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Salt increases physical performance in resistance competitions

Preventing spread of cancer with copper molecules

PaxVax applies to have GM cholera vaccine tested in Australia

Onion extract may improve high blood sugar and cholesterol

Level of pollutants accumulated in the body linked to obesity levels

High levels of vitamin D is suspected of increasing mortality rates

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Salt increases physical performance in resistance competitions

Date:

March 4, 2015

Source:

Plataforma SINC

 

Half Ironman is a medium-distance triathlon race which consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90 km of cycling and 21.1 km of athletics.-Spanish researchers have analysed the effectiveness of salt on sports performance in triathletes. The athletes who added this supplement to their usual hydration routines during the competition took 26 minutes less to complete a medium-distance triathlon course than those who only used sports drinks.-Maintaining a suitable balance of water and electrolytes (mainly sodium and chloride) is essential for the functioning of all organs. Human beings compensate for their daily loss with the water and salts provided by their diet's food and drinks.-"However, doing exercise (especially resistance sports and activities carried out in the heat) can compromise the regulation of water and electrolytes," explains Juan del Coso Garrigós, researcher at the Camilo José Cela University (UCJC) and lead author of a study on the effect of salt on sports performance, to SINC.-Scientists from the Exercise Physiology Laboratory at UCJC have analysed the effectiveness of the salt capsules during a Half Ironman, a medium-distance triathlon race which consists of 1.9 km of swimming, 90 km of cycling and 21.1 km of athletics. Their study has just been published in the 'Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports'.-During the research, a group of triathletes ingested, as well as the rehydration drinks that they usually drank, 12 salt capsules divided into three doses during the competition, with the aim of replacing 71% of the sodium lost through sweat.-Their results were compared to those of another group of athletes of the same age, experience and with better times previously in a Half Ironman, who during the competition drank sports drinks and capsules filled with a placebo, and therefore, only replaced 20% of the lost sodium.-The triathletes who had ingested the salt ended the competition 26 minutes before the control group on average. Above all their running and cycling speeds improved. "This positive effect on performance relates to an increase in the concentration of electrolytes in the blood, making them drink more fluids during the race (as salt stimulates thirst) and improves the water and electrolyte balances during the competition," adds Del Coso.-As the specialist mentions, sports drinks do not replace 100% of the electrolytes lost through sweat. Nevertheless, for the majority of sports activities lasting less than two hours, the electrolytes that they do contain are sufficient to maintain performance and avoid imbalances.

Not just any liquid can be used as a replacement

Sweating is the main mechanism for losing body heat. Sweat glands filter the blood plasma (which contains 142 milliequivalents per litre (mEq/L) of sodium) to obtain a hypotonic fluid, sweat, which evaporates through the skin and dissipates heat.-On the other hand, body water and electrolytes are lost through sweat. In healthy people the filtration in the glands reduces the concentration of sodium in sweat to 40-60 mEq/L. For this reason, the main aim of rehydration in sport is to replace lost water and electrolytes.-"If we choose a mineral water as a rehydration drink in sport (which contains 2 mEq/L of sodium), we could generate hypotonicity[F1] , given that we would be replacing only the liquid while the concentration of sodium in our blood would gradually become diluted," states Del Coso.-Sports drinks are designed to replace lost liquids and electrolytes in sport, but even the best on the market only have a sodium concentration of around 20 mEq/L, approximately half of that lost through sweat.

Flavour or performance

For experts, there is a balance between what is considered physiologically recommendable and that which is economically profitable in the world of sports drinks.-"Despite sports drinks companies knowing that including more sodium in the drinks would be more beneficial to maintain the balance of fluids and electrolytes during exercise, a greater concentration of sodium would also make the drink have a more salty taste and would reduce the possibilities of succeeding in a market where flavour is key to obtaining good sales figures," says the researcher.-However, in long-distance tests in which large quantities of drinks are ingested to avoid dehydration (marathons, long-distance triathlons, ultra-resistance competitions, etc.) rehydration with these specialised drinks may not be sufficient to maintain the concentration of salt in the body fluids.-"It may be necessary to eat food that contains high amounts of salt, such as fruits or nuts, or even salt capsules to reduce the effect of the loss of electrolytes on physical performance," he concludes.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Plataforma SINC. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference-J. Del Coso, C. González-Millán, J. J. Salinero, J. Abián-Vicén, F. Areces, M. Lledó, B. Lara, C. Gallo-Salazar, D. Ruiz-Vicente. Effects of oral salt supplementation on physical performance during a half-ironman: A randomized controlled trial. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 2015; DOI: 10.1111/sms.12427

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Preventing spread of cancer with copper molecules

Date:

March 2, 2015

Source:

Universitaet Bielefeld

 

The new agent containing copper ‘docks’ precisely with the DNA molecule of a cancer cell and stops it from growing. As a result, the cancer cell dies.--Chemists at Bielefeld University have developed a molecule containing copper that binds specifically with DNA and prevents the spread of cancer. First results show that it kills the cancer cells more quickly than cisplatin -- a widely used anti-cancer drug that is frequently administered in chemotherapy. When developing the anti-tumour agent, Professor Dr. Thorsten Glaser and his team cooperated with biochemists and physicists. The design of the new agent is basic research. 'How and whether the copper complex will actually be given to cancer patients is something that medical research will have to determine in the years to come,' says the chemist.--Ever since the end of the 1970s, doctors have been using cisplatin to treat cancer. For lung cancer and testicular cancer, the drug promotes healing; however, it does not work for all types of cancer. Cisplatin is also one of the anti-cancer drugs that most frequently induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. 'Therefore we wanted to develop an alternative agent that would work differently, have fewer side effects, and treat other types of cancer as well,' says Thorsten Glaser, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Bielefeld University. 'In addition, we wanted an agent that would treat cancers that have become immune to cisplatin through its use in earlier treatments.' Glaser and his team are using methods from chemistry to produce new molecules that are not found in nature, and to equip these with specific properties.--Cisplatin attacks the DNA of cancer cells. DNA is composed of nucleobases, phosphates, and sugar. Whereas cisplatin binds with the nucleobases, the new molecule developed by the researchers attacks the phosphate in the DNA. 'We did this by integrating two metal ions of copper in our molecule that preferentially bind with phosphates.' As soon as the ions bind with the phosphate, the DNA of the cancer cell changes. This disrupts the cellular processes, prevents the cell from reproducing, and leads to the destruction of the pathological cell.--'Just as a key only works in one specific lock, our molecule only fits the phosphates and blocks them,' says Glaser. A bit like the end of a horseshoe, there are two metal ions of copper protruding from the new molecule. The gap between the two ends of the horseshoe corresponds exactly to that between the phosphates in the DNA so that they can dock together and form a perfect fit. 'Because two phosphates bind simultaneously, the binding strength is greater. And that increases the efficacy.'--The scientists at Bielefeld University have developed a procedure for manufacturing the new molecule. They have proved that their copper agent can bind with DNA and change it. And they have studied whether and how well their agent prevents the spread of the DNA and thereby of the cells. The replication of the genome in cells proceeds in a similar way to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The researchers have confirmed that the copper complex stops this chain reaction.--Finally, the scientists applied the agent to cancer cells. They administered the substance to a cell culture with cancer cells. The result was that 'the copper complex is more effective than cisplatin,' says Glaser. 'The highest number of cancer cells died at a concentration of 10 micromolar[F2] . With cisplatin, you need 20 micromolar.'-When carrying out the research on the new agent, Professor Glaser and his team cooperated with the research teams of Professor Dr. Dario Anselmetti (Biophysics and nanoscience) and Professor Dr. Gabriele Fischer von Mollard (Biochemistry) -- both also at Bielefeld University. Dario Anselmetti's colleagues used atomic force microscopy to produce the images confirming that the copper complex binds with the DNA. Gabriele Fischer von Mollard's team tested how the cancer cell culture responded to the agent.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Universitaet Bielefeld. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference--Thomas Jany, Alexander Moreth, Claudia Gruschka, Andy Sischka, Andre Spiering, Mareike Dieding, Ying Wang, Susan Haji Samo, Anja Stammler, Hartmut Bögge, Gabriele Fischer von Mollard, Dario Anselmetti, Thorsten Glaser. Rational Design of a Cytotoxic Dinuclear Cu2Complex That Binds by Molecular Recognition at Two Neighboring Phosphates of the DNA Backbone. Inorganic Chemistry, 2015; 150204080138001 DOI: 10.1021/ic5028465

 

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PaxVax applies to have GM cholera vaccine tested in Australia

Australia could join a global trial of a new genetically-modified cholera vaccine which could save thousands of lives in the developing world.

United States-based vaccine company PaxVax is running a trial of the oral vaccine, and has applied to the Federal Government to run part of the trial in Queensland, South Australia, Victoria and Western Australia.

PaxVax says the single-dose vaccine has been genetically-modified to remove the part of the cholera bacteria that makes people sick.

It wants to use Australia as a trial site to test the vaccine on about 1,000 adults, and potentially children, planning to travel overseas to cholera-affected areas.

What is cholera?

  • Cholera is spread by contaminated water, unhygienic food and contaminated shellfish
  • Symptoms include profuse, watery diarrhoea, nausea, dehydration, fever and stomach cramps
  • Illness can begin up to five days after exposure
  • Infected people can carry the bacteria in their faeces for months or years after infection
  • In severe, untreated cases, cholera can be life threatening and death can occur within hours

Source: Western Australia Health Department

PaxVax chief executive Nima Farzan says the plan is to then expand the vaccine's use to developing countries.

Cholera is a worldwide health problem with 3 to 5 million cases and up to 130,000 deaths a year.

"Cholera is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera is endemic in parts of south Asia and even parts of Latin America," Mr Farzan said.

"Outbreaks can come quite rapidly. Cholera, if not treated, can be a fatal disease."

Mr Farzan says the vaccine is safe because it has been genetically-modified, meaning it cannot produce toxins or reproduce the cholera bacteria.

"The study in Australia will only be looking at the immune response or the antibody levels and the safety from taking this vaccine," he said.

"What we are measuring in the vaccine is anything that could come about local or systemic reaction that could come from the vaccine."

However, anti-genetic modification campaigner Bob Phelps from the Gene Ethics Network says as cholera is rare in Australia, there is no justification for a mass vaccination program.

He is also concerned that people taking part in the trial will only be monitored for one hour.

"In the [company] application, there is no follow-up monitoring or proper surveillance," he said.

Doctors say 'no risk' vaccine will spread cholera in Australia

Victoria is one of the potential trial states. Its chief health officer Dr Rosemary Lester says there is a rigorous process to assess anything which is genetically modified, not just vaccines.

"The risk would be carefully assessed before the trial is allowed to go ahead," she said.

There's really no risk to people living in Australia.

Our sanitation and hygiene systems are so good. I would be very comfortable with that sort of trial going on.

Victorian chief health officer Dr Rosemary Lester

Dr Lester says there is no risk of the vaccine spreading cholera to Australia.

"There's really no risk to people living in Australia," she said.

"Our sanitation and hygiene systems are so good. I would be very comfortable with that sort of trial going on."

Over the past five years, there have been 22 cases of cholera reported in Australia. Most of these were acquired in South-East Asia.

"In Australia, fortunately cholera is a very rare disease," Dr Lester said.

"It's almost always seen in returned travellers. We typically see about three to six cases per year in returned travellers," Dr Lester said.

Adverse reactions to vaccine infrequent, mild

Results of a phase one trial into the PaxVax vaccine found that a single dose created an immune response in almost 90 per cent of patients.

The company says the vaccine was well-tolerated, adverse events were infrequent, and generally mild.

Photo: There have been hundreds of thousands of cases of cholera in Haiti this year, killing 8,000 people. (Thony Belizaire: AFP)

Of 3,000 volunteers worldwide, 1,000 would be from Australia and the remainder from North America.

Cholera is a gut infection caused by consuming of food or water contaminated with the bacterium vibrio cholerae.

It usually presents quickly after infection and in extreme causes large amounts of painless, watery diarrhoea that can quickly lead to severe dehydration and death.

Most episodes are mild or moderate and similar to other stomach flus.

In Australia there is an existing travel vaccine which can prevent cholera that is typically given to health-vulnerable travellers, but it is a double dose regime which takes longer to complete.

The Federal Government's Office of the Gene Technology Regulator will seek public comment on the PaxVax trial after a risk assessment and risk management plan is released in late January.

The trial is expected to last 12 months.

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Onion extract may improve high blood sugar and cholesterol

Date:

March 6, 2015

Source:

The Endocrine Society

The extract of onion bulb, Allium cepa, strongly lowered high blood glucose (sugar) and total cholesterol levels in diabetic rats when given with the antidiabetic drug metformin, according to a new study. The study results will be presented Thursday at The Endocrine Society's 97th annual meeting in San Diego.--"Onion is cheap and available and has been used as a nutritional supplement," said lead investigator Anthony Ojieh, MBBS (MD), MSc, of Delta State University in Abraka, Nigeria. "It has the potential for use in treating patients with diabetes."--To three groups of rats with medically induced diabetes, Ojieh and his colleagues gave metformin and varying doses of onion extract--200, 400 and 600 milligrams per kilograms of body weight daily (mg/kg/day)--to see if it would enhance the drug's effects. They also gave metformin and onion extract to three groups of nondiabetic rats with normal blood sugar, for comparison. Two control groups, one nondiabetic and one diabetic, received neither metformin nor onion extract. Another two groups (one with diabetes, one without) received only metformin and no onion extract. Each group contained five rats.--Two doses of onion extract, 400 and 600 mg/kg/day, strongly reduced fasting blood sugar levels in diabetic rats by 50 percent and 35 percent, respectively, compared with "baseline" levels at the start of the study before the rodents received onion extract, Ojieh reported.--Allium cepa also reportedly lowered the total cholesterol level in diabetic rats, with the two larger doses again having the greatest effects.--Onion extract led to an increase in average weight among nondiabetic rats but not diabetic rats.--"Onion is not high in calories," Ojieh said. "However, it seems to increase the metabolic rate and, with that, to increase the appetite, leading to an increase in feeding."--Histologic study of the pancreas removed from each diabetic rat showed that neither metformin nor onion extract healed the damage that resulted from the drug-caused diabetes.--"We need to investigate the mechanism by which onion brought about the blood glucose reduction," Ojieh said. "We do not yet have an explanation."--The onion extract used for the experiment was a crude preparation from onion bulb, which is available in the local market. If this were to be administered to humans, it would usually be purified so that only the active ingredients would be quantified for adequate dosing, Ojieh said.--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Endocrine Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Level of pollutants accumulated in the body linked to obesity levels

Date:

February 27, 2015

Source:

University of Granada

A team of Spanish scientists, which includes several researchers from the University of Granada, has confirmed that there is a relation between the levels of certain environmental pollutants that a person accumulates in his or her body and their level of obesity. Subjects with more pollutants in their organisms tend to have higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, which are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease.-This is a study published in the journal Environmental Pollution, included researchers from the University of Granada, the San Cecilio and Virgen de las Nieves university hospitals, and the Andalusian School of Public Health, all of them members of the Granada Biohealth Research Institute.--This research has analysed the levels of pollutants accumulated in adipose tissue (fat) in nearly 300 men and women, who were attended in the surgery services of two hospitals in the province of Granada (Spain).-The substances analysed, known as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), can remain in the environment for years, even decades, without degrading[F4] .--"Humans are exposed to POPs mainly through diet. Besides, POPs accumulate gradually in body fat, and this is the reason why the median levels in our study give us an idea of an individual's accumulated exposition over a number of years," says Juan Pedro Arrebola, the main author of the article.--Using complex statistical methods, these scientists confirmed that the accumulated levels of several POPs were related to obesity and to serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides in individuals, irrespective of the gender, age, place of residence or smoking habits of participants in the survey.--"In general we found that people with higher levels of POPs were quantitatively more obese, and also showed higher levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, all of them regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, although these relations were complex and they did not always show linear patterns," Arrebola claims.

POPs subject to analysis

Those POPs subject to analysis include DDE, the main metabolite of pesticide DDT, widely used all over the world in the 1980s, and currently employed by some countries to combat malaria. They also included the insecticide lindane, frequently used in the past in agriculture and also in certain medicines for lice and scabies.--The survey also included a group of polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs, used in numerous industrial equipment, and which are still present in old electric transformers. All these pollutants were somehow associated with obesity indexes, as well as cholesterol and/or triglycerides levels.--In spite of the fact that their use is currently very restricted, POPs are a very serious public health --problem. Actually, 100% of participants in this survey presented detectable levels of one or more of these compounds.--"This universal [exposure] turns their impact on human health into a most important issue. Besides, our results suggest that there are no safe exposure levels for these pollutants, which can also interact among them to affect health[F5] ," Arrebola added.--Previous studies have demonstrated that the general population is exposed to POPs mainly through food with a high fat content. This includes fish and meat from large animals with a high level of fat. This is the reason why a growing number of researchers recommend against over-consumption.--Doctor Arrebola's research group is currently monitoring the subjects of their study over the course of several years, to confirm whether those subjects exposed have shown a higher risk of developing certain pathologies, such as high blood pressure, obesity, or cardiovascular disease.

