Show of the Month July 2015


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 Show of the Month July 25 2015



XNA is synthetic DNA that's stronger than the real thing


Ukraine and Russia are likely to become the bridgehead for the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the rest of Europe


The Side Effects of Chemotherapy on the Body

List of Digestive Enzymes and Functions

IgM Production and Support 



CASH Rules For Integrity



Keep the  Receipt  
This is  worth reading if shopping at stores....  
They do not automatically  hand you a receipt anymore if the sale is under  $30.  
You must ask for  it!
An associate bought  a heap of stuff the other day while on holidaying in Melbourne  (over $450), & when he glanced at his receipt as the  cashier was handing him the bags, he saw cash out of  $20.
He told her he didn't request any cash and to  delete it. She said he'd have to take the $20 because she  couldn't delete it.
He told her to call a supervisor. 
Supervisor came and said he'd have to take it. He said NO  Bloody way!
Because taking the $20 would be a cash  advance against his Credit Card and he wasn't paying interest  on a cash advance!!!!!
If they couldn't delete it then  they would have to delete the whole order.
So the  supervisor had the cashier delete the whole order and re-scan  everything!
The second time he looked at the electronic pad before he pinned in his number and again cash-back of $20  popped up.
At that point he told the cashier and she  deleted it. The total then came out right.
The cashier  said that the Electronic Pad must be defective. Obviously the  cashier knew the electronic pad was defective because she  NEVER offered him any cash after either of the  transactions.
Can you imagine how many people went  through before him and by the end of her shift how much money  she pocketed?
His wife went into a Coles Warehouse last  week. She had her items rung up by the cashier.
The cashier  hurried her along and didn't give her a receipt.. She asked  the cashier for the receipt and the cashier seemed annoyed but  gave it to her.
She didn't look at her receipt until  later that night when back at their Hotel. The receipt showed  that she had asked for $20 cash. SHE DID NOT ASK FOR ANY CASH,  NOR WAS SHE GIVEN IT!
So she called Coles who investigated but could not see that the cashier pocketed the money.
They then spoke with a friend who works for one  of the banks; they told them that this was a new scam that was bound to escalate.
The cashier will key in that you  asked for cash and then hand it to one of her friends when  they next come through the check-out queue.
This is NOT  limited to Coles; they are just one of the largest  retailers to have the most  incidents.
I wonder how many "seniors" have been, or  will be, "stung" by this one?????
I've since seen  people do just that!! SO NOW I'LL  START!
 PASS THIS ON TO  YOUR FRIENDS, KIDS, LOVED ONES -   let’s not get ripped  off.




XNA is synthetic DNA that's stronger than the real thing


New research has brought us closer than ever to synthesizing entirely new forms of life. An international team of researchers has shown that artificial nucleic acids - called "XNAs" - can replicate and evolve, just like DNA and RNA.

We spoke to one of the researchers who made this breakthrough, to find out how it can affect everything from genetic research to the search for alien life.

The researchers, led by Philipp Holliger and Vitor Pinheiro, synthetic biologists at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, say their findings have major implications in everything from biotherapeutics, to exobiology, to research into the origins of genetic information itself. This represents a huge breakthrough in the field of synthetic biology.

The "X" Stands for "Xeno"

Every organism on Earth relies on the same genetic building blocks: the the information carried in DNA. But there is another class of genetic building block called "XNA" — a synthetic polymer that can carry the same information as DNA, but with a different assemblage of molecules.

The "X" in XNA stands for "xeno." Scientists use the xeno prefix to indicate that one of the ingredients typically found in the building blocks that make up RNA and DNA has been replaced by something different from what we find in nature — something "alien," if you will.

Strands of DNA and RNA are formed by stringing together long chains of molecules called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three chemical components: a phosphate (labeled here in red), a five-carbon sugar group (labeled here in yellow, this can be either a deoxyribose sugar — which gives us the "D" in DNA — or a ribose sugar — hence the "R" in RNA), and one of five standard bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil, labeled in blue).

