechanisms of its action, and the potential applications of glycerol in dermatology.-- PMID: 18510666 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
McGill Nutrition and Food Science Centre, McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada. email@example.com
Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to increase endurance performance (EP). However, EP starts declining at a dehydration level >2% body weight (BW). It thus appears that the use of GIH is only required when athletes anticipate that their fluid intake during exercise would not be sufficient to prevent a loss of BW >2%. In such a scenario, the optimal GIH load to be ingested before exercise would correspond to the amount of fluid that cannot be drunk during exercise and that would be just sufficient to keep the dehydration level <2% BW. No method exists enabling the estimation of the most optimal GIH load to be drunk before exercise to optimize EP. Here, such a method comprising 3 easy steps is presented. Step 1 provides a formula allowing users to determine relative exercise-induced dehydration level based on individual BW, exercise time, and estimated hourly sweat rate and fluid consumption during exercise. Step 2 takes into account the result of step 1 and provides a formula allowing determination of the minimal GIH load required before exercise to prevent a loss of BW >2%. Step 3 consists of identifying, among those pre-selected, a GIH protocol that increases body water by at least the amount computed in step 2. This method will remove much of the guess work involved in the decision-making process of the optimal amount of GIH that should be ingested before exercise by athletes for maximizing EP and will serve as a practical reference tool for all athletes using, and coaches, practitioners, and exercise physiologists recommending the utilization of, GIH as an ergogenic aid.
Glycerin, also called glycerol, is a thick, colorless and odorless liquid derived from fats and oils used in making soap. It’s used in various industries and products, such as antifreeze, sweeteners, dynamite, cosmetics, inks and lubricants. Glycerin is frequently found in skin care products, although there are prescription formulations for specialized health procedures and diseases. Although over-the-counter products containing glycerin are generally safe, prescription glycerin products shouldn’t be used if you have difficulty passing urine or are dehydrated, or have fluid in the lungs or congestive heart failure.
Glycerin is given to patients intravenously to relieve pressure in the brain due to conditions such as stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, Reye’s syndrome and tumors. The treatment has been well studied through the years; a report in the March 1982 Journal of Neurosurgery found glycerol to be effective and safe when used to treat intracranial hypertension, without the dehydrating effects of other methods.
Glycerin suppositories are often prescribed for the short-term treatment of constipation. They work by lubricating and mildly irritating the lining of the intestines, causing the muscles to contract, while pulling water from the intestines into the stool to make it easier for the stools to pass. Side effects from this treatment can include nausea, vomiting, fecal impaction, intestinal obstruction and abdominal pain.
Glycerin has been used since the 1960s as an oral supplement to treat glaucoma and other eye conditions where there is increased pressure. One of the first studies, published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology in 1965, discovered that oral glycerol brought the tension of acute glaucomatous eyes down to normal levels within an hour. Hyperglycemia has been reported after treatment by oral glycerol and it should therefore be used with caution in treating diabetics. Other side effects may include nausea, diarrhea and headaches.
Glycerin is a natural humectant, meaning it easily absorbs water from other sources, particularly useful in treating dry skin. However, when used in its pure form, glycerin can actually increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin to the surface, where the water is easily be lost into the environment. This is why glycerin and humectants are combined with other ingredients to soften skin,
A study at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Albuquerque in 1996 found that glycerol supplements given to athletes prior to exercise prolonged endurance time and lowered heart rates during exercise activity. A separate, earlier study at the University of New Mexico had already established that giving glycerol to athletes in high-heat conditions reduced urine volume and rectal temperature and increased the sweat rate. This led the researchers to conclude that giving athletes glycerol prior to exercise increases hydration within cells, allowing tissues to remain hydrated during prolonged endurance.
The same humectant qualities glycerin possesses may have a therapeutic benefit for skin diseases. Researchers at the Medical College of Georgia showed that glycerol helps skin cells mature properly, allowing the youngest cells to move up from the deepest layer and eventually grow to mature surface cells that emit lipids to protect the skin. The research, published in the December, 2003 issue of The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, concluded that glycerin may be able to help patients with conditions such as psoriasis and non-melanoma skin cancers that result from the abnormal proliferation and maturation of skin cells.