"Obesity-genic" Pollutants

Obesity has become a universal epidemic whose impact in Europe has tripled during the last few decades. The most important problem is that obese people have a high risk of suffering from numerous health problems such as cardiovascular disease, which the World Health Organisation considers the main cause of death worldwide.--It has been traditionally thought that obesity results from a high caloric intake in comparison with energy expenditure. "We believe that the results are not just the consequence of a higher intake of food by obese people. There is evidence that human exposure to certain chemical substances called "obesogenic" could favour the growth and proliferation of adipocytes (fat cells), and provoke therefore an increase in body fat. We suspect besides that certain environmental pollutants could also provoke alterations in cholesterol and triglycerides levels and therefore contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease," Arrebola concludes.--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Granada. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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High levels of vitamin D is suspected of increasing mortality rates

Date:

March 10, 2015

Source:

University of Copenhagen - The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences

 

It can be disadvantageous to have too much vitamin D.--The level of vitamin D in our blood should neither be too high nor to low. Scientists from the University of Copenhagen are the first in the world to show that there is a connection between high levels of vitamin D and cardiovascular deaths[F6] .--In terms of public health, a lack of vitamin D has long been a focal point. Several studies have shown that too low levels can prove detrimental to our health. However, new research from the University of Copenhagen reveals, for the first time, that also too high levels of vitamin D in our blood is connected to an increased risk of dying from a stroke or a coronary.--The results have just been published in the Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism.--"We have studied the level of vitamin D in 247,574 Danes, and so far, it constitutes the world's largest basis for this type of study. We have also analysed their mortality rate over a seven-year period after taking the initial blood sample, and in that time 16,645 patients had died. Furthermore, we have looked at the connection between their deaths and their levels of vitamin D," Professor at the Department of Clinical Medicine, Peter Schwarz explains.--The conclusion is clear: the study confirms that there is indeed a correlation between mortality rates and too low levels of vitamin D, but the new thing is that the level of vitamin D can also be too high.--"If your vitamin D level is below 50 or over 100 nanomol per litre, there is an greater connection to deaths. We have looked at what caused the death of patients, and when numbers are above 100, it appears that there is an increased risk of dying from a stroke or a coronary. In other words, levels of vitamin D should not be too low, but neither should they be too high. Levels should be somewhere in between 50 and 100 nanomol per litre, and our study indicates that 70 is the most preferable level," Peter Schwartz states.--That having too much vitamin D in our blood can be bad for our health has never been proven before, and it may have great influence on our future intake of nutritional supplements.--"These are very important results, because there is such great focus on eating vitamin D. We should use this information to ask ourselves whether or not we should continue to eat vitamins and nutritional supplements as if they were sweets. You shouldn't simply up the dose to feel better. We should only consume such vitamins in close coordination with our GP," Peter Schwartz concludes.--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Copenhagen - The Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Darshana Durup, Henrik Løvendahl Jørgensen, Jane Christensen, Anne Tjønneland, Anja Olsen, Jytte Halkjær, Bent Lind, Anne-Marie Heegaard, Peter Schwarz. A reverse J-shaped association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and cardiovascular disease mortality – the CopD-study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015; jc.2014-4551 DOI: 10.1210/jc.2014-4551

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 [F1]Hypertonicity is an increased tension of the muscles, meaning the muscle tone is abnormally rigid, hampering proper movement. This condition is the opposite of hypotonicity. Hypotonicity is a decreased tension in muscle tone. A lack of muscle tone inhibits proper movement as the muscle is not developed or is too soft to support the body

 [F2]Interesting in the micron level this terminated the cancer not at the nano

 [F3]Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects.

 [F4]Welcome to chemtrails and nanoparticles and glyphosates

 [F5]Interaction—meaning when the become exposed to each other they react and internally this can happen causing unwanted health issues

 [F6]This has been known since the 60’s nothing new here they knew then that to much D could lead to stomes in the heart and an increase in calcium deposits in the heart –kidneys and lungs

 [F7]Food emulsifiers act as an interface between the conflicting components of food like water and oil.
While preparing the food, often conflicting natural components of food have to be combined into a consistent and pleasing blend. Each component of food (carbohydrate, protein, oil and fat, water, air, etc.) has its own properties which are sometimes conflicting to one another just like oil and water. To make the two components compatible, emulsifiers are used.------------------- What is an Emulsifier?

An emulsifier is a molecule with one oil-friendly and one water-friendly end. Water friendly end in food emulsifier is called hydrophilic tail and oil-friendly end is called hydrophobic head. Food emulsifiers are also called emulgents. In this way droplets of oil are surrounded by the emulsifier molecule, with the oil core hidden by the water-friendly tails of the emulsifier. A classic natural emulsion is milk, which is a complex mixture of fat suspended in an aqueous solution. Nature's emulsifiers are proteins and phospholipids (lipids means fat soluble phosphate is water soluble). Egg is commonly used as an emulsifier. Some emulsifiers also act as anti-caking agents like Magnesium Stearate, Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids. Few others like Sorbitan monostearate are emulsifier as well as stabilizer

.

 [F8]Emulsifier

The most frequently used raw materials for emulsifiers include palm oil, rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, sunflower oil or lard/tallow. Egg happens to be the oldest emulsifier. Basic emulsifier production involves combining oil (triglyceride) with glycerol that results in monoglyceride. The type of triglyceride used in the reaction determines the type of emulsifier obtained. Unsaturated triglycerides produce fluid products such as oil while saturated triglycerides result in pasty or solid structures like butter. Monoglycerides can be combined with other substances, such as citric acid and lactic acid, in order to increase their emulsifying properties. Food drugs and cosmetics and pigment emulsions also require one or other kind of emulsifier.

 On the basis of their hydrophilic groups, there are basically four categories

  • Anionics
  • Non-ionics
  • Cationics
  • Amphoterics

Food Emulsifier

  • Egg Yolk emulsifying agent lecithin
  • Honey
  • Mustard
  • Soy lecithin
  • CSL Calcium Stearoyl Di Laciate
  • PolyGlycerol Ester (PGE)
  • Sorbitan Ester (SOE)
  • PG Ester (PGME)
  • Sugar Ester (SE)
  • Monoglyceride (MG)
  • Acetylated Monoglyceride (AMG)
  • Lactylated Monoglyceride (LMG)

 

 [F9]Never Use anything nano---the other thing that happens it can be incorporated with other metals at that scale and size and cause unwanted distortions and mutations in the body

 [F10]Realistically no one knows what they are really eating unless it is grown yourself

 [F11]This is unrealistic –if they are not going to lable GMO foods ---saying the public is to stupid to be able to know the difference the same logic is going to go here ---this is about population control and regulating the level of poisonous or harmul materials one can consume

 [F12]The article is out dated a little---even the fresh foods are being sprayed with nano silver causing them to saturate the body internally into the brain and lungs liver and spleen and tissues throughout the body ---so eat as clean as possible and use as much as required in peeling and cleansing your foods as well

 [F13]The organic label is BS today and has been for quite some time and if nano is on the fields then it will be in the organics as well via chemtrails and the spraying---once released this can cause issues on all farming---grow your own

 [F14]2 differing measurements

 [F15]this is where some companies get the idea that nano is safe due to this definition

 [F16]This is implying strongly that the more they are in an environment over a big area the more activity is going to happen—this also appears to be double speech here with the above articles mentioning the dangers of the nm size here thay are almost going to full accept it when the previous article showed h

 [F17]Still think the health food industry is  healthy

 [F18]These are highly reactive ---with the chemtrails being dumped on us with nano particles and th food supply allowing more aluminum to being spread this would further exasperate the nano bio attack on the body

 [F19]This is what makes these things so dangerous ---they accumulate and then replicate ---with every cell they choke out they further saturate the tissues and organs

 [F20]Another metal saturating the colon causing colon alterations and cellular death

 [F21]Nano particles can reach Intestinal and blood and other organs!!

 [F22]One of the components in chemtrails

 [F23]The characteristics of nanoparticles that are relevant for health effects are:
  • Size – In addition to being able to cross cell membranes, reach the blood and various organs because of their very small size, nanoparticles of any material have a much greater surface to volume ratio (i.e. the surface area compared to the volume) than larger particles of that same material. Therefore, relatively more molecules of the chemical are present on the surface. This may be one of the reasons why nanoparticles are generally more toxic than larger particles of the same composition.
  • Chemical composition and surface characteristics – The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. However, the surfaces of nanoparticles can be modified to make them less harmful to health.
  • Shape – Although there is little definitive evidence, the health effects of nanoparticles are likely to depend also on their shape. A significant example is nanotubes, which may be of a few nanometres in diameter but with a length that could be several micrometres. A recent study showed a high toxicity of carbon nanotubes which seemed to produce harmful effects by an entirely new mechanism, different from the normal model of toxic dusts.

 

 [F24]Nano in the food---wonder where that comes from===pollution? Spraying the fields with nano silver---CHEMTRAILS???

 [F25]How they cause the damage to the colon and digestive system

 [F26]Anyone want a diet in aluminum---and beware a lot of health guru’s promote cleanser that have these in them

 [F27]Will  kill off the bacterial properties required for the flora to grow and for the animals and us to have the right nutrition---without bacteria nothing grows or can be assimilated

 [F28]These 2 are the worse ones for male sterility and testicular cancr

 [F29]This is also part of the chemtrails

 [F30]This we are already seeing with glyphosates

 [F31]This will be called a nano biofilm---extremely dangerous once out hard to recall back

 

 

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Show of the Month March 21 2015

Silver --An Ancient Remedy

TINY INGREDIENTS BIG RISKS

Standards for Maple syrup

Widely used food additive promotes colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, research shows

 

Silver --An Ancient Remedy

Silver is a powerful, natural prophylactic/antibiotic, used for thousands of years. Ancient Greeks lined their eating and drinking vessels with silver, as did many other cultures throughout the world. ref: 5 Pioneers of the American West would put a silver dollar in a jug of milk to keep it fresh without refrigeration. ref: 6

Did you ever wonder why silverware was made from silver? One of the properties of silver is that it kills bacteria on contact in six minutes or less. ref: 7 It may be that gold and silver were first used as valued currency because of their medical properties.

Dr. Robert O. Becker, author of The Body Electric, recognized a correlation between low silver levels and sickness. He said silver deficiency was responsible for the improper functioning of the immune system. Dr. Becker's experiments conclude that silver works on the full spectrum of pathogens without any side effects or damage to the body.

He also states that silver does more than kill disease-causing organisms. It also causes major growth stimulation of injured tissues. Burn patients and even elderly patients notice more rapid healing. And he discovered that all cancer cells could change back to normal cells. All strains of pathogens resistant to other antibiotics are killed by silver.

What is Colloidal Silver?

Colloidal Silver is the result of an electromagnetic process that pulls microscopic particles from a larger piece of silver into a liquid, such as water. ref: 8 These microscopic particles can more easily penetrate and travel throughout the body. Colloidal silver works as catalyst, disabling the enzyme that all one-celled bacteria, fungi and viruses use for their metabolism. Unlike with antibiotics, resistant strains have never been known to develop. In fact, antibiotics are only effective against perhaps a dozen forms of bacteria and fungi, but never viruses.

Because no known disease-causing organism can live in the presence of even minute traces of the chemical element of metallic silver, colloidal silver is effective against more than 650 different disease-causing pathogens, ref: 9 as well as cancer! ref: 10

You'll also find colloidal silver very handy in the garden since it can be used against bacterial, fungal and viral attacks on plants. Simply spray diluted Colloidal Silver on the leaves, and add to soil water.

It would appear highly unlikely that even germ warfare agents could survive an encounter with colloidal silver, since viruses like E Bola, Hanta, or even the dreaded "flesh-eating bacteria" are, in the end, merely hapless viruses and bacteria. Finally, colloidal silver is non-toxic, making it safe for both children and adults, as well as pets. ref: 11, 12 In short; anything bigger than a one-cell animal seems to like it.

Nor does one have to worry about that FDA (Food and Drug Administration) fox being put in charge of this home remedy hen house. Colloidal silver is a pre-1938 healing modality, making it exempt from FDA jurisdiction under the grandfather clause. ref: 13

So Why Haven't you heard of it?

I suspect the user friendly economics of colloidal silver may have something to do with its low profile in the media. Colloidal silver can't help but shine a spotlight on the expensive and deadly nature of our huge pharmaceutical industries.

The pharmaceutical cartel's relentless promotion of dangerous vaccines for humans and animals through government programs have now been linked to everything from increasing crib deaths in infants (who in many documented cases scream for hours before dying), to the increasingly common disease, feline leukemia, in house cats. ref: 14 Colloidal silver, on the other hand, is a safe and reliable alternative to expensive pharmaceuticals.

With the simple act of wiring three 9-volt batteries together, something very profound begins to happen. Ordinary people are able to heal themselves. Widespread use of colloidal silver will cause the multi-billion dollar managed care of "incurable diseases" industry to crumble. Don't expect these industries to take their loss of power lying down.

These cartels will do their best to frighten people away from making it themselves, sometimes buying off colloidal silver manufacturers who will then act as the cartel's agent. These cartels can also be expected to aggressively market their own substitute products, just as they did with antibiotics in the 1940's when colloidal silver was originally suppressed.

Some Uses of Colloidal Silver

These are some of the 650 diseases and conditions that colloidal silver was used to treat successfully in the past. This list in no way should be construed or relied upon as medical advice. Always consult your health care professional if a serious condition exists.

acne, eczema, psoriasis, allergies, fibrosis, rheumatism, appendicitis, gastritis, scarlet fever arthritis, gonorrhea, septicemia, athlete's foot, herpes, shingles, bladder inflammation, impetigo, skin cancer , blood parasites, indigestion, staph and strep, boils, keratitis, infections, bubonic plague, leprosy, syphilis, burns, leukemia, thyroid conditions, cancer, lupus, tonsillitis, candidiasis, lymphagitis, toxemia, chilblains, Lymes disease, trachoma, cholera, malaria, dermatitis, colitis, meningitis, warts, conjunctivitis, neurasthenia, whooping cough, cystitis, pneumonia, yeast infections, dermatitis, pleurisy, stomach ulcers, diabetes, prostate problems, tuberculosis, dysentery, pruritus ani, --in other words, bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. It had also been used against canine parvovirus and other veterinary diseases.

Con Men In Suits..

One of the most effective flimflam ploys is to trot out an "expert" who confirms that the product he or she is selling is absolutely essential for your well being. This "authority" will go on to mention that in the course of their studies of competing products, they discovered that these competing products will very likely cause you harm.

Actually, the expert is used as a shill to usurp your freedom of choice and dictate what you should regard as "health" and health-promoting practices. Similar ploys have been used by colloidal silver manufacturers, which have resulted in confusion and fear among those most interested in using silver.

We can best avoid manipulation by coming to a deeper understanding about different types of colloidal silver, production methods, issues of safety and usefulness.

First some basics..

A colloid consists of minute particles that float within a liquid despite the pull of gravity. To stay in suspension for any length of time, these particles must be smaller that 1 micron (1/1000 of an inch).

When fresh produce is processed through a juicer, a colloid results in the form of a glass of juice. As a juice colloid sits, the larger particles begin to fall out of suspension and settle at the bottom of the container. To evenly distribute the contents it is common to shake up a bottle of juice before drinking.

In the case of colloidal silver, silver particles are pulled off of a pure silver electrode that is immersed in water by applying a low voltage electric current, giving each particle an electric charge. This charge, though long lasting, is not permanent, and both daylight and time will cause a colloid to lose its charge. This loss is referred to as "falling out", or "plating out". ref: 15

While colloidal silver is light sensitive, it is not nearly so light sensitive as camera film. Under the midday California summer sun, colloidal silver can be expected to oxidize in about ten minutes. Indoors, under ambient and artificial light, colloidal silver will oxidize in about three days. This only means colloidal silver should be stored in tinted or opaque containers.

About Size..

Many colloidal silver manufacturers claim that if the silver particles are "too large," the resulting brew will prove injurious to the public health.

The truth can be found in many science textbooks. When applying current to solver in solution, metallic silver will always break off at the same size, 1.26 angstroms (.00001 microns). ref: 16 This particle is so small that the next stop on the road to smallness is the atom itself.

Colloids are by nature the smallest particles matter can be divided into while still retaining individual characteristics. Reducing a piece of metallic silver into a cloud of microscopic particles greatly extends its total surface area, and so its healing properties, while deepening its penetration into the body.

Because the silver particles are charged, they strive to combine with other elements in the solution. Trace elements exist even in distilled water, and when the charged silver particles combine with a specific trace element, the solution will turn a number of colors like gray, yellow, green or brown. Whatever element the silver chooses is largely irrelevant.

Once in the body, the silver releases its bond in search of stronger attachments in an effort to stabilize its charge. Therefore, once the silver colloid has entered the body, the original silver particles measuring 1.26 angstroms (about the size of fifteen atoms) quickly pass through the stomach lining and into the blood stream, where they circulate for about a week before elimination.

Metal Poisoning..

The body's ability to process the tiny atoms of colloidal silver makes silver buildup in the body impossible.

The Environmental Protection Agency's Poison Control Center reports a No Toxicity listing for colloidal silver. In fact, it appears that harmlessness is one of the attributes of the colloid physiology, regardless of content.

For example, when examining a bottle of colloidal minerals from the local health food store I noticed arsenic, nickel and lead among the sixty-five trace minerals listed in the contents. ref: 17 In other words, if the particles are small enough, you can even drink arsenic.

Since the body is known to have a vital need for silver to maintain both the immune system and the production of new healthy cells, and due to the harmonious nature of colloids entering the body (our blood is also a colloid), it stands within reason that colloidal silver may literally be the safest medicine on earth.

Argyria..

So how do you frighten people away from the safest and most powerful medicine on earth? You tell them that the bogeyman will get them. If they're too sophisticated for that, tell them they'll get a strange, archaic disease like Argyria. Actually, there is no record of anyone ever contracting Argyria from colloidal silver made by the electrolytic method. ref: 18

Argyria is a harmless and infrequent cosmetic condition where some parts of the body take on a slight bluish cast due to ingesting chemical compounds of which silver is only one component. Argyria did not seem to bother the royal "blue blood" families of Europe, who stayed healthy throughout the plagues of the Middle Ages by ingesting large amounts of silver.

About Good Bacteria..

Some say that consuming large amounts of colloidal silver over long periods of time may kill friendly bacteria in your intestines.

Personally, I have seen no evidence of beneficial bacteria ever being harmed. This issue is not a problem, and unlike antibiotics, colloidal silver does not weaken the body's immune system. In fact, it is said to give the body a second immune system, creating a shield against disease of all kinds.

Just to prove a point to myself, I made a sixteen-ounce solution of well over 250-ppm and drank it. I repeated this procedure every day for four days in a row. I easily drank the equivalent of fifty sixteen-ounce glasses of 5-ppm colloidal silver every day! I did not eat yogurt, acidophilus, or compensate for friendly bacteria loss in any way.