The molecules that piece together to form the six XNAs investigated by Pinheiro and his colleagues (pictured here) are almost identical to those of DNA and RNA, with one exception: in XNA nucleotides, the deoxyribose and ribose sugar groups of DNA and RNA (corresponding to the middle nucleotide component, labeled yellow in the diagram above) have been replaced. Some of these replacement molecules contain four carbons atoms instead of the standard five. Others cram in as many as seven carbons. FANA (pictured top right) even contains a fluorine atom. These substitutions make XNAs functionally and structurally analogous to DNA and RNA, but they also make them alien, unnatural, artificial.

Information Storage vs Evolution

But scientists have been synthesizing XNA molecules for well over a decade. What makes the findings of Pinheiro and his colleagues so compelling isn't the XNA molecules themselves, it's what they've shown these alien molecules are capable of, namely: replication and evolution.

"Any polymer can store information," Pinheiro tells io9. What makes DNA and RNA unique, he says, "is that the information encoded in them [in the form of genes, for example] can be accessed and copied." Information that can be copied from one genetic polymer to another can be propagated; and genetic information that can be propagated is the basis for heredity — the passage of traits from parent to offspring.

In DNA and RNA, replication is facilitated by molecules called polymerases. Using a crafty genetic engineering technique called compartmentalized self-tagging (or "CST"), Pinheiro's team designed special polymerases that could not only synthesize XNA from a DNA template, but actually copy XNA back into DNA. The result was a genetic system that allowed for the replication and propagation of genetic information.

A simplified analogy reveals the strengths and weaknesses of this novel genetic system: You can think of a DNA strand like a classmate's lecture notes. DNA polymerase is the pen that lets you copy these notes directly to a new sheet of paper. But let's say your friend's notes are written in the "language" of XNA. Ideally, your XNA-based genetic system would have a pen that could copy these notes directly to a new sheet of paper. What Pinheiro's team did was create two distinct classes of writing utensil — one pen that copies your friend's XNA-notes into DNA-notes, and a second pen that converts those DNA notes back into XNA-notes.

Is it the most efficient method of replication? No. But it gets the job done. What's more, it does all this copying to and from DNA with a high degree of accuracy (after all, what good is replication if the copy looks nothing like the original?). The researchers achieved a replication fidelity ranging from 95% in LNA to as high as 99.6% in CeNA — the kind of accuracy Pinheiro says is essential for evolution:

"The potential for evolution is closely tied with how much information is being replicated and the error in that process," he explains. "The more error-prone… a genetic system is, the less information can be feasibly evolved." A genetic system as accurate as theirs, on the other hand, should be capable of evolution.


The researchers put this claim to the test by showing that XNA strands made up of the HNA xeno-nucleotides like the one pictured here could evolve into specific sequences capable of binding target molecules (like an RNA molecule, or a protein) tightly and specifically. Researchers call this guided evolution, and they've been doing it with natural DNA for some time. The fact that it can also be accomplished in the lab with synthetic DNA indicates that such a system could, in theory, work in a living organism.

"The HNA system we've developed," explains Pinheiro, is "robust enough for meaningful information to be stored, replicated and evolved."

A Step Toward Novel Lifeforms

The implications of the team's findings are numerous and far-reaching. For one thing, the study sheds significant light on the origins of life itself. In the past, investigations into XNA have been largely driven by the question of whether simpler genetic systems may have existed before the emergence of RNA and DNA; the fact that these XNAs appear to be capable of evolution adds to an ever-growing body of evidence of a genetic system predating DNA and RNA both.


What mysterious genetic material ruled the world before DNA and RNA?

All living organisms use DNA as the carrier of genetic material and RNA as the messenger molecule… Read more

Practical and therapeutic applications abound, as well. "The methodologies [we've developed] are a major step forward in enabling the development of nucleic acid treatments," says Pinheiro. Natural nucleic acids [i.e. DNA and RNA] can be forced to evolve so that they bind tightly and specifically to specific molecular targets. The problem is that these nucleic acids are unsuitable for therapeutic use because they are rapidly broken down by enzymes called nucleases. As a result, these evolved nucleic acid treatments have a short lifespan and have a difficult time reaching their therapeutic targets.