Summary--Glycerol increases hydration within cells, allowing tissues to remain hydrated during prolonged endurance exercise, when taken in combination with ample amounts of water. It's also been shown to reveal (or give the illusion of) greater muscle definition and a more vascular appearance.- Other names for Glycerol-- glycerine, glycerin--- Where to find Glycerol--Glycerol is found in some foods and pharmaceuticals as a sweetening agent, but the amounts are so small they aren't beneficial.
Endurance athletes, especially marathoners and triathletes, have found glycerol beneficial during long-term strenuous activities by preventing dehydration — a major cause of fatigue. As a "last-minute prep" before photo shoots and such, some bodybuilders and models claim it helps reduce water retention, giving the illusion of increased muscle definition and vascularity.
· Give the illusion of enhanced muscle definition and vascularity
· Replace lost fluids, hydrating muscle tissues to reduce fatigue and enhance performance
Lower heart rate and body temperature to support the body during endurance activities
Research indicates that Glycerol may be useful in the treatment of: -- Dehydration --Glaucoma—
More about Glycerol---Glycerol is the backbone of triglycerides and phospholipids and is naturally produced in our bodies. It has become a popular supplement among endurance athletes because it appears to help prevent dehydration during long-term exercise. More recently, people more interested in showing off their physiques, such as bodybuilders and models, have found that glycerol may help make their muscles look more defined.-- How it works-Preliminary studies indicate glycerol draws water into the bloodstream and holds it there, somewhat like a sponge. This can be an enormous advantage for endurance athletes because as much as three to four pounds of fluid can be lost during strenuous exercise. By replacing this fluid during exercise, we may delay fatigue and significantly boost performance levels. Recent studies also suggest glycerol may prevent the breakdown of muscle through its protein-sparing action
The amount of glycerol used depends more on bodyweight than anything else. Note, water intake with glycerol is also very important.
· For people who weigh less than 125 lbs, 25 ml is recommended with at least 8 oz of water.
· For those who weigh 125 to 200, 50 ml with at least 16 oz of water is recommended.
· And those over 200 lbs may need up to 75 ml with at least 24 oz of water.
Some experts suggest even more specific amounts with greater amounts of water: about half a milliliter for every pound of bodyweight with 20 times more water than glycerol. For example, a 150-lb person would use 75 ml of glycerol with 1,500 ml of water (that is, a little over 6 cups or 100 oz).
Experts recommend taking glycerol over a period of a few hours during strenuous exercise or a half hour before exercise and again immediately after.
Glycerol attracts water like a magnet and thus helps carry water throughout the body with it. Without sufficient water intake, glycerol may actually dehydrate the body, so water and glycerol must be used together.
Some people report bloating, nausea, and lightheadedness, so you may want to give glycerol a test run several days before competition to see how your body responds.
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Strenuous Exercise in Humans," Metabolism 45.3 (1996) : 357-61.
Lyons, T.P., and Riedesel, M.L., "Effects of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration
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Montner, P., et al., "Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Improves Cycling Endurance Time," Int J Sports Med 17.1 (1996) : 27-33.
ACV- Mass Reduction Formulas—Body Regulator
ØRecent studies show a straight 5% solution of vinegar kills 99% of bacteria, 82% of common mold & 80% of germs & viruses. It’s a great germ and virus fighter in homes, kitchens, baths and in hospitals, labs, etc. Some mix it with water to wash windows, as it removes sludge and keeps them sparkling clean, as it does for the body. ACV has hundreds of uses and its versatility is legendary as a powerful household cleansing and deodorizing agent, free of dangerous chemicals.
Apple cider vinegar (ACV) is prepared by pulverizing apples into a slurry of juice and pulp. Yeast and sugars are added to the slurry to begin the fermentation process. Yeast converts the sugars into alcohol, which is then oxidized by the Acetobacter species of bacteria to acetic acid. The sour taste of apple cider vinegar is from the acetic acid content, which also creates the acidity.