The only side effect was that I just seemed to feel better. This makes sense according to Capitol Drugs pharmacist Ton Barnes, R.Ph.:

Many strains of pathogenic microbes, viruses, fungi, bacteria or any other single-celled pathogen resistant to other antibiotics are killed on contact by colloidal silver, and are unable to mutate. However, it does not harm tissue-cell enzymes and friendly bacteria.

Silver Heals..

The noted biomedical researcher from Syracuse University, and author of The Body Electric and Cross Currents, Dr. Robert O. Becker, MD, has observed the healing effects of silver. Writing about his experience with older patients, Dr. Becker wrote:

Silver did more than kill disease-causing organisms. It promoted major growth of bone, and accelerated the healing of injured tissues by over 50%.

He also discovered that silver "profoundly stimulates healing in skin and other soft tissues in a way unlike any known natural process.."

Dr. Becker discovered that the silver was promoting a new kind of cell growth, which looked like the cells of children! He wrote:

These cells grew fast producing a diverse and surprising assortment of primitive cell forms able to multiply at a great rate, then differentiate into the specific cells of an organ or tissue that had been injured, even in patients over fifty years old. ref: 20

In a remarkable clinic trial with fourteen elderly patients, Dr. Robert O. Becker inserted silver electrode wire directly into wounds, using the body's own juices for the liquid solution while applying current from the external ends. (The voltage used, 0.9, is too low to cause sensation.)

With this technique, Dr. Becker was able to heal infections inside broken bones, one of the worst kinds of infections to control, as well as heal actual bone fractures and breaks which had previously failed to heal. In some cases he left silver surgically implanted in the body. In others, he sewed the wound up around the protruding silver electrode wire. Once the wound had healed, "the implanted silver wire was easily withdrawn from the wound manually without the need for surgery or anesthesia."

Silver..
The Natural Antiseptic

Regarding the innate ability of metallic silver to control infection, Dr. Becker said, "All of the organisms that we tested were sensitive to the electrically generated silver ion, including some that were resistant to all known antibiotics."

Regarding the safety of pure silver being inserted into the body, Dr. Becker said, "In no case were any undesirable side effects of the silver treatment apparent."

The healing properties of silver are so all-encompassing that we see researchers expressing amazement time and time again.

Alfred Searle, founder of the pharmaceutical conglomerate, wrote in 1919 that..

Applying colloidal silver to human subjects has been done in a large number of cases with astonishingly successful results. For internal administration, orally or hypodermically it has the advantage of being rapidly fatal to parasites without toxic action on its host. It is quite stable. It protects rabbits from ten times the lethal dose of tetanus or diphtheria toxin. ref: 21

Physicians use silver compounds in seventy percent of all the burn centers in the United States. British Airways, Swissair, Scandinavian Airlines, Lufthansa, Olympic, Air France, Canadian Pacific Airlines, AlItalia, KLM, Japan Airlines and Pan Am all use silver water filters to curtail waterborne diseases. In fact NASA uses a silver water purification system for the space shuttle and so do the Soviets. Japanese firms even remove cyanide and nitric oxide from the air with silver.

Make you own Silver Colloid

As it is currently marketed through local health food stores, colloidal silver contains anywhere from 1 to 500 parts per million (ppm) and sells for as much as $21.95 for two ounces. An average adult dose might be anywhere from a tablespoon per day to a sixteen ounce tumbler, or more, since no toxic dose is known.

Thanks to one physicist's ref: 14 brilliantly simple design outlined below, you can now construct your own generator and produce unlimited amounts of high-quality colloidal silver concentrate for the price of water! Or you can buy one for less than $100.

Before beginning to make your Colloidal Silver you will need to make a saline solution for enhancing conductivity. If you are using filtered spring water, no saline solution will be needed as spring water already has a natural saline content. If the Silver Colloid is to be ingested or injected, be sure to use distilled water. Tap water is fine for other uses, such as for a topical spray or for plants.

Saline solution can be made by mixing approximately four ounces of distilled water with half a teaspoon of sea salt in a separate container. Do not use common table salt as table salt has chemical additives. After stirring the salt solution for a minute, pour some of the water into an eyedropper bottle.

Now you're ready to make Colloidal Silver. Pour eight ounces of distilled water into your glass. Add 2 or 3 drops of saline solution to water and stir with a plastic/nonconductive utensil. Insert silver electrode wires. Placement of wires is not critical, but they must not be touching each other or the process will stop. (You cannot shock yourself in this process so do not be concerned.) Attach alligator clips to the ends of the silver electrode wires coming over the outside rim of the glass and you will see a gray mist inside the glass start to peel away from the positive polarity wire while bubbles of hydrogen rise from the other.

Laboratory tests show that this method creates a silver colloid of approximately 1-ppm per minute of activation time. Since you are only taking microscopic particles from the silver wire, your silver wire may very well last for a year.

The brightness of the light bulb is related to the conductivity of the water. It is not necessarily a problem if the bulb is very dim or even remains dark as long as the process itself is occurring. Of course, when batteries are old, the light will also become dimmer, signaling it's time for a change. Touch the alligator clips together to test the brightness of the bulb as a battery check. A fresh set of batteries should last a year or more.

When finished, detach alligator clips. Clean silver electrode wire after each use to remove dark oxide on the anode. Use a small piece of 1/4" thick nylon kitchen scouring pad to polish dried silver, then wipe with paper napkin to make ready for next use.

Store your Colloidal Silver in dark, nonconductive (and if plastic, non-reactive) containers, like empty hydrogen peroxide bottles. Keep away from light, as even room light will degrade colloids rapidly by turning solution gray or black just as exposure to light darkens silver in camera film.

Stir thoroughly or shake each time before using. Keep cool, but do not refrigerate. Also, put a few drops of Silver Colloid in the saline solution to prevent fungus growth.

In using your own homemade silver colloid generator it will become apparent that you now have the power to safely protect yourself, your family, your pets and plants, your community, and (through dissemination of this information), our nation, from over 650 pathogens, viruses, microbes, fungi and parasites. Upon creating your first batch of colloidal silver, you will find it tastes the same as untreated water. And it won't sting, even in a baby's eyes.

Make your own Silver Colloid Generator

  • Three 9V-type MN 1604 regular alkaline transistor radio batteries
  • Three battery snap-on lead connectors
  • Two insulated alligator clips
  • One 24V-40mA subminiature incandescent bulb
  • One foot of 3/32" heat shrink insulation tubing
  • One foot of 2-conductor stranded, insulated twisted-wire for clip leads
  • A small box to put it all in
  • Ten inch piece of pure silver wire (.999 fine)

While it has been discovered that 30 volts is the ideal for Silver Colloid production, 27 volts is very effective and happens to be the convenient result of wiring three 9-volt batteries together. This should cost under $30.00 for everything. Assuming some skill with a soldering iron, you should spend about thirty minutes constructing the generator.

Solder your three snap-on battery clips in series (red to black) to provide 27 volts. Connect a 24V incandescent lamp in series with either positive or negative output lead. Solder the red insulated alligator clip to the positive (anode) and the black insulated clip to the negative (cathode) 2 conductor lead wires. Insulation is shrunk over soldered connections using a heat gun or hair dryer.

Cut your 10" of silver wire in half. Bend top ends of your two 5" silver electrode wires so they can clip over the top rim of a plastic or glass cup (not metal). About 4" of each wire should be submerged. WARNING! Use ONLY pure silver (.999 fine) electrodes. #14 gauge is the preferred thickness. Pure silver is sometimes available at electroplating supply companies. Or, inquire at a jewelry store specializing in silver about who their wholesale supplier is. Do not confuse sterling silver (.9275) with pure silver since sterling also contains other metals. With this in mind, you may want to have a chemical analysis (assay) of your purchased silver in addition to the written word of your supplier.

Yellow Colloidal Silver

You may hear of yellow colloidal silver. The reason most manufacturers favor yellow colored colloidal silver is not because it is more effective than other types, but because it has a longer shelf life before falling out of solution. This stability in solution doesn't automatically translate into a smaller combined particle size between the silver ion and the trace element that it has attached itself to. It may simply be that the trace element that the silver has combined with is more water-soluble. In either case it's a moot point.

Simply put, the most effective colloidal silver is not a question of color, but of freshness and highest concentration density. ref: 22 I couldn't find any medical evidence that the yellow colloid is more effective than the silver colored colloid. Nevertheless, I include a recipe for yellow colloidal silver so people can compare the effects of the yellow and silver solutions for themselves.

Yellow colloidal silver can be made by using distilled water and no saline, or very little. Because the water is not as conductive as water containing more saline, the process time needs to be extended.

1. Pour hot water (approximately 150F) into a sixteen-ounce glass.
2. Add only 1 drop of saline solution.
3. Run generator for 20 minutes.

Color will usually deepen after sitting for a number of hours. Concentration will be around 10 parts per million (ppm).

Making Colloidal Silver
In High Concentrations

Extending the process time to make higher concentrations of colloidal silver can be both inefficient and costly for replacing batteries. A smart chemist knows you should always heat the water first to create high concentrations. With this in mind, fifteen minutes of process time should be sufficient to create any desired potency.

For every 10 degrees that the water is heated above room temperature (72F), the parts per million (ppm) will be doubled. Therefore, if 5 ppm resulted after seven minutes of activation with sixteen ounces of water at 72F, then 82F would yield 10-ppm, and 92F would deliver 20-ppm, etc.

You should not boil the water; however, there is still a great deal of leeway between 72F and 212F (boiling). For heating purposes, do not use a teapot because of the pot's calcification. Use something cleaner, like a stainless steel cooking pot before pouring water into a glass.

Surviving With Colloidal Silver

Were I to end up in the midst of calamity, I would need only water to have one of the most powerful medical resources in the world at my disposal. (Technically, colloidal silver can be made in a variety of common liquids, including beer or soup, but I'm not recommending anyone do this in the normal course of events.)

Under emergency conditions, it would be good to remember that silver coins from 1964 or earlier contain 90 percent silver, 9 percent copper and 1 percent zinc, all of which are known to have beneficial properties if used in a colloidal state. (Keep in mind that copper is known to block the body's absorption of zinc, which could lead to a zinc deficiency in time.)

The coins would have to be scoured until they were clean and shiny before using. This is mentioned purely as an intellectual consideration and is not a recommendation that anyone undertake any such action under normal conditions. Silver electrode wire is much easier to use.

So what doesn't colloidal silver do? It doesn't interact with any other medications. It doesn't upset the stomach, and, in fact, is a digestion aid. It does not sting in the eyes. Medical journal reports and documented studies spanning the past 100 years indicate no known side effects from oral or IV administration of colloidal silver in animal or human testing. Colloidal silver has been used with good results under the most demanding health care circumstances. ref: 23

Without overstating the case, it may be time to recognize colloidal silver as not only the safest medicine on Earth, but also the most powerful!

References

1. “Medical malpractice alone kills an estimated 45,000 people annually (in the US), making it the leading cause of accidental injury and death.”—Adriane Fugh-Berman, MD

2. As many as 14,000 people die in Australian hospitals every year through preventable mistakes, ranging from misdiagnosis to being given the wrong drugs. This makes hospitals the third-largest killer in Australia after heart disease and cancer. For those who survive, between 25,000 and 30,000 patients are left with a serious and permanent disability as a result of such mistakes. —The Sydney Morning Herald, 6/2/95 and the New Scientist, 6/10/95

3. Using statistics from the 1984 Harvard study, the National Safety Council and other sources, the Campaign to Protect Consumer Tights says that more people die in the US from medical negligence than any other accidental cause. If these statistics are valid, medical errors kill more people each year than automobiles, falls, drowning, fires, choking, guns and poisons combined.

4. “Only 10 to 20 percent of all medical procedures currently used in medical practice have been shown to be efficacious by controlled trial. –US Office of Technology Assessment

5. Encyclopedia Britannica, 1910

6. Health Consciousness Magazine, Val. 15, no. 4

7. Colloidal Silver is proven particularly effective in cases of intestinal troubles. Dr. Henry Crooks found that Silver in the colloidal state is highly germicidal, quite harmless to humans and absolutely nontoxic. Rather than in a chemical compound, the Silver, in the colloidal state, may be applied in a much more concentrated form, with correspondingly better results. All fungus, virus, bacterium, streptococcus, staphylococcus, and other pathogenic organisms are killed in three or four minutes; in fact, there is no microbe known that is not killed by Colloidal Silver in six minutes or less, a dilution of as little as five parts per million, though there are no side effects whatsoever from high concentrations. –“Use of Colloids in Health and Disease,” quoted in “Report: Colloidal Silver.” Health Consciousness, Vol. 15, no. 4.

8. “(Colloidal Silver) is not a chemical compound containing Silver, but pure metallic silver of submicroscopic clusters of just a few atoms, held in suspension in pure water, by the tiny electric charge on each atom.” –Health Consciousness, vol. 15, no. 4.

9. As an antibiotic, Silver kills over 650 disease-causing organisms; resistant strains fail to develop. Silver is absolutely nontoxic. Silver is the best all-around germ fighter we have. Doctors are reporting that, taken internally, it works against syphilis, cholera, and malaria, diabetes and severe burns. –Bio/Tech News, 1995

10. Dr. Bjorn Nordstrom, of the Karolinska Institute (Sweden’s equivalent of our National Institutes of Health), has used Silver in his cancer cure method for many years. He says the whole thing is quite simple. This brought rapid remission in patients given up by other doctors. –“Silver, Our Mightiest Germ Fighter” Science Digest, March 1978.

11. Metallic Silver (Colloid) is nontoxic, however, silver nitrate and other compounds of silver are and should not be ingested. –Dr. Bob Beck

12. Environmental Protection Agency’s Poison Control Center reports no toxicity listing for Colloidal Silver, Considering it harmless in any concentration.

13. The FDA has stated that because Colloidal Silver is (by fifty years) a pre-1938 drug, it may continue to be marketed. Sept. 13, 1991, letter received from consumer safety officer Harold Davis, U.S., Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, the FDA has no jurisdiction regarding a pure, mineral element.

14. The following significant adverse events have occurred following administration of DTP Vaccines: inconsolable crying for more than 3 hours (1/100 doses, high-pitched unusual crying (1/1000 doses), fever higher than 105 degrees Fahrenheit (1/330 doses), transient shock-like (hypotonic, hyporesponsive) episode (1/1750 doses), convulsions (1/1,750 doses), sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). (Interestingly, no percentage of SIDS is given-author). Encephalopathy occurring within 7 days following vaccination, and generally consisting of major alterations in consciousness, unresponsiveness, generalized or focal seizures that persist more than a few hours, with failure to recover within 24 hours. Studies have indicated that a personal or family history of seizures is associated with increased frequency of seizures following pertussis immunization, The ACIP and AAP do not consider a family history of seizures to be a contraindication to pertussis vaccine despite the increased risk of seizures in these individuals. As reported with Haemophilus b polysaccharide vaccine, cases of Haemophilus type b disease nay occur… --Excerpts from Lederle-Praxis Biologicals’ own DPT Vaccine package insert. Lederle-Praxis Biologicals is a division of American Cyanamid, which is itself a division of I. G. Farbin, the former Nazi chemical combine who manufactured Zyclon-B. Zyclon-B was the nerve gas used for exterminating millions of human beings in concentration camps. “Concentration” stands for mass “concentrations” of civilian population. In other words, a complete cross-section, including infants, children, senior citizens, etc.

15. Plating out is when the metallic particles of a colloid fall out of suspension by either attaching themselves to the sides of the storage container or simply by settling to the bottom. This creates two problems: (1.) When ingesting colloidal silver, less silver will enter the body because it’s attached to the sides of the container. (2.) Silver particles that enter the body without their electrical charge will have more difficulty in penetrating the stomach wall or in attaching themselves to the cells of the body. Plastic containers build up electrical charge, which can cause plating out, therefore, either non-reactive plastic containers such as hydrogen peroxide bottles, or tinted glass bottles should be used for storage.

16. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 56th edition, 1975-76, page F209.

17. Ameriflax, mineral 72 colloidal minerals product contains 7 major and 65 trace minerals including arsenic, nickel, lead and iodine.

18. After extensive studies Sir Malcolm Morris concluded, “Colloidal silver is free from the drawbacks of other preparations of silver, viz. the pain caused and the discoloration of the skin; indeed, instead of producing irritation it has a distinctly soothing effect.”

19. Treatment of Orthopedic Infections with Electrically Generated Silver Ions. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American Volume, October 1978. Vol. 60-A, no. 7

20. “To qualify for this study, patients had to have a long-standing infection involving bone and to have had standard treatment with antibiotics and wound care without success.”

21. “Colloidal Preparations of Silver in Pharmacy” British Medical Journal, 1919

22. “Use of Colloids in Health and Disease.” Dr. Henry Crooks found that silver in the colloidal state is highly germicidal, quite harmless to humans and absolutely nontoxic. Rather than in a chemical compound, silver in the colloidal state may be applied in a much more concentrated form with correspondingly better results.

23. “Silver aids the developing fetus in growth, health, and eases the delivery and recovery”. –“Report: Colloidal Silver”, Health Consciousness, Vol. 15, no. 4.

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TINY INGREDIENTS BIG RISKS

 

NANOMATERIALS RAPIDLY ENTERING FOOD AND FARMING

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

 

This report was written by Ian Illuminato, Friends of the Earth-U.S. This report includes updated sections from a Friends of the Earth-U.S., Australia, and Germany (BUND) 2008 report, “Out of the laboratory and onto our plates: Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture.” We would like to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Danielle Fugere and Austin Wilson, As You Sow and Jaydee Hanson, Center for Food Safety.

 

About Friends of the Earth

 

Friends of the Earth-U.S., founded by David Brower in 1969, is the U.S. voice of the world’s largest federation of grassroots environmental groups, with a presence in 74 countries. Friends of the Earth works to defend the environment and champion a more healthy and just world. Through our 45-year history, we have provided crucial leadership in campaigns resulting in landmark environmental laws, precedent-setting legal victories and groundbreaking reforms of domestic and international regulatory, corporate and financial institution policies. www.foe.org  Any errors or omissions in this report are the responsibility of Friends of the Earth.