To get around this, Pinheiro says medicinal chemistry is used to modify evolved DNA sequences in an attempt to create a functional molecule that can still bind to a therapeutic target but resist nuclease degradation. But doing this is tough:

"Overall, this leads to high cost and a high failure rate for potential therapies - there is still only a single licenced [nucleic acid-based] drug on the market (Macugen)."

But all six of the XNAs studied by Pinheiro and his team are stronger than regular DNA or RNA, in that they're more resistant to degradation by biological nucleases.

As a result, these molecules would need little or no adaptation for therapeutic (or diagnostic) use. "Since these molecules can now be selected directly on XNA, medicinal chemistry should no longer be limiting," says Pinheiro. You could select a suitable XNA for its biocompatibility and therapeutic potential, and not worry about having it rapidly degrade inside the body.

Pinheiro also says the outcome of the research could even have a strong impact on exobiology:

In my view, exobiology looks for life in regions it cannot physically visit. In that context, it searches for tell tale signs of life that can be remotely monitored but it has only life on Earth as examples to identify such suitable markers. Based on extant biology, DNA and RNA are good candidates for such a search. However, by showing that other nucleic acids can also store information, replicate and evolve, our research may force a rethink as to whether DNA and RNA are the most suitable tell tale signs of life.

Of course, nothing would call the indispensability of DNA- or RNA-based life into question more than the generation of an entirely synthetic, alternative life form, built from the ground up entirely by XNA. Such an organism would require XNA capable of driving its own replication, without the aid of any biological molecules. Pinheiro says that's still a ways off. "Even in its simplest setup... it would be very challenging to develop an XNA system within a cell." Such a system would require XNA capable of self-replication, and capable of undergoing evolution in a self-sustained manner.

That said, his team's work represents a major step in the right direction. As the molecular machinery designed to manipulate XNAs grows, so, too, will the capacity for synthetic genetic systems to stand and operate on their own.

The researchers' findings are published in today's issue of Science.
Top image via Shutterstock; XNA moieties via Science; all other images via Wikimedia Commons

One wonders if we'll ever come across creatures in the universe that evolved and emerged from XNA naturally. Life on earth only uses about 20 amino acids but there are many others so to stands to life elsewhere in the universe might be working in proteins based on a largely different set of amino acids.

There's a growing body of evidence that suggests TNA (one of the six XNAs examined by Pinheiro's team) may have been a simple, four-carbon-sugar (threose) precursor to RNA. Alasdair did a good writeup on it a couple of months ago (the ASU researcher Alasdair quotes was a co-author on this latest study, as well).


Ukraine and Russia are likely to become the bridgehead for the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the rest of Europe,( the east bloc)