ØApple cider vinegar has been used alone and in combination with other agents for numerous health conditions (1). For example, in combination with grapefruit and kelp, apple cider vinegar has been used orally for weight loss. Another suggestion that a combination of apple cider, kelp, vitamin B6, and lecithin
ØSo to make this you would need a whole grapefruit---juiced or blended and strained take equal parts of ACV or any vinegar of your choice –add up to 4 drops of lugols to this –and use with either a sunflower lecithin capsule or oil—and a B6 supplement 100mg---this causes reduction in body mass without the jitters and allows for better breaking down of excesses of fats in the liver and stimulates HCL productions as well—the lugols with this will stimulate the thyroid to regulate temetabolic rate---
ØYou can add the B6 and lecithin or just mix the vinegar iodine and grapefruit juie all together either way you may even feel arthritic issues disappear
[U1]indicating that alcohol and essential oils have healing and protective properties if used accurately
[U2]goes to show you that if you cooperate with the law and you have a million dollar idea ---they will kill you off once they have the secrets---lessoned the hard way for these thieves
[U3]And the red wine vinegar should still beused due to the fact that the polyphenols may be a the key to the impact of the remedy---once something is fermetnted down the sugars are lost but the antioxidant profiles are exceedingly high as a result the herbs would last longer in the system having the antioxidant support
Show of the Week December 27 2010
Canada's public water systems could be up for sale under CETA
Nitric Oxide-Donating Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit the Growth of Various Cultured Human Cancer Cells: Evidence of a Tissue Type-Independent Effect ---
Recipe for Nitric Oxide and Acetylsalicylic acid
Original Human 'Stone Age' Diet Is Good For People With Diabetes,
public water systems could be up for sale under CETA
The Council of Canadians and The Canadian Union of Public Employees (CUPE) released a report last week raising serious concerns about the threat a trade deal with the European Union poses to Canada's public water systems.
Public Water For Sale: How Canada will privatize our public water systems is a report to municipal, provincial and territorial governments regarding the Canada European Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA). It warns that public water in Canada will be lost unless the provinces and territories take immediate steps to remove water from the scope of negotiations.>
CETA would open up public municipal water systems across Canada to privatization. Europe is home to private water giants such as Veolia Environment and Suez. At the request of these private, for-profit water corporations, Canada's provincial and territorial governments are considering including drinking water and wastewater services in their services commitments under CETA. Once systems are privatized, public control and accountability would be lost.-- "CETA is a water privatization deal," says Maude Barlow, National Chairperson of the Council of Canadians. "Our public water is being negotiated away behind closed doors. We need to act now or we will wake up one morning and our public water systems will be gone."--CUPE and the Council of Canadians are calling on the provinces and territories to assert their jurisdiction and protect water from being opened up to private corporate interests.