 

© May 2014 by Friends of the Earth.

 

This report has been edited to reflect new information as of June 13, 2014. Companies who have recently claimed they do not introduce nanoscale titanium dioxide into products highlighted on our nanofoods list have been removed. Friends of the Earth removed 11 products from our nanofoods product list to reflect claims made by companies regarding their use of nanomaterials. We have also added an additional 2 recently confirmed nanofood products to our list. We encourage companies to inquire with their suppliers about the use of nanomaterials (beyond just titanium dioxide) in all products they offer. Lack of labeling laws and regulation in this area make it very difficult to assess the presence of these potentially hazardous ingredients in food, beverages and other products. Please note that Friends of the Earth has not conducted tests on products and cannot guarantee the nanomaterial content of brands on our nanofoods product list. For the purpose of this report we use the term “nano” to include particles up to 1,000 nm in size, due to the evidence of nano-specific problems associated with particles up to this size range.

 

CONTENTS

 

 

Executive summary................................................... 4

 

 

1. Introduction ..................................................... 10

a. What is nanotechnology?

b. Definition of nanomaterials for health and safety assessment

c. Manufactured vs. incidental nanoparticles

d. Nanomaterials are already used widely for their novel properties

e. Why are food and agriculture companies interested in nanotechnology?

f. Edible food coatings

2. Health concerns: Why nanoparticles pose new risks...................... 15

a. Specific health concerns with nanomaterials in food and food contact materials

b. Nano supplements may cause health problems

c. Migration of nanomaterials from packaging

d. Nanoparticles and the link to Crohn’s disease and immune system dysfunction

e. Health concerns for workers

3. Nanofoods out on the market........................................ 20

4. Nanofoods and nanoagriculture pose new environmental risks ............. 25

a. Nanomaterials now in commercial use pose serious ecological hazards

b. Impacts on aquatic ecosystems

c. Impacts on soils

d. Bioaccumulation of nanomaterials

e. Risks from pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients

f. The intentional environmental release of nano-agrochemicals is of great concern

g. Nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology pose even more uncertain hazards

h. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food production has broader environmental costs

5. Nanofood regulatory gaps must be urgently addressed.................... 31

6. Urgently needed research .......................................... 32

7. Recommendations ................................................ 33

8. References ...................................................... 36

TINY INGREDIENTS, BIG RISKS

 

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

 

This new analysis by Friends of the Earth documents a 10-fold increase in unregulated, unlabeled “nanofood” products on the American market over the past six years. A growing body of science suggests that these materials pose risks to the health of consumers, workers and the environment. Nanomaterials are produced by way of nanotechnology and are now found in a broad range of products. Nanotechnology has been provisionally defined as relating to materials, systems and processes, which exist or operate at a scale of 100 nanometers (nm) or less. However, this definition is still in flux, and some U.S. and EU regulators define nanomaterials as being in a size range of less than 1,000 nm across for drugs and other purposes. Nanotechnology involves the manipulation of materials and the creation of structures and systems at the scale of atoms and molecules, the nanoscale. The properties and effects of nanoscale particles and materials differ significantly from larger particles of the same chemical composition. According to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, foods containing nanomaterials are rapidly entering the market at a rate of three to four per week. The number of nanofood and beverage products we know to be on the market has grown to 87—a more than tenfold increase in six years. In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food and agriculture, “Out of the laboratory and onto our plates: Nanotechnology in food and agriculture.” Six years later, the U.S. Government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially dangerous food ingredients, despite the fact that the number of nanofoods on the market is expanding rapidly.

 

Key findings of this report include:

 

• Nanomaterials are found in a broad array of common foods. Many food items that Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients. These include familiar products such as processed and cream cheeses, cookies, doughnuts, coffee creamer, chocolate syrup and other chocolate products, pudding, mayonnaise, mashed potatoes, milk, soy, almond, and rice beverages, mints, gum, popcorn, salad dressing and oils, yogurt, cereal, candy, crackers, pasta and sports drinks. There is also mounting evidence that nanomaterials are being used to package and preserve fresh fruit and vegetable products, which could threaten the integrity of staple healthy foods.

 

• The amount of nanofood we know to be on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. In 2008 we found 8 food and beverage products with nano-ingredients on the market. In 2014, the number of nanofood and beverage products we know to be on the market has grown to 87—a more than tenfold increase in six years. This analysis is based on information documented in the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ Project on Emerging Technologies Consumer Products Database, however, the rapid growth in nanofood products on the market has yet to be analyzed or reported on in mainstream media. These products are being made by major companies including Kraft, General Mills, Hershey, Nestle, Mars, Unilever, Smucker’s and Albertsons. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of food and beverage products containing undisclosed nanomaterials is likely much greater.

 

• Major food companies are investing billions in nanofood and nanopackaging.

Roughly 200 transnational food companies are currently investing in nanotech and are on their way to commercializing products. The nanofoods market is expected to grow to US$20.4 billion by 2020.

 

• An increasingly large body of peer-reviewed evidence indicates some nanomaterials may harm human health and the environment. Nanomaterials have unique properties that offer many new opportunities for food industry applications, such as potent nutritional additives, stronger flavorings and colorings, or antibacterial ingredients for food packaging. However, these same properties may also result in greater toxicity for humans and the environment. Nanoparticles pose new risks because:

 

-They can be more chemically reactive and more bioactive than larger particles of the same chemicals.

 

– Due to their very small size, nanoparticles also have much greater access to our bodies, so they are more likely than larger particles to enter cells, tissues and organs. – Greater bioavailability and greater bioactivity may introduce new toxicity risks. – They can compromise our immune system response.

 

– They may have long-term pathological effects. Nanoparticles of silver, titanium dioxide, zinc and zinc oxide, materials now used in nutritional supplements, food packaging and food contact materials, have been found to be highly toxic to cells in test tube and animal studies. Preliminary environmental studies also suggest that these substances may be toxic to ecologically significant species such as certain crustaceans, which are an important part of the food chain. Yet there is still no nanotechnology-specific regulation or safety testing required before manufactured nanomaterials can be used in food, food packaging, or agricultural products. Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nanosilver in consumer products will further increase the problem of antibiotic-resistant superbugs.

 

Nano titanium dioxide (Ti02)

 

Most of the nanomaterial food products Friends of the Earth identifies in this report contain nano titanium dioxide. In laboratory studies, nanoparticles

of titanium dioxide have been found to be immunologically active, meaning they cause a reaction from the body’s defensive system. Recent studies have indicated these particles may play an important role in the initiation or exacerbation of

gastrointestinal inflammation, by adsorbing bacterial fragments and then carrying them across the gastro-intestinal tract.

 

Nano-silver

 

In the Woodrow Wilson inventory of nano products, silver is the most common nanomaterial mentioned in product descriptions. A recent court case in the United States found that the use of nano-silver was ‘ubiquitous’ and that there was no way for consumers to avoid exposure. Food and food contact products identified as containing nano-silver include baby bottles, food containers, packaging, cutting boards, salad bowls, appliances, cutlery, ice trays, filtration devices and collapsible coolers. In agriculture it is used in poultry production and agricultural and aquacultural disinfectants. There is mounting evidence that nanosilver may

have greater toxic effects when compared with bulk silver. Nano-silver can better penetrate biological barriers and attach itself to the outside of cells. Nanoscale silver can also enter the bloodstream and reach all organs of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow and nervous tissue.[F1]  Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of nano-silver, a finding made disturbing by a recent study that found exposure to nano-silver caused zebra fish embryos to develop with head abnormalities and no eyes. Zebra fish have been widely used as a model organism for the study of embryological development in other vertebrates including humans. Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nano-silver in consumer products will further increase the problem of

antibiotic-resistant superbugs.

 

Nanomaterials raise concerns for the health of workers In the food sector, workers may come into contact with nanomaterials during production, packaging, transport, distribution and waste disposal of food and agrochemicals. To date, there is very little data relating to the exposure of workers to nanomaterials. Studies have shown that nanomaterials can enter the bloodstream via the lungs, raising major occupational health and safety concerns.

 

• Nanotechnology also poses broader challenges to the development of more sustainable food and farming systems Against the backdrop of climate change, there is growing public interest in reducing the distances that food travels between producers and consumers. Nanotechnology appears likely to promote transport of fresh and processed foods over even greater distances. It has the potential to further concentrate corporate control of global agriculture and food systems and entrench systems of reliance on chemical and energy-intensive

agriculture technologies. The erosion of local farmers’ control of food production is also a source of concern.

 

Nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment in the absence of regulations Conventional agrochemicals have polluted soils and waterways and have caused substantial disruption to ecosystems. Exposure to agrochemicals has also been linked with greater incidence of cancer and serious reproductive problems among agricultural workers and their families. Consequently, it is of great concern that nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment, absent regulations that require product manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of new, more potent nanoscale formulations of existing chemicals.

 

• U.S. regulation of nanomaterials is wholly inadequate and leaves consumers, workers and the environment at risk A growing number of civil society organizations worldwide have called for precautionary management of nanotechnology, culminating in the release of “Principles for the Oversight of

Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.” More than 70 groups from six continents have endorsed that document. While the U.S. FDA is charged with ensuring “the safety and security of our nation’s food supply,” at this time the agency has merely offered nonbinding guidance to industry on the use of

nanomaterials in food. However, the agency’s 2012 draft guidance on the use of nanomaterials in food warns about the different properties of nanomaterials compared to ingredients used in traditional manufactured food substances. Nevertheless, the lack of established regulations allows nanofood products to remain on the market while the public takes up potential health risks. The extent to which nanomaterials are used along the food chain continues to be shrouded with mystery. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has legal powers to compel nano agrochemicals manufacturers to provide toxicity data and to demonstrate product safety — that is, to place the burden of proof on the manufacturers. Producers of pesticide products must submit scientific and technical data for EPA review. However, according to a U.S. General Accountability Office report, “EPA estimated that companies provided information on only about 10 percent of the nanomaterials that are likely to be commercially available. EPA also reported that in its review of data submitted through its data collection program there were instances in which the details of the manufacturing, processing, and use of the nanomaterials, as well as exposure and toxicity data, were not provided.” Moreover, the extent to which nanomaterials are used along the food chain continues to be shrouded with mystery due to the lack of publicly accessible product registries or product labels made mandatory by our regulators, leaving consumers, workers, other companies along the supply chain and even regulators in the dark. [F2] 

 

Recommendations:

Given the potentially serious health and environmental risks and social implications associated with nanofoods, Friends of the Earth is calling for:

 

A moratorium on the further commercial release of food products, food packaging, food contact materials and agrochemicals that contain manufactured

nanomaterials until nanotechnology-specific safety and labeling laws are established and the public is involved in decision-making[F3] .

 

What government must do:

 

Nanomaterials must be regulated as new substances.

 

• All manufactured nanomaterials must be subject to safety assessments as new substances, even where the properties of their larger scale counterparts

are well known.

• All deliberately manufactured nanomaterials must be subject to rigorous nano-specific health and environmental impact assessment and demonstrated

to be safe prior to approval for commercial use in foods, food packaging, food contact materials or agricultural applications.

• Assessments must be based on the precautionary principle and the onus must be on manufacturers to comprehensively demonstrate the safety of their product. No data, no market.

• Safety assessment must be based on the nano content of products, not marketing claims.

• Safety assessment must include the product’s entire life cycle.

 

The size-based definition of nanomaterials must be extended.

 

All particles up to 1,000 nm in size must be considered to be “nanomaterials” for the purposes of health and environment assessment, given the early evidence that they may pose health risks similar to particles less than 100 nm in size which have to date been defined as “nano.” Transparency in safety assessment and product labeling is essential.

 

• All relevant data related to safety assessments, and the methodologies used to obtain them, must be placed in the public domain. ù All manufactured nano-ingredients must be clearly indicated on product labels to allow members of the public to make an informed choice about product use. ù The presence of nanomaterials must be disclosed to workers and other downstream users along the supply chain. Public involvement in decision-making is required.

 

• The public, including all affected stakeholder groups, must be involved in all aspects of decision making regarding nanotechnology in food and agriculture. This includes in the development of regulatory regimes, labeling systems, and prioritization of public funding for food and agricultural research. People’s right to avoid nanofoods must be recognized explicitly. Support for sustainable food and farming is needed.

 

• The assessment of food and agricultural nanotechnology, in the context of wider societal needs for sustainable food and farming, must be incorporated into relevant decision making processes.

 

What industry must do:

 

Food producers and retailers must respect people’s right to healthy foods, in which all ingredients have been proven safe. Food producers and retailers must

stop selling nanofood, nanofood packaging, nanofood contact materials and nano-agrochemicals until:

• The public is involved in decision making.

• Nanotechnology-specific regulation is put in place to protect the public, workers and the environment from potential new hazards associated with nano-toxicity.

• All manufactured nano-ingredients are clearly indicated on product labels, allowing members of the public to make an informed choice about product use.

• The presence of nanomaterials is disclosed to workers and other downstream users along the supply chain.

• Manufacturers work with regulators to ensure that their products have undergone appropriate safety testing, and provide the relevant data regarding

the health and environmental safety of their product. No data, no market.

• All relevant data related to safety assessments, and the methodologies used to obtain them, are placed in the public domain.

• All food and agricultural products which include manufactured nanomaterials are clearly labeled to allow members of the public, workers and farmers

to make an informed choice. What concerned individuals and organizations can do: Until we can move our government and companies to manage nanotechnology in a responsible and transparent manner, there are steps we can take to protect our health and the environment. Avoiding nanofoods and supporting a sustainable, just food system

 

• Avoid eating highly processed foods and eat more fresh food instead[F4] . Processed foods not only have higher environmental costs of production and have lower nutritional value, they are also a large source of incidentally produced nanoparticles in foods. • Avoid highly packaged foods — packaging is

energy intensive and produces lots of waste and is often unnecessary. Let your local food outlets and the manufacturers of your favourite foods know that you want to see less food packaging.

• Choose food that is healthy for you and the environment, and pays a fair wage to food producers. There are many simple steps we can all take to make food choices that are good for our health, good for the environment, and that support fair

conditions for farmers.

• Make environmentally friendly food and farming choices — look out for the organic label at your supermarket or store.[F5] 

• Support local food producers and small scale retailers and buy directly from local farmers, butchers and bakers. You could even consider joining a food co-operative or bulk-buying scheme.

• Support the right of communities to control local food trade, including deciding how food is grown, who can sell it and what can be imported. Hold government and industry to account for nanofoods

 

• Write to your local representatives and members of state, federal and regional government, requesting their support for a moratorium on the use of all nanotechnology in the food sector. Demand that governments regulate and label

food, food packaging and agricultural products that contain manufactured nanomaterials before allowing any further commercial sales.

• Ensure that food and agricultural manufacturers take seriously public concerns about nanofoods. Contact the manufacturers of foods you eat often and ask them about what steps they are taking to keep unsafe, untested nanomaterials out of the food they sell.

• Insist that governments and industry take seriously the risks of occupational exposure to nanomaterials for food and agricultural workers. If you are concerned about nano-exposure in your work place, talk with your colleagues or your union representative about opportunities for collective action to secure a safe work place.

• Contact civil society organizations you think may be interested in taking action to ensure precautionary management of the use of nanotechnology in fod and agriculture applications. Find out what environment, public health, farmers and civil liberties organizations in your neighborhood are doing to work towards alternative food systems that deliver positive environmental and social

outcomes. Visit our website to learn more about nanotechnology or to support our work for safe food, and a just, resilient and sustainable food system.

 

Friends of the Earth-United States

 

http://www.foe.org/projects/food-and-technology/ nanotechnology

 

1. INTRODUCTION

In the past three decades the number of food products available to the American public has grown immensely. While our modern food system has brought about an ever-increasing variety of “food” options for consumers to purchase, this increased variety has also delivered the burden of potentially harmful ingredients—most recently, nanomaterials. Nanomaterials are produced by way of nanotechnology and are now found in a broad range of products. According to the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, foods containing nanomaterials are rapidly entering the market at a rate of three to four per week.

 

In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food and agriculture, “Out of the laboratory and onto our

plates: Nanotechnology in food and agriculture.” Six years later, the U.S. government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially hazardous food ingredients, despite the fact that the number of “nanofoods” on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of undisclosed nanomaterials in food is likely much greater. Simultaneously, an increasingly large body of peer-reviewed evidence indicates some nanomaterials, including those used in our food system, may harm human health and the environment.

 

This rapid introduction of nanomaterials into our food system has been driven by billions of dollars of investment by roughly 200 transnational food companies in nanofood and nanopackaging, with the nanofoods market expected to grow to US$20.4 billion by 2020. Unfortunately, many food items that Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients. These include familiar products such as processed and cream cheeses, cookies, doughnuts, coffee creamer, chocolate syrup and other chocolate products, pudding, mayonnaise, mashed potatoes, milk, soy, almond, and rice beverages, mints, gum, popcorn, salad dressing and oils, yogurt, cereal, candy, crackers, pasta, and sports drinks. There is also mounting evidence that suggests nanomaterials are being used to package and preserve fresh fruit and vegetable products, a dangerous trend that could threaten the integrity of staple healthy foods. These products are manufactured and sold by major food companies including Kraft, General Mills, Hershey, Nestle, Mars, Unilever, Smucker’s and Albertsons. Due to a lack of required labeling and disclosure, the number of undisclosed nanomaterials in food is likely much greater. This report will examine the rapid increase in nanomaterials entering our food system since the release of our 2008 report, including the development of new food and food-contact nano-products. It will provide a review of trends in nanotechnology and of the current literature relating to the potential environmental, health and safety impacts associated with nanotechnology and a summary of United States regulatory responses to date. Six years ago, inaction on this issue was based on a perceived lack of data. Inaction is still the norm, but the lack of data is no longer an excuse that regulators and industry can use. While it is certainly true that environmental, health and safety research is not keeping with the pace of commercialization, the volume of information and studies now available is enormous. Governments, scientists and scientific bodies such as the U.S. National Research Council have presented more than sufficient evidence to justify a proactive regulatory regime and a properly funded research program that will effectively target those areas of greatest environmental and health concern. A growing number of civil society organizations worldwide have called for precautionary management of nanotechnology, culminating in the release of “Principles for the Oversight of Nanotechnologies and Nanomaterials.”1 More than 70 groups from six continents have endorsed this document. Unfortunately, there is little sign of willingness by government to provide the levels of funding required to support such work or to adopt appropriate regulation. The notion of precaution has been replaced with an attitude that it is the obligation of industry to determine whether their products are safe and that regulators will only act when harm is shown. While France, Belgium and Denmark have implemented a

mandatory register for nanomaterials, and the EU is in the process of implementing a nanofood labeling regime, which begins this year, U.S. consumers remain in the dark. This situation will need to change if we are to

protect consumers and our environment.