According to the ceo of the French agricultural seeds and grain co-operative Limagrain.--Speaking at the company’s research centre at Chappes near Clermont-Ferrand on Tuesday (June 1), Daniel Chéron said that while GMO maize was being adopted widely around the globe, Ukraine and Russia would lead its introduction in Europe.“[F1] With corn [maize]all the different markets in the world will increase their production with GMOs,” said Chéron. He noted that GM crops were already being grown extensively around the world in regions such as North and South America and South Africa, and suggested that various southern Asian countries would be growing them too soon. “My feeling is that in the Ukraine and Russia, sooner or later we will also have GMO. In the eastern countries of Europe, sooner or later, we will also have GMO,” he added Mha of GM crops in Ukraine About 4M hectares (4Mha) of various GM crops could be under unofficial cultivation in the Ukraine, another senior Limagrain source told Other sources at the event, organised to celebrate Limagrain’s 50th anniversary, suggested the 4Mha figure was a gross underestimate. “The question is, will France, Germany and, England use these technologies? We will be a museum in the long run [if we don’t ],” said Chéron. “I cannot imagine that we will stay out of GMOs, although this is only one technology among a lot of technologies  [for improving the properties of crops I cannot imagine that we will not make use of the same tools as our main competitors, otherwise we will have a real handicap for farmers. We are now seeing worldwide production and all farmers are in competition. To stay in the race, you need to have the same tools Currently there is widespread resistance among green groups and politicians to allowing GM crops to be grown in the EU. But many scientists and farmers believe the technology is an essential part of the toolbox needed to meet the challenges of a growing global population and climate change[F2] .( what a crock of BS another scare concept to deceive to sell something that is completely not true and for 4 decades there has been a objection to allow it to even being grown because of the damage it causes on the environment –you would have to be a alien invading a country to destroy the country from within to create a biological war without firing a bullet or bomb) Only GM crop To date, MON 810, a GM maize, is the only GM crop commercially permitted to be grown in the EU, although scientific GM field trials are allowed. However, a recent trial carried out by the UK Rothamsted Research Centre on a supposedly aphid-resistant GM wheat variety proved to be unsuccessful. The failure further fuelled the arguments made by the non-governmental organisations, such as GeneWatch, against GM technology. Chéron recognised that GM wheat posed more problems than the introduction of GM maize, not least because of its more complex genome. He thought it unlikely that GM wheat products would appear on the market before 2025.  “The first country developing GMO wheat will be China,”  he suggested. This was likely to be because of the centralised control it exerts over strategic decision making. Limagrain is using advanced genetics for seed selection and processing technologies – including GM, combined with the latest computer algorithms and analytical techniques to develop new strains of GM maize and wheat that have specific properties, such as drought, saline and pest resistance


The Side Effects of Chemotherapy on the Body

Chemotherapy drugs are powerful enough to kill rapidly growing cancer cells, but they also can harm perfectly healthy cells, causing side effects throughout the body.

Chemo's Long-Term Effect on Bones



Chemotherapy drugs are powerful enough to kill rapidly growing cancer cells, but they also can harm perfectly healthy cells, causing side effects throughout the body.

The Side Effects of Chemotherapy on the Body

Cancer cells divide more quickly than healthy cells, and chemotherapy drugs effectively target those cells. Unfortunately, fast-growing cells that are healthy can be damaged too. There are many different chemotherapy drugs with the potential for many different side effects. These effects vary from person to person and from treatment to treatment.

Factors that play a role in side effects include other ongoing treatments, previous health issues, age, and lifestyle. Some patients experience few side effects while others feel quite ill. Although most side effects clear up shortly after treatment ends, some may continue well after chemotherapy has ended, and some may never go away.

Chemotherapy drugs are most likely to affect cells in the digestive tract, hair follicles, bone marrow, mouth, and reproductive system. However, cells in any part of the body may be damaged.

Circulatory and Immune Systems

Routine blood count monitoring is a crucial part of chemotherapy. That’s because the drugs can harm cells in the bone marrow, where blood is produced. This can result in several problems. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues. Anemia occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells, making you feel extremely fatigued. Other symptoms of anemia include:

  • lightheadedness
  • pale skin
  • difficulty thinking
  • feeling cold
  • general weakness

Chemo can lower your white blood cell count, which results in neutropenia. White blood cells play an important role in the immune system: they help fight infection and ward off illness. Symptoms aren’t always obvious, but a low white blood cell count raises the risk of infection and illness. People with an immune system weakened by chemotherapy must take precautions to avoid exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other germs.

Cells called platelets help the blood clot. A low platelet count, called thrombocytopenia, means you’re likely to bruise and bleed easily. Symptoms include nosebleeds, blood in vomit or stools, and heavier-than-normal menstruation.

Some chemo drugs can weaken the heart muscle, resulting in cardiomyopathy, or disturb the heart rhythm, causing arrhythmia. This can affect the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively. Some chemo drugs can increase the risk of heart attack. These problems are less likely to occur if your heart is strong and healthy at the start of chemotherapy.