To read the report, go here: http://council-of-canadians.c.topica.com/maaor51ab1X0HaRVblqbaeQy7T
The federal, provincial and territorial governments in Canada are currently negotiating a Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the European Union that presents a serious threat to Canada’s public water systems. At the request of Europe’s large private water companies, the provinces and territories are considering including drinking water and wastewater services in their CETA commitments. EU negotiators are also asking that Canada’s municipalities and their water utilities be included in a chapter on public procurement. Initial provincial-territorial offers in services, procurement and investment will be sent to the European Commission early in January 2011. --If CETA is negotiated on these terms, it would be the first time that Canada has allowed our drinking water to be fully covered under a trade treaty and the first instance that a trade agreement has covered municipal procurement of water services. The services and procurement commitments proposed in CETA would be protected by strong investor rights. The effect of these rights as they relate to the services and procurement provisions would be to lock in existing private water contracts, restrict how local governments regulate the activity and investment of private water companies, and to encourage more private sector involvement in a number of public service sectors, including water. --The federal, provincial and territorial governments are being asked to make these commitments to the EU during what has been described as an infrastructure crisis in Canada. Municipalities and First Nations communities are under pressure to upgrade aging water facilities, and to meet new environmental and safety legislation without access to proper financial resources. At least $31 billion is needed to cover the cost of the facility upgrades, and the estimated cost of the new sanitation regulations is $20 billion. Not surprisingly, the private water industry sees leaky pipes as an opportunity to increase its role in water delivery and treatment. Existing government programs, including the Building Canada Plan, and funding initiatives under Public Private Partnershps Canada (PPP Canada Inc.), encourage privatization as a condition of receiving federal money for municipal infrastructure projects. Experiments with privatization have failed all over the world, and a growing trend in Europe, the United States and Latin America is toward remunicipalization (or de-privatization) of private and P3 water projects. Time and again, partial or full privatization of water systems has been a disaster; accountability disappears, water rates go up, workers are laid off, service levels decline. Once public revenues are transformed into private profits remunicipalization will become next to impossible under the services, investment and procurement rules set out in CETA. There are no economic or social gains from agreeing to the EU requests as they relate to water services. There are only unnecessary and costly risks to Canada's municipalities and First Nations.-- Provincial, territorial and municipal governments must take immediate action to protect Canada's public water systems from decay and privatization --. As one of the wealthiest countries in the world, solving the infrastructure crisis in municipalities and First Nations communities is a matter of political will, not adequate funding. First, government procurement and trade-in-services commitments related to water systems must be rejected in CETA. Provincial and territorial governments must work with municipalities and the federal government to develop a public funding plan to upgrade Canada's neglected water infrastructure. Finally, all levels of government must be transparent with Canadians about the effect that CETA will have on the provision of public services and development of social policy. They should seek informed consent from Canadians on what provisions a trade agreement with the EU should and should not include.
SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR FIRST NATIONS ACT
Bill S-11 titled “Safe Drinking Water for First Nations Act” was tabled in Parliament on May 26, 2010. The stated objective of ensuring First Nations have access to safe drinking water was swiftly called into question when the federal government did not make clear how these regulations would be implemented. On June 9, 2010 the National Chief issued a national bulletin on the issue stating that--Bill S-11, does not guarantee that First Nations will have access to safe drinking water. Without funding for infrastructure/facilities, skills, resources, training and support, safe drinking water for First Nations will not be guaranteed. … the AFN is calling on the federal government to engage in real action to address the capacity gap as well as working towards a regulatory regime that reflects our rights, jurisdiction and delivers equitable and guaranteed access to safe drinking water.17--Among the many concerns regarding Bill S-11 are the fact that First Nations communities were never consulted, and the fact that Canada will have the authority to force First Nations into agreements with third parties to operate First Nation water systems. The private sector will have the ability to enter First Nations as owners and operators of water and wastewater facilities due to a lack of infrastructure, resources and training within First Nations. Private operation of public facilities can lead to higher costs of service and user fees downloaded to First Nations resulting in further inequality. An added problem is that set-asides 9 Public Water for Sale: How Canada Will Privatize Our Public Water Systems --- for First Nations companies, an important means for provincial-territorial governments to encourage economic development, may be lost to the CETA procurement chapter.
»»RECOMMENDATION 2: The federal government should respect the right of First Nations communities to prior informed consent, and must consult and include them in any negotiations having to do with the water and wastewater facilities on First Nations reserves. Direct financial support will also be required to improve water and wastewater facilities on First Nations reserves and communities beyond 2012 when funding for the First Nations Water and Wastewater Action Plan (FNWWAP) expires.
PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS: A FAILED MODEL GLOBALLY
• London, England: Metronet was one of two P3s used for maintenance and upgrade of the London Underground system in the UK. In 2007 it collapsed when it ran out of money after overspending by ₤2 billion (nearly CDN$4 billion) through a P3 where it awarded its own shareholders overpriced contracts. It also failed to carry out work on time or on budget. A parliamentary report written after its failure stated:“Whether or not the Metronet failure was primarily the fault of the particular companies involved, we are inclined to the view that the model itself was flawed and probably inferior to traditional public-sector management. We can be more confident in this conclusion now that the potential for inefficiency and failure in the private sector has been so clearly demonstrated. In comparison, whatever the potential inefficiencies of the public sector, proper public scrutiny and the opportunity of meaningful control is likely to provide superior value for money. Crucially, it also offers protection from catastrophic failure. It is worth remembering that when private companies fail to deliver on large public projects they can walk away—the taxpayer is inevitably forced to pick up the pieces.”10
• Manila, Philippines: After passing the Water Crisis Act in 1995 the Philippines signed a $283 million privatization plan managed partially by multinational firms Suez and Bechtel. It wasn’t long before tariff prices increased, water service and quality worsened, and public opposition skyrocketed. Today, some Filipinos still don’t have water connections, tariffs have increased from 300 to 700 per cent in some regions, and outbreaks of cholera and gastroenteritis have killed six people and severely sickened 725 in Manila’s Tondo district.11
• Frankfurt, Germany: In 2007 the government in Germany entered into a P3 agreement with Hochtief for several schools. Using conventional public procurement the construction of the educational centre would have been €4million cheaper, according to an audit report. For the next 20 years the contract with Hochtief required €12.1 million annually which amounted to between 17% and 36% of the total budget for school buildings in Frankfurt, leaving the remaining schools with very limited budgets.
• Montreal, Quebec: In June 2010, the Quebec Auditor General slammed the Montreal Public Private Partnership project and found the public option would save the province $10.4 million. For four years in a row, Quebec’s Auditor General has found that the choice to pursue a P3 for upgrades to Montreal’s University Health Centres (MUHC)12 is based on faulty and inaccurate assumptions and will end up costing taxpayers millions more than if they chose a public model.
• British Columbia, Canada: BC's Sea-to-Sky Highway will cost taxpayers $220 million more than if it had been financed and operated
COMMITTED TO THE ENVIRONMENT YOU SAY…
The city of Brussels terminated a contract with Veolia in 2010 after Aquiris, a consortium created in 2001 by Veolia Environment to support a BOT (build own operate transfer) in the city, deliberately dumped the wastewater from 1.1 million people into the river Zenne for 10 days. The chief executive of the regional water authority described this action as equal to “releasing an atomic bomb” into the river.15 Aquiris took this action while in a dispute with public authorities. One official noted that “whatever the rights and wrongs in the dispute it is hard to imagine that a publicly owned and operated company would have stopped the pumps like this.”16
Nitric Oxide-Donating Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Inhibit the Growth of Various Cultured Human Cancer Cells: Evidence of a Tissue Type-Independent Effect
Recipe for Nitric Oxide and Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin ) Take One gram ( 1000mgs) with 81 mg of aspirin ( unenterocoated you want this to break down and quickly in the system )-add to 2 oz of water and 1 tablspoon of vinegar---mix well and drink---the impact can be felt almost readily---in areas of pain you can feel the inflammatory markers cox will feell like they diminish—Take this either every 2 hours for the first few servings and then after every 4 hour for chronic pain---this is not to be used forever and must be cautioned for potential bleeding in the stomach—but forsomeone with cancer this for a short interim maybe what is the answer --THIS IS AN INFORMATIVE AND EDUCATIONAL SITE, USES OF THIS INFORMATION IS ENTIRELY THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THOSE WHO WISH TO CHOSE TO USE THIS INFO FOR PERSONAL HEALTH OR USES AT THE DISCRETION OF THOSE INDIVIDUAL(S)-SEEK CONSUL FROM QUALIFIED HEALER(S) THAT ARE AWARE OF ALTERNATIVES
Original Human 'Stone Age' Diet Is Good For People With Diabetes, Study Finds