 

What is nanotechnology?

 

The term “nanotechnology” does not describe a singular technology, but rather encompasses a range of technologies that operate at the scale of the building blocks of biological and manufactured materials — the “nanoscale.”

There is still no internationally accepted set of definitions and measurement systems for nanotechnology, although work towards these has begun.

However, the term “nanotechnology” is now generally understood to encompass both nanoscience and the broad range of technologies that operate at the nanoscale.

 

• Nanoscience: The study of phenomena and materials at the atomic, molecular and macromolecular scales, where properties differ significantly from those at the larger scale. • Nanotechnology: design, characterization, production and application of structures, devices and systems by controlling shape and size at the

nanoscale.

• Nanomaterials: particles, nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, fullerenes (buckyballs) etc. To put the nanoscale in context: a strand of DNA is 2.5 nm wide, a red blood cell 7,000 nm and a human hair is 80,000 nm wide. One nanometer is one billionth of a meter. One way to understand how incredibly tiny these particles are is to consider a tennis ball in comparison with planet Earth. On scale, a tennis ball is the same size in relation to Earth as a nanoparticle is to a tennis ball.

 

Definition of nanomaterials for health and safety assessment

 

It should be noted that there exists an emerging trend to define nanotechnology as only applying to materials, structures and systems that measure no more than 100 nm in size. This distinction is quite artificial, especially from the viewpoint of biological interactions. The definition of nanomaterials is still in flux: the U.S. Food and Drug Administration uses a definition of 1-1,000 nm for drugs and requests information for ingredients less than 1,000 nm in size for other products it regulates. The European Medicines Agency also defines nanotechnology in a size range of less than 1,000 nm across. Many small particles, which measure more than 100 nm present a similar suite of physiological and anatomical behaviors, for example greater reactivity, bioactivity and bioavailability.2 When considering the health and environmental implications of nanoparticles, their size range must be more broadly defined. It is essential to also consider the hazards associated with sub-micron (100-1,000 nm) particles, and microparticles (greater than 1,000nm).[F6]  In a 2010 report, the UK’s House of Lords Science and Technology Committee recommended that any definition of a nanomaterial must be based on evidence for behavior that is different from that seen in the bulk, rather than some arbitrary size such as 100 nm[F7] .3 The authors of a review of the nanotoxicological implications of nanomedicines suggest that: “In practice, the useful range of nanomedicines more normally falls within the range of 5-250 nm as these tend to have a similar range of properties based on physiological and anatomical consequences.”4 Researchers investigating the biological effects of nanoparticles have also defined their relevant size range to be up to a few hundred nanometres.5 Still other researchers publishing in the drug delivery6 and food7,8 literature have argued that a useful size definition for nanomaterials used in these fields is 1-1,000nm. The problematic nature of the arbitrary 100 nm ceiling on what is considered to be a nanoparticle or nanomaterial for the purposes of future health and safety assessments is underscored by studies showing that small particles outside this size range can pose greater health hazards than particles within it. Wang et al conducted an in vivo study in which 20 nm and 120 nm particles of zinc oxide powder were fed to mice.9 Both nanoparticles resulted in organ damage and thickening of the test animals’ blood, but it appeared that the larger nanoparticles actually resulted in greater liver damage. In another in vivo experiment, mice were fed high doses of 58 nm and 1,058 nm zinc powder. The microparticle zinc caused more severe liver damage, while the nanoparticle zinc caused anaemia and more severe kidney damage.10 For the purpose of this report we use the term “nano” to include particles up to 1,000 nm in size, due to the evidence of nano-specific problems associated with particles up to this size range. We urge regulators to also adopt this definition to

assess and manage the health and environmental hazards of nanoparticles. The health and environmental hazards of nanoparticles should be based on physiological and anatomical behaviors of small particles, rather than arbitrary size distinctions.

 

Manufactured vs. incidental nanoparticles

 

Manufactured nanoparticles are those which are deliberately produced, in contrast to nanoparticles that “exist in nature,” or are by-products of other

human activities. Manufactured nanomaterials include nanoparticles (e.g. metal oxides), and also nanostructures such as nanotubes, nanowires, quantum dots, dendrimers and carbon fullerenes (buckyballs), among others.  “Incidental” nanoparticles (also called ultrafine particles in the study of air pollution and its epidemiology) are a by-product of forest fires, volcanoes, vehicle

combustion and high-temperature industrial processes including combustion, welding, and grinding.11 Much of the discussion about the health and environmental implications of nanoparticles is focused on manufactured nanoparticles. However, many of the safety and regulatory issues relating to manufactured nanoparticles are also relevant to incidentally produced nanoparticles. For example, we know that exposure to large levels of incidental nanoparticles in urban air pollution causes increased incidence of disease and even death among vulnerable sections of the population.12 It is important to ensure that workers, the public and environmental systems are protected from unsafe exposure to and production of incidental nanoparticles. Nanomaterials are already used widely for their novel properties At the nanoscale, the physical, chemical and optical properties of familiar substances differ from those of

the substances in larger particle form. For example, in larger particle form zinc oxide is white and opaque; as a nanoparticle zinc oxide is transparent,

enabling it to be used to provide UV protection in products such as transparent cling wrap packaging. In nanoparticle form, the antimicrobial properties of

silver are far greater, a property which has encouraged manufacturers to use it in chopping boards, refrigerators, food storage containers and food packaging.

Altered properties of nanoparticles are a result of both the influence of “quantum mechanics” and the much greater relative surface area that nanomaterials have compared with larger particles. The large surface area of nanomaterials results in their increased chemical reactivity and biological activity[F8] ,13 making them attractive for use in food fortification or as antimicrobials in food packaging. However, the altered properties of nanomaterials, especially their high chemical reactivity and greater capacity to penetrate biological membranes, also present serious new toxicity risks.14 Nanomaterials are ‘first generation’ products of nanotechnology and have been the first nanoproducts to enter wide-scale commercial use. They are used in hundreds of products that are already available on supermarket shelves, including transparent sunscreens, light-diffracting cosmetics, penetration enhanced moisturisers, stain, moisture and odor repellent fabrics, long lasting paints and furniture varnishes, anti-bacterial household appliances such as vacuum cleaners, refrigerators and air conditioners, and sporting equipment.15 In coming years and decades, “next generation nanotechnology” is forecast to bring more complex nanodevices, nanosystems and nanomachines.16 Nanobiotechnology may be used to manipulate the genetics of human, animals and agricultural plants at the atomic scale, and to incorporate synthetic materials into biological organisms and biological materials into synthetic structures.17

 

Why are food and agriculture companies interested in nanotechnology?

 

Nanotechnology has existing and potential applications in all aspects of agriculture, food processing, food packaging and even farm and food monitoring. These include:

• Methods to enable foods such as soft drinks, ice cream, chocolate or chips

to be marketed as “health” foods[F9]  by reducing fat, carbohydrate or calorie

content or by increasing protein, fiber or vitamin content;

• Production of stronger flavorings, colorings, nutritional additives and processing aids to increase the pace of manufacturing and to lower costs of ingredients and processing;

• Development of foods capable of changing their color, flavor or nutritional

properties according to a person’s dietary needs, allergies or taste

preferences;

• Packaging to increase food shelf life by detecting spoilage, bacteria, or the loss

of food nutrient, and to release antimicrobials, flavors, colors or nutritional

supplements in response; • Reformulation of on-farm inputs to produce more potent fertilizers, plant growth treatments and pesticides that respond to specific conditions or targets.

 

Edible food coatings

 

Manipulation of materials at the nanoscale can allow food scientists to create “edible nanolaminate films” which can be used as barrier layers to prolong shelf life. These films can include lipids or clays as moisture barriers, biopolymers such as carbohydrates as oxygen and carbon dioxide barriers, or nanoparticulates and emulsified nanodroplets, which could contain active ingredients to improve taste, texture or appearance. Antibacterial substances can also be directly integrated into the edible coating, for instance for meat packaging.18 Edible coatings containing engineered nanomaterials are reportedly already being used on fruit and vegetables in markets in the U.S. and Canada in order to extend shelf life. Tests conducted in Central and South American farms and packing stations found a number of fruits with a nano coating, including apples, pears, peppers, cucumbers and other fruits and vegetables delivered to the U.S. and Canada.19

 

The complexity involved in detecting nanomaterials in our food

 

The detection of nanomaterials is a complex matter requiring state-of-the-art as well as experimental devices and techniques, especially when attempting

to quantify or characterize nanomaterials in a complex matrix such as food. The lack of standards and internationally recognized measurement methods, coupled with the shrouding of the nanotechnology industry and reinforced by the lack of

regulation in this area, have created significant challenges to simply understanding where nanomaterials are being used and the reality of their interactions with the public and our environment.

 

2. HEALTH CONCERNS: WHY NANOMATERIALS AND NANOFOODS POSE NEW RISKS

Nanomaterials have unique properties that offer many new opportunities for food industry applications, such as potent nutritional additives, stronger

flavorings and colorings, or antibacterial ingredients for food packaging. However, the same properties exhibited at the nanoscale that make these materials attractive for use in the food industry may also result in greater toxicity for humans and the environment.

 

Nanoparticles pose new risks because:

 

They can be more chemically reactive and more bioactive than larger particles of the same chemicals.

Due to their very small size, nanoparticles also have much greater access to our bodies, so they are more likely than larger particles to enter cells, tissues and organs.

• Greater bioavailability and greater bioactivity may introduce new toxicity risks.[F10] 

They can compromise our immune system response.

• They may have long-term pathological effects. Nanoparticles of silver, titanium dioxide, zinc and zinc oxide, materials now used in nutritional supplements, food packaging and food contact materials, have been found to be highly toxic to

cells in test tube and animal studies. Preliminary environmental studies also suggest that these substances may be toxic to ecologically important

species such as water fleas. Yet there is still no nanotechnology-specific regulation or safety assessment required before manufactured nanomaterials can be used in food, food packaging, or agricultural products. Before the industrial revolution humans faced very limited exposure to insoluble nanoparticles.

Consequently, our bodies have not developed effective clearing mechanisms, as we have with larger particles, to remove them from our lungs, gastro-intestinal tract, tissues and organs[F11] ,. Nanoparticles also show greater adhesion to biological surfaces within our bodies (for example, the walls of our gastrointestinal tract), which can increase rates of uptake[F12] .20 In the July 19, 2012, report, “Effects of Silver Nanoparticles on the Liver and Hepatocytes in vitro,” published in Toxicological Sciences, author Birgit Gaiser, Ph.D., states, At the moment, there is not much information available on the topic of ingested nanoparticles and human health. There is evidence that a small percentage of these particles or particle components [of nano titanium dioxide or nano silver]…can move on from the intestinal tract into the blood, and reach other organs[F13] . This is why we believe it is important to assess the risk of even small amounts of particles in the human body.21 In 2009, a team led by Roel Schins at the Environmental Health Research Institute in Düsseldorf, Germany, published research suggesting that some nanoparticles, including silica and titanium dioxide, can induce DNA damage in human intestinal cells.22 Specific health concerns with nanomaterials in food and food contact materials

 

Silica

 

Uses: Used as a “trickle and flow” aid in powdered food products, as a clearing agent in beer and wine, as a food additive (amorphous silica found to be

nano) and as a food coating. Health concerns: Nanosilica has been found in the livers of rats and mice after oral administration. In vitro studies show a significant percentage of the nanosilica remains undissolved and that “the presence of undissolved nanosilica particles in the gut in vivo is considered likely.”23,24 Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of silica. Scientists have warned that the enhanced sensitivity of the foetus may mean that even low doses of nanomaterials may cause adverse effects.25

 

Nano-silver

 

Uses: In the Woodrow Wilson inventory of nano products, silver is the most common nanomaterial mentioned in product descriptions.26 A recent court case in the United States found that the use of nanosilver was “ubiquitous” and that there was no way for consumers to avoid exposure.27 Food and food contact products identified as containing nanosilver include baby bottles, food containers, packaging, cutting boards, salad bowls, appliances, cutlery, ice trays, filtration devices and collapsible coolers. In agriculture it is used in poultry production and agricultural and aquacultural disinfectants.28 Health concerns: There is mounting evidence that nanosilver may have greater toxic effects when compared with bulk silver. Nano-silver can better penetrate biological barriers and attach itself to the outside of cells.29 Nanoscale silver can also enter the bloodstream and reach all organs of the body, including the brain, heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, bone marrow and nervous tissue. Animal studies have shown placental transfer and fetal uptake of nanosilver,30 which is especially disturbing considering a recent study that found exposure to nano-silver caused zebra fish embryos to develop with head abnormalities and no eyes. Zebra fish have been widely used as a model organism for the study of embryological development in other vertebrates including humans.31 Health experts have also raised concerns that the widespread use of nano-silver in consumer products will further increase the problem of antibiotic-resistant superbugs.32

 

Titanium dioxide

 

Uses: A whitener and brightener in a range of food products Health concerns: The European Chemicals Agency is currently reviewing the safety of titanium dioxide (including the nano form) because of concerns it may be harmful to the environment and human health.33 In contrast to bulk particles of titanium dioxide, nanoscale titanium dioxide is biologically very active. Studies show that titanium dioxide can damage DNA,34 disrupt the function of cells, interfere with the defence activities of immune cells and, by adsorbing fragments of bacteria and “smuggling” them across the gastrointestinal tract, can provoke inflammation.35,36,37,38,39,40 A single high oral dose of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was found to cause significant lesions in the kidneys and livers of female mice.41 In a 2010 study the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment and the German Federal Environment Agency concluded that nanoscale titanium dioxide is a possible carcinogen if inhaled[F14] .42 Nano titanium dioxide is highly mobile in the body and has been detected in both humans and animals in the blood, liver and spleen.43 A study using pregnant mice found that nanoparticles of titanium dioxide were transferred in utero to their offspring. This resulted in brain damage, nerve system damage and reduced sperm production in male offspring.44 A human exposure analysis of titanium dioxide through foods identified children in the 2.5 to 4.5 year age range as having the highest exposures because the titanium dioxide content of sweets is higher than any other food products. It also calculated that a typical exposure for a U.S. adult may be of the order of 1 mg of titanium per kilogram of body weight per day.45 Many of the products Friends of the Earth found to contain nanomaterials specifically contained nano titanium dioxide. In laboratory studies, nanoparticles of titanium dioxide have been found to be immunologically active, causing a reaction from the body’s defensive system. Ashwood et al show that these particles may play an important role in the initiation or exacerbation of gastrointestinal inflammation, by adsorbing bacterial fragments and then carrying them across the gastrointestinal tract. Additionally, in 2013, a team led by Roel Schins at the Environmental Health Research Institute in Düsseldorf, Germany, published research suggesting that some nanoparticles, including silica and titanium dioxide, can induce DNA damage in human intestinal cells.

 

Zinc oxide (ZnO)

 

Uses: Surface coatings

 

Health Concerns: Nanoscale zinc oxide is toxic when ingested and has been found to cause lesions in the liver, pancreas, heart and stomach.46 A recent review of the safety of nano zinc oxide by the European Commission’s Scientific Committee for Consumer Safety stated that “clear positive toxic responses in some of these tests clearly indicate a potential for risk to humans.”47 Inhalation exposure of nano zinc oxide induces lung inflammation, leading the SCCS to conclude that “the use of ZnO (zinc oxide) nanoparticles in spray products cannot be considered safe.”48

 

Copper

 

Uses: dietary supplements49

 

Health Concerns: The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment compared the acute toxicity of micro-and nanoscale copper. No adverse effects

were observed with microscale copper; however, nanoscale copper showed adverse effects on the kidney, spleen and liver of mice.50

 

Carbon Nanotubes

 

Uses: While there are no confirmed commercial food and food contact products containing carbon nanotubes, food packaging and food sensors containing carbon nanotubes have been developed.51 Health Concerns: The Australian National Industrial Chemical Notification and Assessment Scheme and

Safe Work Australia, which reviewed the safety of carbon nanotubes, found that multi-walled carbon nanotubes “have been shown to induce mesothelioma in rodents.”52

 

Nano supplements could cause health problems [F15] 

 

The head of the nanotechnology research group at the United Kingdom’s Central Science Laboratory warns of unpredictable effects of nanoparticles and nano encapsulated additives: “They can be absorbed faster than desired or affect the absorption of other nutrients. We still know very little, if anything at all.”53

In 2009, based on the growing number of commercially available nano supplements, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars’ project

on emerging nanotechnologies found that in the U.S. the Food and Drug Administration had neither the regulatory power nor the scientific expertise to determine if these supplements were safe.54 Migration of nanomaterials from packaging It is possible that nanomaterials could migrate from food packaging into foods. Polymers and chemical additives in conventional food packaging, such as bisphenol A and phthalates, are known to migrate from the packaging into food products.55,56 The Institute of Food Science and Technology has expressed concern that manufactured nanomaterials are already being used in food packaging, despite migration rates and exposure risks remaining unknown.57 To date there are only a few studies that have investigated the migration of nanomaterials from food packaging into food, and the results have been inconclusive.

 

Nanoparticles and the link to Crohn’s disease and immune system dysfunction

 

It is well known that people with asthma are especially susceptible to air pollution. In effect, asthma sufferers act as the proverbial “canary in the coal mine,” alerting those around them that air pollution levels are getting dangerously high. Scientists have more recently suggested that the growing prevalence of Crohn’s disease — a damaging and chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that can lead to cancer — may be a similar warning signal in relation to microparticles in our food[F16] .58 The relationship between the development of Crohn’s disease and factors such as genetic susceptibility, immune system health, psychological health and environmental factors including, exposure and physiological response to nano or microparticles, remains poorly understood. However, data indicate that the inflammation associated with Crohn’s may be explained in part by an abnormal or exaggerated response to the individual’s intestinal bacteria. Numerous in vivo experiments using rats and mice have demonstrated gastrointestinal uptake of nanoparticles.59,60,61,62,63 and small microparticles.64,65,66 Pathological examination of human tissues suggests ingestion and translocation of microparticles up to 20 µm in size.67,68 The absorption rate of substances via the gastrointestinal tract appears to depend on properties such as size and surface structure.[F17]  In one study looking at rats, the smaller the nanoparticles the higher the uptake via the digestive tract.69 In another study mice were fed 4 nm gold particles. These were later detected in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung and brain. Larger particles (58 nm) remained in the gastrointestinal tract.70 ---Studies have shown that nanomaterials may affect the human intestine. When human colon cells were treated with nano-sized polystyrene, which is commonly used in food packaging, the cells became more permeable to iron.71 Powell et al have observed that the daily exposure of people in the Western world to sub-micrometer-sized mineral particles has resulted in “pigmented cells” loaded with these particles in parts of the intestinal tract. The particles have been observed to be composed of aluminosilicates, titanium dioxide and a small percentage of non-aluminum-containing silicates such as silica (SiO2) and magnesium trisilicate (talc).[F18] 72 -----Preliminary evidence suggests that existing levels of nanoparticles up to a few hundred nanometers in size in processed food may be associated with rising levels of immune system dysfunction and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, including Crohn’s disease.73,74,75,76 Individuals with Crohn’s disease or colon cancer have been found with nanomaterials in their intestinal tissue.77 The reasons for the disproportionate incidence of Crohn’s disease in the global north are still disputed, but it is possible that the high consumption of industrially processed foods plays a role.

 

Occupational health and safety concerns

 

In the food sector, workers may come into contact with nanomaterials during production, packaging, transport and waste disposal of food and agrochemicals.

78 To date, there is very little data relating to the exposure of workers to nanomaterials. --A number of nanomaterials used in the food industry, such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide, have been shown to be harmful when inhaled, raising OHS concerns for workers handling these materials.79 However, in the absence of a mandatory register and product labeling, many workers may be unaware that they are handling nanomaterials and of the need to use protective equipment. Studies have also shown that nanomaterials can enter the bloodstream via the lungs, raising major OHS concerns.80 --Based on a 2009 review of carbon nanotubes by Safe Work Australia and NICNAS, carbon nanotubes were declared a hazardous chemical for purposes of health and safety laws.81 This ruling does not prohibit their use, but it means that carbon nanotubes used in the workplace must be accompanied by a data safety sheet.

 

NANOFOODS ON THE MARKET

Our knowledge of the extent to which nanomaterials are used in food products is limited. Food manufacturers are not required to disclose details about

their use of nanomaterials; nor is this information collected by the Food and Drug Administration. This, coupled with the lack of labeling laws, means

the public is left to guess which products contain nanomaterials. The absence of transparency creates a chasm of knowledge not just for the public, but also for government regulators and even some food producers.82 Nevertheless, we do know that major food companies are involved in nanotechnology research

and development; at least 200 transnational food companies are currently investing in nanotech and are on their way to commercializing products.83 The nanofoods market is expected to grow to US$20.4 billion in 2020.84 Table 1 shows a sample of food companies engaged in nanotechnology research and development.

 

Table 1: A sample of food companies engaged in nanotechnology research and development 85,86,87

 

COMPANY

• Altria (Mondelez)

• Associated British

Foods

• Ajinomoto

• BASF

• Cadbury Schweppes

• Campbell Soup

• Cargill

• DuPont Food

Industry Solutions

• General Mills

• Glaxo-SmithKline

• Goodman Fielder

• Group Danone

• John Lust Group Plc

• H.J. Heinz

• Hershey Foods

• La Doria

• Maruha

• McCain Foods

• Mars, Inc.

• Nestle

• Northern Foods

• Nichirei

• Nippon Suisan

Kaisha

• PepsiCo

• Sara Lee

• Unilever

• United Foods

Table 2: Food products that may contain

manufactured nanomaterials 88

 

PRODUCTS

• Almond beverages

• Candy

• Cereal

• Chocolate

• Chocolate syrup

• Coffee Creamer

• Cookies

• Crackers

• Cream Cheese

• Doughnuts

• Gum

• Mashed Potatoes

• Mayonnaise

• Milk

• Mints

• Oils

• Pasta

• Popcorn

• Pudding

• Rice beverages

• Salad Dressing

• Soy

• Soy beverages

• Sports Drinks and

other beverages

• Yogurt

Many foods Americans eat on a daily basis contain nanomaterial ingredients (see Table 2 for a list of product types that may include nanomaterials). In 2008, Friends of the Earth released a groundbreaking report on the use of nanomaterials in food, “Out Of the Laboratory and Onto Our Plates:

Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture.” Six years later, our government has made little progress in protecting the public from these potentially dangerous food ingredients, despite the fact that additional nanofoods continue to be found on the market. ------------While the FDA is charged with ensuring “the safety

and security of our nation’s food supply,” at this time the agency has merely offered nonbinding guidance to industry on the use of nanomaterials in food.89

However, the FDA’s 2012 draft guidance on the use of nanomaterials in food warns about the different properties of nanomaterials compared to ingredients

used in traditional manufactured food substances.90 Nevertheless, lack of established regulations allow for 20 nanofood products to remain on the market while the public takes up potential health risks. Friends of the Earth has compiled a list of 87 food and beverage products known to contain nanomaterials (see Table 3 for a list of products that include nanomaterials). We have compiled an additional 79 products since our 2008 report. The number of nanofood products we know to be on the market has grown more than tenfold in six years. ---Beyond food, nanomaterials are also found in kitchen equipment, health supplements, some types of agricultural inputs, food contact materials and food packaging,

as well as in a broad range of other products. The use of nanomaterials in food contact materials, including packaging, cling wrap, storage containers and chopping boards, increases the probability of Nanomaterials are already integrated into food labels that indicate the freshness or temperature of a food product via color-coded display stickers. The company OnVu™ creates “the label

that makes freshness visible” and is already featured in U.S. supermarkets.

The OnVu™ Intelligent indicator has been applied onto meat product labels.93,94 nanomaterial ingestion. It is also likely that nanomaterials

in packaging that is not designed to release chemicals (for example, nanosilver antibacterial food storage containers) will nevertheless migrate from food packaging into foods. Polymers and chemical additives in conventional food packaging are known to migrate from the packaging into food products — such is the case with BPA and phthalates.91,92 Conversely, flavors and nutrients in foods

and beverages are also known to migrate into plastic packaging, a process known as “flavor scalping.” Nanotechnology is also expected to dramatically expand the use of edible coatings, which will clearly result in increased ingestion of nanomaterials (see nano fruit case study). Nanofood products are also marketed

for children and babies. Several products are commercially available in the

form of powdered nutritional drinks (ToddlerHealth and NanoVM®).95,96

Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods

 

PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT

Albertsons American Single Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Cheddar Cheese Stick Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Chocolate Syrup Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Chocolate Sandwich Cookies Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Coffee Creamer Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Cream Cheese Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Golden Sandwich Cookies Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Italian Cheese Blend Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Mini MarshMallows Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Mozarella Stick Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Vanilla Pudding Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Albertsons Whipped Cream Albertsons Titanium dioxide

Best Foods Mayonnaise Unilever Titanium dioxide

Betty Croker Mashed Potatoes General Mills Titanium dioxide

Betty Croker Whipped Cream Frosting General Mills Titanium dioxide

Breathsavers Mints Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Cadbury Milk Chocolate Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Canola Active Oil Shemen Industries Nano-sized self assembled

structured liquids = micelles

Carnation Breakfast Nestle Titanium dioxide

Dentyne Fire Spicy Cinnamon Mondel ez

International Titanium dioxide

Dentyne Ice Peppermint Gum Mondel ez

International Titanium dioxide

Dickinson’s Coconut Curd Dickinson’s Titanium dioxide

Eclipse Spearmint Gum Wrigley Titanium dioxide

Fancy Flake Coconut Spartan Titanium dioxide

Fiber One Cereal General Mills Titanium dioxide

General Mills Trix Cereal General Mills Titanium dioxide

Good and Plenty Candy Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Bliss Dark Chocolate Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Bliss White Chocolate Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Chocolate Syrup Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Cookie n Cream Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Milk Chocolate Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

Hershey’s Special Dark Bar Hershey’s Titanium dioxide

 

Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods (continued)

 

PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT

Hostess Frosted Donettes Hostess Titanium dioxide

Hostess Powdered Donettes* Hostess Titanium dioxide

Hostess Twinkies Hostess Titanium dioxide

Jello Banana Cream Pudding Kraft Titanium dioxide

Junior Mints Tootsie Titanium dioxide

Keebler Pepper Jack Crackers Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide

Knorr Pasta Sides Pasta Unilever Titanium dioxide

Kool Aid Blue Raspberry Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kool Aid Lemonade Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft American Single Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Easy Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Jet Puffed FunMallows Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Jet Puffed MarshMallows Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Mayo Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Miracle Whip Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Parmesan Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide

Kraft Velveeta Kraft Titanium dioxide

Lays Ranch Seasoning Mix FritoLay Titanium dioxide

Lindt Milk Chocolate Lindt Titanium dioxide

Lindt White Chocolate Lindt Titanium dioxide

M&Ms Chocolate Candy Mars,Inc. Titanium dioxide

M&Ms Chocolate with Peanuts Mars,Inc. Titanium dioxide

Maternal Water La Posta del Aguila Silver

Mentos Freshmint Gum Perfetti Van Melle Titanium dioxide

Mentos Mints Perfetti Van Melle Titanium dioxide

MesoGold® Purest Colloids, Inc. Titanium dioxide

Mini Whoppers Eggs Hershey Titanium dioxide

Minute Rice Riviana Foods Titanium dioxide

Mothers Oatmeal Iced Cookies Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide

Nabisco Chips Ahoy Kraft Titanium dioxide

Nabisco Oreo Kraft Titanium dioxide

Nabisco Sugar Free Oreo Kraft Titanium dioxide

Nanoceuticals™ Slim Shake Chocolate RBC Life Sciences®, Inc. Titanium dioxide

Table 3: Commercially available nanofoods (continued)

 

PRODUCT NAME MANUFACTURER NANO CONTENT

Nanotea Shenzhen Become Industry &

Trade Co., Ltd.

Nano-ball milling procedures

Nestle French Vanilla Coffee Mate Nestle Titanium dioxide

Nestle Original Coffee Creamer Nestle Titanium dioxide

Peeps Marshmallows Born Candy Co. Titanium dioxide

Philadelphia Cream Cheese Kraft Titanium dioxide

Pina Colada Sobe South Beach Beverage Co.,Inc. Titanium dioxide

Powdered donuts* Dunkin’ Donuts Titanium dioxide

Primea Ring Saeco USA Inc. Silver

Ragu Classic Alfredo Unilever Titanium dioxide

Richardson Pastel Mints Richardson’s Titanium dioxide

Shamrock Farms Fat Free Milk Shamrock Foods Titanium dioxide

Smuckers Orange Cream Shell Smuckers Titanium dioxide

Tic Tac Mints Ferrero Titanium dioxide

Trident White Peppermint Gum American Chicle Titanium dioxide

Turkey Gravy Titanium dioxide

Vanilla Milkshake Pop Tarts* Kellogg’s Titanium dioxide

Vics White Cheddar Popcorn Vic’s Corn Popper Titanium dioxide

White M&Ms* Mars, Inc. Titanium dioxide

Wishbone Ranch Dressing Unilever Titanium dioxide

 

Note: List based on the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies’ Consumer Products Inventory current as of Feb. 19, 2014.97 However, manufacturers change their product formulation from time to time, and such changes may not be reflected in the database. Friends of the Earth has not conducted tests on these products and cannot guarantee their nanomaterial content; products marked with an asterisk have been found to contain nanomaterials via a laboratory study commissioned by As You Sow in 2013.98

 

Edible food coatings

 

Manipulation of materials at the nanoscale can allow food scientists to create “edible nanolaminate films” that can be used as barrier layers to prolong shelf

life. These films can include lipids or clays as moisture barriers; biopolymers, such as carbohydrates, as oxygen and carbon dioxide barriers; or nanoparticulates and emulsified nanodroplets, which could contain active ingredients to improve taste, texture or appearance.99 Antibacterial substances such as nanosilver can also be directly integrated into the edible coating, such as for meat packaging.100 Edible coatings containing engineered nanomaterials

are reportedly already being used to extend the shelf life of fruit and vegetables in markets in the U.S. and Canada.101 Tests conducted in Central and South American farms and packing stations found a number of fruits with a nano coating, including apples, pears, peppers, cucumbers and other produce that is delivered to the U.S. and Canada.102 24

 

NANOFOODS AND NANOAGRICULTURE POSE NEW ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS

Nanomaterials now in commercial use pose serious ecological hazards Nanomaterials used in the agri-food system inevitably enter the environment from waste associated with product manufacture, product use (including ingestion and excretion) or disposal. Furthermore, nanomaterials are being released into the environment intentionally, for example as nano-agrochemicals and nano-feed used on farms. Early studies have demonstrated that nanomaterials already in commercial use pose serious hazards to species like largemouth bass and water fleas (Daphnea magna), which are used by regulators as ecological indicators (see Table 4). Preliminary studies suggest that nanomaterials may accumulate (and possibly even magnify) in organisms along the food chain.103,104 The extent to which nanomaterials will “clump” together in the environment, forming larger particles that may pose reduced toxicity risks, is unknown. The ecological hazards associated with nanotoxicity remain very poorly understood, underscoring the urgent need for further research.105--Friends of the Earth has expressed great concern about the environmental implications of the dramatically expanded use of nanosilver and other antimicrobial nanomaterials in consumer and industrial products.106 Fullerenes,107 nano titanium dioxide, nano zinc oxide,108 nano-silver, single-walled carbon nanotubes109 and other nanomaterials have all been found to have bactericidal properties[F19] . Yet the effects of nanomaterials on microbes, bacteria and fungi — the foundation of all ecosystems — remain poorly understood. Increased commercial use of highly potent anti-bacterial nanomaterials and their increased presence in waste streams could disrupt the functioning of beneficial bacteria in the wider environment, for example those performing nitrification and denitrification in freshwater and the marine environment.110 Nano-antimicrobial agents may also shift into microbial populations and disrupt the functioning of nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with plants.111 Any significant disruption of nitrification, denitrification or nitrogen fixing processes could have serious negative impacts for the functioning of entire ecosystems. There is also a risk that widespread use of antimicrobials will result in greater antibiotic resistance among harmful bacterial populations.112,113 Early studies have demonstrated that nanomaterials already in commercial use pose serious hazards to important aquatic species.

 

Experimental evidence of the ecotoxicity of nanomaterials now in commercial use

 

NANOMATERIAL AND CURRENT APPLICATIONS SIZE AND PHYSICAL

DESCRIPTION EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE OF TOXICITY

Titanium dioxide Nano form used in sunscreens, self-cleaning glass, remediation, widely use in small micro form in foods and cosmetics 30nm Killed water fleas (Daphnea magna)114 which are used by regulators as an ecological indicator species 25nm anatase UV-illuminated TiO2 toxic to algae and water fleas115 Zinc Used in electronics, optoelectronics, gas sensors, sunscreens, cosmetics, food packaging, paint Nanoparticle zinc oxide, size unknown Toxic to algae and water fleas (Daphnea magna)116 Carbon based nanomaterials Carbon black used in tyres, dyes; carbon nanotubes used in specialist car and aeroplane materials and fabrics, potential use in packaging; fullerenes used in cosmetics, potential use in medicines, batteries and electronics C60 fullerenes Water soluble C60 caused brain damage (lipid peroxidation) in juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides)117, used by regulators as an ecological indicator. Subsequent study found tetrahydrofuran (THF)-solubilized fullerenes even more toxic than water solubilised fullerenes, with 100% mortality in the THF-C60-exposed fish between 6 and 18 hours of exposure118 Single walled carbon nanotubes By-products associated with their manufacture cause increased mortality and delayed development of small estuarine invertebrate Amphiascus tenuiremis119 Single-walled carbon nanotubes By-products associated with their manufacture delayed hatching of zebra fish (Danio rerio) embryos120 . C60 fullerenes Killed water fleas (Daphnea magna)121,122 C60 fullerenes and C60HxC70Hx Caused behavioural and physiological changes in water fleas that are associated with increased risk of predation and reproductive decline123 C60 fullerenes Toxic to microbes, inhibits growth and decreases respiration124

 

Aluminium

Used in cosmetics, sunscreens, scratch resistant coatings 13nm High levels of exposure stunted root growth in corn, cucumber, soybean, carrot and cabbage crops125 The United Kingdom’s Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering have called for the environmental release of nanomaterials to be “avoided as far as possible,” and for their intentional release to “be prohibited until appropriate research has been undertaken and it can be demonstrated that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.”126 In May 2013, a group of U.S. scientists published the first global assessment of the likely emissions of nanomaterials into the environment and landfills. It was estimated that in 2010, 260,000 to 309,000 metric tons of global nanomaterial production were discarded into landfills (63-91 percent), soils (8-28percent), water bodies (0.4-7 percent), and the atmosphere (0.1-1.5percent). According to the authors, more accurate estimates of nanomaterial emissions were hampered by the lack of available data on use. The annual worldwide market for nanomaterials is estimated to be around 11 million metric ton. By far the largest share of the nanomaterials currently on the market is industrial carbon (85 percent by weight) and silica (12 percent by weight). nanoscale titanium and nano-silver are believed to be the most-used nanomaterials in food and food contact materials[F20] .127 As the European Commission’s Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks has noted, “the increasing use of Ag-NPs [nanosilver] in consumer and medical applications implies that they will find their way into the environment. The activity that makes them desirable as an antimicrobial agent could also pose a threat to the microbial communities in the environment.”128 Impacts on aquatic ecosystems A recent review of toxicological research on nanometal oxides silver, copper and zinc oxide reported that they are extremely toxic to freshwater aquatic organisms including fish and algae, with crustaceans being most affected.129 Titanium dioxide, one of the most widely used nanomaterials, caused organ pathologies, biochemical disturbances and respiratory distress in rainbow trout.130 Nano titanium dioxide is also toxic to algae and to water fleas, especially after exposure to UV [F21] 

light.131,132

 