ScienceDaily (June 28, 2007) — Foods of the kind that were consumed during human evolution may be the best choice to control diabetes type 2. A study from Lund University, Sweden, found markedly improved capacity to handle carbohydrate after eating such foods for three months.---During 2.5 million years of human evolution, before the advent of agriculture, our ancestors were consuming fruit, vegetables, nuts, lean meat and fish. In contrast, cereals, dairy products, refined fat and sugar, which now provide most of the calories for modern humans, have been staple foods for a relatively short time.---Staffan Lindeberg at the Department of Medicine, Lund University, has been studying health effects of the original human diet for many years. In earlier studies his research team have noted a remarkable absence of cardiovascular disease and diabetes among the traditional population of Kitava, Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea, where modern agrarian-based food ( Farmed Produced )is unavailable. In a clinical study in Sweden, the research group has now compared 14 patients who were advised to consume an ‘ancient’ (Paleolithic, ‘Old stone Age’) diet for three months with 15 patients who were recommended to follow a Mediterranean-like prudent diet with whole-grain cereals, low-fat dairy products, fruit, vegetables and refined fats generally considered healthy. All patients had increased blood sugar after carbohydrate intake (glucose intolerance), and most of them had overt diabetes type 2. In addition, all had been diagnosed with coronary heart disease. Patients in the Paleolithic group were recommended to eat lean meat, fish, fruit, vegetables, root vegetables and nuts, and to avoid grains, dairy foods and salt. ----The main result was that the blood sugar rise in response to carbohydrate intake was markedly lower after 12 weeks in the Paleolithic group (–26%), while it barely changed in the Mediterranean group (–7%). At the end of the study, all patients in the Paleolithic group had normal blood glucose. --The improved glucose tolerance in the Paleolithic group was unrelated to changes in weight or waist circumference, although waist decreased slightly more in that group. Hence, the research group concludes that something more than caloric intake and weight loss was responsible for the improved handling of dietary carbohydrate. The main difference between the groups was a much lower intake of grains and dairy products and a higher fruit intake in the Paleolithic group. Substances in grains and dairy products have been shown to interfere with the metabolism of carbohydrates and fat in various studies.---"If you want to prevent or treat diabetes type 2, it may be more efficient to avoid some of our modern foods than to count calories or carbohydrate," says Staffan Lindeberg.---This is the first controlled study of a Paleolithic diet in humans.---Story Source: The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Lund University.
Researchers at the Harvard School of Public Health claim to have identified a fatty acid in diary products that may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. --Writing in the Annals of Internal Medicine, the scientists examined data from a study that followed 3,736 adults from 1992 to 2006. -They found that those adults with the highest circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid – the fatty acid found in dairy – were exposed to the lowest risk of diabetes. ---The 20 per cent with the highest trans-palmitoleic acid levels were found to have a 60 per cent lower risk of developing diabetes compared to the people at the bottom 20 per cent of the sample. Lead author Dariush Mozaffarian said: “This represents an almost three-fold difference in risk of developing diabetes among individuals with the highest blood levels of this fatty acid.”
“Striking” magnitude --Mozaffarian described the magnitude of the findings as “striking” but added that the study should be followed up with more observational studies and controlled trials to confirm any initial conclusions. --However, the scientist suggested that the positive effect that trans-palmitoleic acid appears to have on diabetes risk may not be that surprising. He said: “We wonder whether this naturally occurring trans fatty acid in dairy fats may partly mimic the normal biologic role of its cis counterpart, cis-palmitoleic acid, a fatty acid that is produced in the body. In animal experiments, cis-palmitoleic acid protects against diabetes.”
Deepa Khatri, clinical advisor at Diabetes UK, called for more research and advised caution when interpreting the study results.
“People should not take the findings of this research as a reason to exceed the recommended portion amounts of dairy food in order to prevent their risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. Milk and dairy foods can be high in fat, which if eaten in excess can contribute to weight gain.” -Funding for the research was provided by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.
Source: Annals of Internal Medicine
Trans-Palmitoleic Acid, Metabolic Risk Factors, and New-Onset Diabetes in U.S. Adults
Authors: Dariush Mozaffarian, Haiming Cao, Irena King, Rozenn Lemaitre, Xiaoling Song, David Siscovick, Gokhan Hotamisligil