Impacts on soils

 

According to a U.S. study, emissions to soils represent as much as a quarter of nanomaterial flows, mostly from the disposal of biosolids onto agricultural land.133 This is troubling because studies have shown that nanomaterials can potentially harm beneficial soil microorganisms, plants, nematodes and earthworms and prevent nitrogen fixation.134,135,136 Another recent U.S. study found that metal and metal oxide nanoparticles accumulate in the soils to which they are applied, rather than aggregating or dissolving, and can be toxic to microorganisms, plants, nematodes and earthworms.137 Similar adverse effects on earthworms have been observed in reaction to other nanoparticles.138 A recent study by Colman et al. found an adverse impact on plants and microorganisms in a long-term field experiment following the application of sewage biosolids containing a low dose of nano-silver.139 The nano-silver treatment led to changes in microbial community composition, biomass and extracellular enzyme activity, and affected some of the aboveground plant species, as well. It also led to an increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes — significant because nitrous oxide is a notorious greenhouse gas, with 296 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide. Any significant disruption of nitrification, denitrification or nitrogen fixing processes could have negative impacts for the functioning of entire ecosystems. There is also a risk that widespread use of antimicrobials will result in greater antibiotic-resistance among harmful bacterial populations.140

[F22] 

Bioaccumulation of nanomaterials

 

A number of studies have shown that plant species can take up nanomaterials from soils.141 This suggests a potential route for nanomaterials from sewage waste to return to the food chain. A recent report by the European Environment Agency concluded that “the extent to which specific nanomaterials are bioaccumulative or lead to irreversible impact is largely unknown, but the current state of knowledge suggest[s] that the potential exists for such behavior under some circumstances.”142 Risks from pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients The use of pesticides with nanoscale active ingredients may pose particular risks because nanomaterials, which are more potent and behave differently than conventional chemicals, are applied in large quantities and over large areas in industrial agriculture. The term “nanopesticide” covers a wide variety of products and cannot be considered to represent a single category. Many nanoformulations combine several surfactants, polymers and metal nanoparticles in the nanometer size range.143 Conventional agrochemicals, such as pesticides, fertilizers and seed treatments, have already contributed to soil and water pollution, caused significant disturbance of ecosystems and driven a loss of biodiversity.144 It is feared that the broad use of nano-chemicals will exacerbate existing problems. The claim that nano agrochemicals will reduce the overall use of pesticides should be approached sceptically, given similar unfulfilled promises made by many of the same companies in relation to genetically modified crops. Nanotechnology also appears likely to intensify existing trends toward ever-larger industrial-scale farming operations, and an even more narrow focus on producing specialized crops.145,146 This could lead to further losses of agricultural and ecological diversity. The intentional environmental release of nano-agrochemicals is of great concern Nano-formulations of existing agrochemicals may be more reactive, more bioactive and may introduce even more serious environment and health hazards than the conventional agrochemicals they replace. The use of nanoscale agrochemicals is of great concern given the extremely limited understanding

we have of how nano herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers and plant growth treatments will behave in the environment and will affect non-target organisms,

and the potential for serious eco-nanotoxicological hazards indicated by the small number of studies that has been carried out to date. It appears we are on the verge of repeating many of the mistakes associated with our enthusiastic adoption of conventional agrochemicals, whose long-term health and

environmental costs are borne by farming communities and ecological systems worldwide. Conventional agrochemicals have polluted soils and

waterways and have caused substantial disruption to these cosystems.147,148,149 Exposure to agrochemicals has also been linked with greater incidence of cancer and serious reproductive problems among agricultural workers and their families.150,151,152 It is consequently of great concern that nano-agrochemicals are now being used on farms and released into the environment in the absence of regulations that require product manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of new, more potent nanoscale formulations of existing chemicals. Perhaps ironically, there is a large degree of interest in the use of nanomaterials for environmental remediation, including cleanup of toxic plumes associated with past use of agricultural pesticides.153 Dozens of sites in the United States, Europe and elsewhere have already been injected with tens of metric tons of nanoparticles for environmental remediation or waste treatment purposes,154 despite no study having being carried out to assess the efficacy of these experiments and the safety of these nanoparticles for environmentally relevant species.155 There is little published, peer-reviewed information available about the outcomes of these releases; they are, however, of serious concern given early indications that nanomaterials present a whole new range of serious ecological threats.156 The United Kingdom’s Royal Society and Royal Academy of Engineering have warned that using nanomaterials in remediation of toxic plumes could introduce a whole new set of environmental pollutants that pose even greater ecological hazards. They have called for the environmental release of nanoparticles to be “avoided as far as possible,” and for their intentional release for pollution remediation or other purposes to “be prohibited until appropriate research has been undertaken and it can be demonstrated that the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks.”157

 

Nanobiotechnology and synthetic biology pose even more uncertain hazards

 

Next-generation agricultural nanoproducts — crops manipulated using nanobiotechnology, for example, or synthetic biology organisms developed to assist in the production of biofuels — will present even more complex ecological hazards than those associated with nano-agrochemicals. Genetic engineering is a technology that transfers genes from one species to another in a way that does not occur naturally. As nanoparticles are now being used by biotechnologists as a new tool for genetic engineering of plants and animals, many of the potential ecological hazards associated with nanobiotechnology-manipulated crops mirror those associated with genetically engineered organisms. [F23] These include the potential for use of herbicide-tolerant, insect- or virus-resistant crops to result in: increased weediness of wild relatives; development of herbicide/insect/ virus resistance among crops; negative impact on animal populations through reduced food availability; development of more virulent and difficult-to-control viruses; toxicity to non-target species; ecosystem-level disruption as a result of any or all of these.158 Despite the rapid commercial expansion of GE crops and the failure of the industry to prevent widespread genetic contamination of GE-free crops,159 the ecosystem-level impacts of genetic engineering remain very poorly understood. Batie observes that whereas research has demonstrated that GE crops can adversely impact lacewings, monarch butterflies, ladybugs and soil biota, and modelling has predicted a dramatic decline in the European skylark if there is widespread adoption of GE herbicide-tolerant sugar beets, it could take decades of larger-scale ecological monitoring to identify the ecosystem impacts of GE crop use.160 And our capacity to identify GE crop-driven ecological change is undermined by the wholly inadequate monitoring of environmental effects at field or ecosystem scales.161 In addition to the potential environmental hazards, there is also concern that aggressive global marketing of a small number of high-tech crops will result in further displacement of regional crop varieties, and further erosion of agricultural diversity. Moreover, herbicide-tolerant and pesticide-exuding crops not only entrench our dependence on toxic

chemicals for farm management, they are also likely to reduce on-farm biodiversity, for example among beneficial insects and birds. Reliance on crops

designed to withstand greater applications of agrochemicals, or to themselves exude pesticides, takes us further from establishing the ecologically safe

integrated pest management systems that characterize organic and agro-ecological farming models. The environmental and biosafety risks associated

with the emerging field of synthetic biology are even harder to quantify, let alone control. Synthetic biology is an extreme form of genetic engineering, in which scientists write entirely new genetic code on a computer, “print” it out and then insert it into organisms to serve specific functions. Synthetic biology organisms are being developed for agriculture, biofuels and energy production, nutraceuticals and food processing, carbon sequestration, environmental remediation, medicine, manufacturing and military applications, among others.162 Many synthetic biology organisms are being developed for intentional environmental release. The wide-scale and worldwide genetic contamination of both GE-free crops and GE-free food processing163 highlight the difficulties of preventing contamination in an industry that involves self-replicating organisms and millions of people. It suggests that we will fail in attempts to contain synthetic biology organisms. accidentally, synthetic biology organisms could present a range of serious ecological hazards. These include the potential for disruption, displacement or infection of other species; alteration of the environment in which they were introduced, to the extent that ecosystem function is compromised; and establishment within a system such that they become impossible to eliminate.164 Many synthetic biologists working with fairly simple genetic circuits report rapid mutation of the circuits as a key challenge

to their work. The potential for synthetic biology organisms released into the environment to mutate in unpredictable ways is of great concern. For example, the worst-case scenario of an accidental introduction into the environment of a synthetic biology organism designed to turn corn waste into

ethanol could be catastrophic. Nanotechnology in agriculture and food

production has broader environmental costs Perhaps the most insidious environmental impact associated with the expansion of nanotechnology

in agriculture is its entrenching our reliance on the dominant chemical-intensive industrial agricultural model. Nanotechnology will intensify the key

characteristics of this agricultural model, including trends toward ever-larger farming operations, an even narrower focus on producing specialized

crops, further loss of agricultural and ecological diversity, an even greater dependence on chemical inputs and an even more atomized approach to

farm management. The net result will be that we move further from real farming, where a key emphasis is maintaining and enhancing agricultural and ecological diversity, and an agricultural alternative which has been demonstrated to deliver

a range of other environmental benefits, including reduced use of water and fossil fuel energy, higher soil organic matter and nitrogen, and reduced soil

erosion. Moreover, 60 international experts at the United Nations agree that “the world currently already produces sufficient calories per head to feed a global population of 12 to 14 billion.”165 The UN’s research confirms that “hunger and malnutrition are not phenomena of insufficient physical supply, but results of prevailing poverty, and above all problems of access to food.”166 According to a 2013 report by the Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, “there is no informed, broad-based constituency to support regulating ENMs [engineered nanomaterials] in fertilizers and biosolids to protect soil health and soil

biodiversity.”167 The expansion of nanotechnology in food processing and packaging will also result in a higher ecological footprint as food travels farther and is even more highly processed, requiring ever greater energy inputs. The United States agri-food system already uses more than 10,551 quadrillion Joules of energy each year, as much as France’s total annual energy consumption. Agriculture — growing food — accounts for only 20 percent of this; 80 percent of

the energy is used to move, process, package, sell and store food after it leaves the farm.168 Incredibly, processing breakfast cereals requires 3,232 kilo-

calories per kilogram — five times the energy contained in the cereal itself.169 Nano foods will be even more highly processed than today, requiring even greater energy inputs to produce. Similarly, nano food packaging, which has a primary goal of extending the shelf life of packaged food, will inevitably encourage manufacturers to transport food over even greater distances, resulting in an increase in food transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.

 

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 [F1]Never Use anything nano---the other thing that happens it can be incorporated with other metals at that scale and size and cause unwanted distortions and mutations in the body

 [F2]Realistically no one knows what they are really eating unless it is grown yourself

 [F3]This is unrealistic –if they are not going to lable GMO foods ---saying the public is to stupid to be able to know the difference the same logic is going to go here ---this is about population control and regulating the level of poisonous or harmul materials one can consume

 [F4]The article is out dated a little---even the fresh foods are being sprayed with nano silver causing them to saturate the body internally into the brain and lungs liver and spleen and tissues throughout the body ---so eat as clean as possible and use as much as required in peeling and cleansing your foods as well

 [F5]The organic label is BS today and has been for quite some time and if nano is on the fields then it will be in the organics as well via chemtrails and the spraying---once released this can cause issues on all farming---grow your own

 [F6]2 differing measurements

 [F7]this is where some companies get the idea that nano is safe due to this definition

 [F8]This is implying strongly that the more they are in an environment over a big area the more activity is going to happen—this also appears to be double speech here with the above articles mentioning the dangers of the nm size here thay are almost going to full accept it when the previous article showed how dangerious they are

 [F9]Still think the health food industry is  healthy

 [F10]These are highly reactive ---with the chemtrails being dumped on us with nano particles and th food supply allowing more aluminum to being spread this would further exasperate the nano bio attack on the body

 [F11]This is what makes these things so dangerous ---they accumulate and then replicate ---with every cell they choke out they further saturate the tissues and organs

 [F12]Another metal saturating the colon causing colon alterations and cellular death

 [F13]Nano particles can reach Intestinal and blood and other organs!!

 [F14]One of the components in chemtrails

 [F15]The characteristics of nanoparticles that are relevant for health effects are:
  • Size – In addition to being able to cross cell membranes, reach the blood and various organs because of their very small size, nanoparticles of any material have a much greater surface to volume ratio (i.e. the surface area compared to the volume) than larger particles of that same material. Therefore, relatively more molecules of the chemical are present on the surface. This may be one of the reasons why nanoparticles are generally more toxic than larger particles of the same composition.
  • Chemical composition and surface characteristics – The toxicity of nanoparticles depends on their chemical composition, but also on the composition of any chemicals adsorbed onto their surfaces. However, the surfaces of nanoparticles can be modified to make them less harmful to health.
  • Shape – Although there is little definitive evidence, the health effects of nanoparticles are likely to depend also on their shape. A significant example is nanotubes, which may be of a few nanometres in diameter but with a length that could be several micrometres. A recent study showed a high toxicity of carbon nanotubes which seemed to produce harmful effects by an entirely new mechanism, different from the normal model of toxic dusts.

 

 [F16]Nano in the food---wonder where that comes from===pollution? Spraying the fields with nano silver---CHEMTRAILS???

 [F17]How they cause the damage to the colon and digestive system

 [F18]Anyone want a diet in aluminum---and beware a lot of health guru’s promote cleanser that have these in them

 [F19]Will  kill off the bacterial properties required for the flora to grow and for the animals and us to have the right nutrition---without bacteria nothing grows or can be assimilated

 [F20]These 2 are the worse ones for male sterility and testicular cancr

 [F21]This is also part of the chemtrails

 [F22]This we are already seeing with glyphosates

 [F23]This will be called a nano biofilm---extremely dangerous once out hard to recall back

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Standards for Maple syrup.

 

(TEXT EFFECTIVE UNTIL CONTINGENCY: See PL 2013, c. 117, §3) Maple syrup grades.  The following grades are established as the official maple syrup grade standards for the State.

A. "Grade A Light Amber" means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture's visual color standard light amber or has a color for light transmittance not less than 75.0%Tc; has a delicately sweet, original maple flavor; and has a density of at least the equivalent of 66.0° Brix at 60° Fahrenheit Modulus 145. Grade A Light Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]

B. "Grade A Medium Amber" means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture's visual color standard medium amber or has a color for light transmittance between the range of 74.9%Tc to 60.5%Tc; and may have a flavor that is more pronounced than that of Grade A Light Amber, but that is not strong or unpleasant. Grade A Medium Amber must meet the density requirement of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Medium Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]

C. "Grade A Dark Amber" means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color no darker than the federal Department of Agriculture's visual color standard dark amber or has a color for light transmittance between the range of 60.4%Tc to 44.0%Tc; and may have a flavor that is stronger than that of Grade A Medium Amber, but that is not sharp, bitter, buddy or off-flavor. Grade A Dark Amber must meet the density requirement of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Dark Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]

D. "Grade A Extra Dark Amber" means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in sanitary condition; has a color for light transmittance between the range of 43.9%Tc to 27.0%Tc; and may have a flavor stronger than Grade A Dark Amber. Grade A Extra Dark Amber must meet the density requirements of Grade A Light Amber. Grade A Extra Dark Amber maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]

E. "Commercial Grade" means pure maple syrup that is free of any material other than pure, clear liquid maple syrup in a sanitary condition; has a color for light transmittance less than 27.0%Tc; and may have a strong flavor. Commercial Grade maple syrup must be free of sugar crystals and may not be damaged in any way. Commercial Grade maple syrup may not be placed in packaged maple syrup containers and may not be sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale as packaged maple syrup. [1991, c. 326, §2 (NEW).]

F. "Substandard" means bulk maple syrup that fails to meet the requirements of any other grade. Such syrup may not be placed in packaged maple syrup containers and may not be sold, offered for sale or exposed for sale as packaged maple syrup.

 

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Widely used food additive promotes colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, research shows

Published: Wednesday, February 25, 2015 - 15:38 in Health & Medicine

 

Georgia State University

 

Don Morris

 

Dr. Benoit Chassaing

Emulsifiers[F1] , which are added to most processed foods to aid texture and extend shelf life, can alter the gut microbiota composition and localization to induce intestinal inflammation that promotes the development of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic syndrome, new research shows. The research, published Feb. 25 in Nature, was led by Georgia State University Institute for Biomedical Sciences' researchers Drs. Benoit Chassaing and Andrew T. Gewirtz, and included contributions from Emory University, Cornell University and Bar-Ilan University in Israel.---Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, afflicts millions of people and is often severe and debilitating. Metabolic syndrome is a group of very common obesity-related disorders that can lead to type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular and/or liver diseases. Incidence of IBD and metabolic syndrome has been markedly increasing since the mid-20th century.--The term "gut microbiota" refers to the diverse population of 100 trillion bacteria that inhabit the intestinal tract. Gut microbiota are disturbed in IBD and metabolic syndrome. Chassaing and Gewirtz's findings suggest emulsifiers might be partially responsible for this disturbance and the increased incidence of these diseases.--"A key feature of these modern plagues is alteration of the gut microbiota in a manner that promotes inflammation," says Gewirtz.--"The dramatic increase in these diseases has occurred despite consistent human genetics, suggesting a pivotal role for an environmental factor," says Chassaing. "Food interacts intimately with the microbiota so we considered what modern additions to the food supply might possibly make gut bacteria more pro-inflammatory."--Addition of emulsifiers to food seemed to fit the time frame and had been shown to promote bacterial translocation across epithelial cells. Chassaing and Gewirtz hypothesized that emulsifiers might affect the gut microbiota to promote these inflammatory diseases and designed experiments in mice to test this possibility.--The team fed mice two very commonly used emulsifiers[F2] , polysorbate 80 and carboxymethylcellulsose, at doses seeking to model the broad consumption of the numerous emulsifiers that are incorporated into almost all processed foods. They observed that emulsifier consumption changed the species composition of the gut microbiota and did so in a manner that made it more pro-inflammatory. The altered microbiota had enhanced capacity to digest and infiltrate the dense mucus layer that lines the intestine, which is normally, largely devoid of bacteria. Alterations in bacterial species resulted in bacteria expressing more flagellin and lipopolysaccharide, which can activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by the immune system. Such changes in bacteria triggered chronic colitis in mice genetically prone to this disorder, due to abnormal immune systems. In contrast, in mice with normal immune systems, emulsifiers induced low-grade or mild intestinal inflammation and metabolic syndrome, characterized by increased levels of food consumption, obesity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance.--The effects of emulsifier consumption were eliminated in germ-free mice, which lack a microbiota. Transplant of microbiota from emulsifiers-treated mice to germ-free mice was sufficient to transfer some parameters of low-grade inflammation and metabolic syndrome, indicating a central role for the microbiota in mediating the adverse effect of emulsifiers.--The team is now testing additional emulsifiers and designing experiments to investigate how emulsifiers affect humans. If similar results are obtained, it would indicate a role for this class of food additive in driving the epidemic of obesity, its inter-related consequences and a range of diseases associated with chronic gut inflammation.--While detailed mechanisms underlying the effect of emulsifiers on metabolism remain under study, the team points out that avoiding excess food consumption is of paramount importance.--"We do not disagree with the commonly held assumption that over-eating is a central cause of obesity and metabolic syndrome," Gewirtz says. "Rather, our findings reinforce the concept suggested by earlier work that low-grade inflammation resulting from an altered microbiota can be an underlying cause of excess eating."--The team notes that the results of their study suggest that current means of testing and approving food additives may not be adequate to prevent use of chemicals that promote diseases driven by low-grade inflammation and/or which will cause disease primarily in susceptible hosts.-This study was funded by the National Institutes of Health and Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America.-Source: Georgia State University


 [F1]Food emulsifiers act as an interface between the conflicting components of food like water and oil.
While preparing the food, often conflicting natural components of food have to be combined into a consistent and pleasing blend. Each component of food (carbohydrate, protein, oil and fat, water, air, etc.) has its own properties which are sometimes conflicting to one another just like oil and water. To make the two components compatible, emulsifiers are used.------------------- What is an Emulsifier?

An emulsifier is a molecule with one oil-friendly and one water-friendly end. Water friendly end in food emulsifier is called hydrophilic tail and oil-friendly end is called hydrophobic head. Food emulsifiers are also called emulgents. In this way droplets of oil are surrounded by the emulsifier molecule, with the oil core hidden by the water-friendly tails of the emulsifier. A classic natural emulsion is milk, which is a complex mixture of fat suspended in an aqueous solution. Nature's emulsifiers are proteins and phospholipids (lipids means fat soluble phosphate is water soluble). Egg is commonly used as an emulsifier. Some emulsifiers also act as anti-caking agents like Magnesium Stearate, Sodium, potassium and calcium salts of fatty acids. Few others like Sorbitan monostearate are emulsifier as well as stabilizer

.

 [F2]Emulsifier

The most frequently used raw materials for emulsifiers include palm oil, rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, sunflower oil or lard/tallow. Egg happens to be the oldest emulsifier. Basic emulsifier production involves combining oil (triglyceride) with glycerol that results in monoglyceride. The type of triglyceride used in the reaction determines the type of emulsifier obtained. Unsaturated triglycerides produce fluid products such as oil while saturated triglycerides result in pasty or solid structures like butter. Monoglycerides can be combined with other substances, such as citric acid and lactic acid, in order to increase their emulsifying properties. Food drugs and cosmetics and pigment emulsions also require one or other kind of emulsifier.

 On the basis of their hydrophilic groups, there are basically four categories

  • Anionics
  • Non-ionics
  • Cationics
  • Amphoterics

Food Emulsifier

  • Egg Yolk emulsifying agent lecithinShow of the Month March 2015
  • Honey
  • Mustard
  • Soy lecithin
  • CSL Calcium Stearoyl Di Laciate
  • PolyGlycerol Ester (PGE)
  • Sorbitan Ester (SOE)
  • PG Ester (PGME)
  • Sugar Ester (SE)
  • Monoglyceride (MG)
  • Acetylated Monoglyceride (AMG)
  • Lactylated Monoglyceride (LMG)

 

 

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Show of the Month March 28 2015

What Is Metal Charged Water

Milk could be good for your brain

Fat turns from diabetes foe to potential treatment

'Good' fat that fights diabetes discovered by scientists

 

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What Is Metal Charged Water


When metals like gold, silver or copper are put in water for a specific time period, the resultant water gets charged with the health benefitting qualities of the metal.

Some Health Benefits Of Metal Charged Water


Some of these health benefits are :

  • Gold

People suffering from respiratory disease like asthma, breathlessless, diseases of the lungs, heart diseases, brain diseases, find it benefits to consume gold charged water.

Gold benefits the brain, relaxes the body and mind. Cleopatra used it for its benefits to health and beauty. It is also used in China as medicine.

  • Silver

People suffering from digestive problems and organs related to digestion like stomach, intestines, liver etc and those suffering from diseases of the urinary system and organs find it benefits to consume silver charged water.

Silver has anti bacterial, anti viral and anti fungal properties. In olden times milk was preserved by putting silver coins in it since it kills pathogens of all types instantly.

  • Copper

Those suffering from a number of chronic and complicated diseases like joint diseases, polio, leprosy, high BP, knee pains, stress and mental tension, paralysis find it benefits to consume copper charged water.

Copper is needed by the body for various physiological functions like RBC synthesis, protein metabolism, enzyme activity and benefits the nervous and circulatory systems and bone health.

 

Gold coins

Source: digitalmoneyworld, CC BY 2.0, via flickr

 

Silver coins

Source: sirqitous, CC BY 2.0, via flickr

 

Copper coins

Source: Karen Roe, CC BY 2.0, via flickr

Things Required & Precautions


Gold

10 to 20 grams of gold coins or gold ornaments like bangles, rings, etc.

Precautions

Ornaments without stones or a lot of joints, like chains or necklaces should not be used for this purpose.

Silver

20 to 50 grams of pure silver coins, utensils like small plates or pieces of silver.

 

Precautions

Use only pure silver for this purpose.

Copper

40 to 50 grams of copper in the form of coins, utensils, small plates or pieces of copper.

 

Precautions

Do not use copper wires meant for electric work even if they are new.

All these things can be got from jewellers who should be told that these things need to be pure and for what purpose they are being bought so that you do not end up buying the wrong thing.

 

Procedure For Making Metal Charged Water & Its Usage

  • Wash the needed metal well with clean water.
  • In a steel vessel (do not use aluminium vessel), put 4 to 5 cups of fresh & clean water. Drop all the metal in this water and keep the water for boiling. Keep boiling the water till 2 cups of water remain.
  • Remove the metals from the water and strain this water through a fine muslin cloth.
  • The resultant water is the metal charged water.
  • Drink 1 cup of this slightly warm metal charged water in the morning and the other cup in the evening.

    However it is better to prepare it fresh each time it is to be consumed. For this purpose take 3 cups of water each time and boil till just 1 cup remains. This can be consume after straining and cooling to the required temperature.
  • If the disease is chronic boil further till 1/2 cup water remains. This will be more beneficial.
  • Do not drink stale water that is water remaining from the previous day. Fresh metal charged water should be made each day preferably each time. also use pure metals.
  • It is not necessary to use all the 3 metals together for making the metal charged water. One can use the metal indicated for the specific disease and make the water.

However many times we are not aware of the exact reason of the disease or health condition. It is therefore better to use all the 3 metals together to make the charged water.

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Milk could be good for your brain--

Date:

March 24, 2015

Source:

University of Kansas Medical Center

New research conducted at the University of Kansas Medical Center has found a correlation between milk consumption and the levels of a naturally-occurring antioxidant called glutathione in the brain in older, healthy adults.[F1] --In-Young Choi, Ph.D., an associate professor of neurology at KU Medical Center, and Debra Sullivan, Ph.D., professor and chair of dietetics and nutrition at KU Medical Center, worked together on the project. Their research, which was published in the Feb. 3, 2015 edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, suggests a new way that drinking milk could benefit the body.--"We have long thought of milk as being very important for your bones and very important for your muscles," Sullivan said. "This study suggests that it could be important for your brain as well."--Choi's team asked the 60 participants in the study about their diets in the days leading up to brain scans, which they used to monitor levels of glutathione -- a powerful antioxidant -- in the brain.-The researchers found that participants who had indicated they had drunk milk recently had higher levels of glutathione in their brains. This is important, the researchers said, because glutathione could help stave off oxidative stress and the resulting damage caused by reactive chemical compounds produced during the normal metabolic process in the brain. Oxidative stress is known to be associated with a number of different diseases and conditions, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and many other conditions, said Dr. Choi.---"You can basically think of this damage like the buildup of rust on your car," Sullivan said. "If left alone for a long time, the buildup increases and it can cause damaging effects. Few Americans reach the recommended daily intake of three dairy servings per day, Sullivan said. The new study showed that the closer older adults came to those servings, the higher their levels of glutathione were[F2] .--"If we can find a way to fight this by instituting lifestyle changes including diet and exercise, it could have major implications for brain health," Choi said.An editorial in the same edition of The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition said the study presented "a provocative new benefit of the consumption of milk in older individuals," and served as a starting point for further study of the issue."Antioxidants are a built-in defense system for our body to fight against this damage, and the levels of antioxidants in our brain can be regulated by various factors such as diseases and lifestyle choices," Choi said.--For the study, researchers used high-tech brain scanning equipment housed at KU Medical Center's Hoglund Brain Imaging Center. "Our equipment enables us to understand complex processes occurring that are related to health and disease," Choi said. "The advanced magnetic resonance technology allowed us to be in a unique position to get the best pictures of what was going on in the brain."-A randomized, controlled trial that seeks to determine the precise effect of milk consumption on the brain is still needed and is a logical next step to this study, the researchers said.Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Kansas Medical Center. The original article was written by Andy Hyland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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Fat turns from diabetes foe to potential treatment

Date:

March 24, 2015

Source:

American Chemical Society (ACS)

A new weapon in the war against type 2 diabetes is coming in an unexpected form: fat. Researchers have discovered a new class of potentially therapeutic lipids, called fatty-acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs). These lipids are found at lower levels in people with insulin resistance, a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, compared with those who don't have the condition. Administering FAHFAs to diabetic mice improved their glucose metabolism and insulin secretion, opening a surprising avenue for the development of novel medications for the disease.--One in ten people in the United States has type 2 diabetes, which is the seventh leading cause of death. Excess weight and body fat increase disease risk. Genes also play a role, but much remains unknown.--"There are some drugs available for treating type 2 diabetes, but there are still gaps in our knowledge about what causes it," says Alan Saghatelian, Ph.D., who is at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. He co-led the study with Barbara Kahn, M.D. "Our discovery came out of basic research to understand the mechanism underlying type 2 diabetes."--The researchers had been studying insulin resistance, a metabolic defect believed to contribute to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance occurs when the body does not respond to the insulin being produced, causing glucose to build up in the blood. It is typically associated with obesity. But Kahn's team at Beth Israel Medical Deaconess Center found that they could create obese mice that were unusually sensitive to insulin.--As it turned out, these mice had levels of a previously undiscovered family of fats, which they named FAHFAs, that was massively elevated --16- to 18-fold. The researchers suspected that these lipids were behind the increased insulin sensitivity. They figured if that were the case, then research on these newly discovered fats could someday lead to a diabetes therapy. In total, the researchers identified 16 different types of FAHFAs in the mice using a technique called mass spectrometry.--To check that their findings weren't limited to rodents, the researchers measured FAHFA levels in the blood samples from human subjects, finding lower levels of these compounds in those with insulin resistance. They also checked various foods and detected FAHFAs in many common items, such as apples, broccoli, beef, chicken and eggs. "We've been eating them for a long time, and they aren't toxic," says Saghatelian, suggesting FAHFAs may be safe to use as a medication.--To test how well FAHFAs could work as a potential therapy, the researchers fed the lipids to insulin- resistant mice, and observed an improvement in inflammation, insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake. Although this experiment suggests that FAHFAs may make good type-2-diabetes drugs, Saghatelian says he's now looking beyond lipids. "These are very cool compounds, but lipids aren't typically used as drugs for several reasons, including that they might not be able to reach effective doses in the relevant tissues," he says. "But the existence of FAHFAs means there is a metabolic pathway for making and breaking down these molecules. Identifying the enzymes involved in those processes may provide a lead toward even better drug targets."--The Saghatelian and Kahn laboratories are currently parsing human tissues for those that show increasing or decreasing levels of FAHFAs. Once identified, the scientists will search the tissue for enzymes involved in FAHFA metabolism. Drugs could potentially be developed that work by either increasing the activity of enzymes that produce FAHFAs or blocking those that destroy FAHFAs.--"As we learn more about type 2 diabetes," says Saghatelian, "we may be able to come up with better therapies that treat the disease with fewer side effects and that are effective in a larger number of people."--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society (ACS). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.

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'Good' fat that fights diabetes discovered by scientists

Salk Institute for Biological Studies--The protein Glut4 moves to the cell surface to help transport glucose from the blood into the cell after a meal. The left column shows total --Scientists at the Salk Institute and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) in Boston have discovered a new class of molecules -- produced in human and mouse fat -- that protects against diabetes.-The researchers found that giving this new fat, or lipid, to mice with the equivalent of type 2 diabetes lowered their elevated blood sugar, as detailed October 9 in Cell..-Lipids The team also found that levels of the new lipids are low in humans with a high risk for diabetes, suggesting that the lipids could potentially be utilized as a therapy for metabolic disorders, like cholesterol, are typically associated with poor health. But in recent years, researchers have discovered that not all lipids are bad for you. The newly discovered lipids, called fatty acid hydroxy fatty acids, or FAHFAs, were lower in humans with early stages of diabetes and were much higher in mice resistant to diabetes.-"Based on their biology, we can add FAHFAs to the small list of beneficial lipids," says Alan Saghatelian, Salk professor in the Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology and one of the senior authors of the work. "These lipids are amazing because they can also reduce inflammation, suggesting that we might discover therapeutic opportunities for these molecules in inflammatory diseases, such as Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as diabetes."-FAHFAs had not been noticed previously in cells and tissues because they are present in low concentrations, making them difficult to detect. Using the latest mass spectrometry techniques, Saghatelian and Barbara Kahn, vice chair of the Department of Medicine at BIDMC and the other senior author of the work, uncovered the FAHFAs when they examined the fat of a diabetes-resistant mouse model developed by Kahn.-"We engineered these mice to have more of a sugar transporter, called Glut4, in their fat because we had shown that when levels of this transporter are low, people are prone to developing diabetes," says Kahn. By examining how this sugar transporter might help protect against diabetes, the team noticed more fatty acid synthesis in mice that had improved insulin activity (and thereby were less likely to develop diabetes). The team collaborated to find out what lipids were involved.-"While many of the other lipids were essentially the same between normal mice and these diabetes-resistant mice, we saw these FAHFA lipids elevated by sixteen fold in mice that were resistant to diabetes, standing out really clearly as a big change," says Saghatelian. "After that, we elucidated their structures using a combination of mass spectrometry and chemical synthesis. We basically uncovered a whole new class of molecules using these techniques."-Once they identified FAHFAs as being the lipid that was different between normal mice and these diabetes-resistant mice, they found something else important: when the mice eat FAHFAs, blood sugar levels dropped and insulin levels rose, indicating the potential therapeutic value of FAHFAs.-To determine whether FAHFAs are also relevant in humans, the team measured FAHFA levels in humans who are insulin-resistant (a condition which is often a precursor to diabetes) and found that their FAHFA levels were lower in fat and blood, suggesting that changes in FAHFA levels may contribute to diabetes.-"The higher levels of these lipids seem to be associated with positive outcomes in mice and humans," says Kahn, who is also a professor at Harvard Medical School. "We show that the lipids work through multiple mechanisms. When blood sugar is rising, such as after a meal, the lipids rapidly stimulate secretion of a hormone that signals the pancreas to secrete insulin. In addition, these novel lipids also directly stimulate sugar uptake into cells and reduce inflammatory responses in fat tissue and throughout the body."-These combined effects make the therapeutic potential of the lipids tremendous, say the researchers. Aside from existing in low levels within a wide range of vegetables, fruits and other foods, FAHFAs are also -- unlike the other known beneficial lipids -- produced and broken down inside the body. Potentially, new drugs could target the pathways that make or break down lipids to control FAHFA levels.-In the new paper, the team also identified the cellular receptor that FAHFAs bind to, called GPR120, to control how much glucose is absorbed into fat cells. The team thinks that increasing the body's levels of FAHFAs may also be a way to activate GPR120 to treat or prevent diabetes.-"This work may suggest that changes in FAHFA levels are a new mechanism in diabetes that was underappreciated before because these lipids weren't known," says Saghatelian. "We hope this work points to novel therapeutics that could boost the body's own way of managing blood sugar."-"Because we can detect low FAHFA levels in blood before a person develops diabetes, these lipids could serve as an early marker for diabetes risk," adds Kahn. "We want to test whether restoring the lipids before diabetes develops might potentially reduce the risk or even prevent the disease."-Story SourceThe above story is based on materials provided by Salk Institute for Biological Studies. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Mark M. Yore, Ismail Syed, Pedro M. Moraes-Vieira, Tejia Zhang, Mark A. Herman, Edwin A. Homan, Rajesh T. Patel, Jennifer Lee, Shili Chen, Odile D. Peroni, Abha S. Dhaneshwar, Ann Hammarstedt, Ulf Smith, Timothy E. McGraw, Alan Saghatelian, Barbara B. Kahn. Discovery of a Class of Endogenous Mammalian Lipids with Anti-Diabetic and Anti-inflammatory Effects. Cell, 2014; 159 (2): 318 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.09.035

 

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 [F1]Should be either unpasteurized milk or should be feremented

 [F2]Again fermented and Unpasteurized