Nervous and Muscular Systems

The central nervous system controls emotions, thought patterns, and coordination. Chemotherapy drugs may cause problems with memory, or make it difficult to concentrate or think clearly. This symptom sometimes is called “chemo fog,” or “chemo brain.” This mild cognitive impairment may go away following treatment, or may linger for years. Severe cases can add to anxiety and stress.

Some chemo drugs can cause pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Muscles may feel tired, achy, or shaky. Reflexes and small motor skills may be slowed. It’s not unusual to experience problems with balance and coordination.

Digestive System

Some of the most common side effects of chemotherapy involve the digestive tract. Mouth sores and dry mouth can make it difficult to chew and swallow. Sores also may form on the tongue, lips, gums, or in the throat. Mouth sores can make you more susceptible to bleeding and infection. Many patients complain of a metallic taste in the mouth, or a yellow or white coating on the tongue. Food may taste unusual or unpleasant.

These powerful drugs can harm cells along the gastrointestinal tract. Nausea is a common symptom, and may result in bouts of vomiting. However, anti-nausea medications given in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs can help alleviate this symptom.

Other digestive issues include loose stools or diarrhea. In some people, hard stools and constipation can be a problem. This may be accompanied by pressure, bloating, and gas. Take care to avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water throughout the day.

Side effects involving the digestive system can contribute to loss of appetite and feeling full even though you haven’t eaten much. Weight loss and general weakness are common. Despite all this, it’s important to continue eating healthy foods.

Hair, Skin, and Nails (Integumentary System)

Many chemotherapy drugs affect the hair follicles and can cause hair loss (alopecia) within a few weeks of the first treatment. Hair loss can occur on the head, eyebrows, eyelashes, and body. As troubling as it can be, hair loss is temporary. New hair growth usually begins several weeks after the final treatment.

Some patients experience minor skin irritations like dryness, itchiness, and rash. You may develop sensitivity to the sun, making it easier to burn. Your doctor can recommend topical ointments to soothe irritated skin.

Fingernails and toenails may turn brown or yellow, and become ridged or brittle. Nail growth may slow down, and nails may crack or break easily. In severe cases, they can actually separate from the nail bed. It’s important to take good care of your nails to avoid infection.

Sexual and Reproductive System

Chemotherapy drugs can have an effect on your hormones. In women, hormonal changes can bring on hot flashes, irregular periods, or sudden onset of menopause. They may become temporarily or permanently infertile. Women on chemotherapy may experience dryness of vaginal tissues that can make intercourse uncomfortable or painful. The chance of developing vaginal infections is increased. Chemotherapy drugs given during pregnancy can cause birth defects. In men, some chemo drugs can harm sperm or lower sperm count, and temporary or permanent infertility is possible.

Symptoms like fatigue, anxiety, and hormonal fluctuations may interfere with sex drive in both men and women. So can worrying about loss of hair and other changes in appearance. However, many people on chemotherapy continue to enjoy an intimate relationship and an active sex life.

Kidneys and Bladder (Excretory System)

The kidneys work to excrete the powerful chemotherapy drugs as they move through your body. In the process, some kidney and bladder cells can become irritated or damaged. Symptoms of kidney damage include decreased urination, swelling of the hands and feet (edema), and headache. Symptoms of bladder irritation include a feeling of burning when urinating and increased urinary frequency.

You’ll be advised to drink plenty of fluids to flush the medication from your system and to keep your system functioning properly. Note: Some medications cause urine to turn red or orange for a few days. This isn’t cause for concern.

Skeletal System

Most people—and especially women—lose some bone mass as they age. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause calcium levels to drop and contribute to bone loss. This can lead to cancer-related osteoporosis, especially in post-menopausal women and those whose menopause was brought on suddenly due to chemotherapy.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), women who have been treated for breast cancer are at increased risk for osteoporosis and bone fracture. This is due to the combination of the drugs and the drop in estrogen levels. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and breaks. The most common areas of the body to suffer breaks are the spine and pelvis, hips, and wrists.

Psychological and Emotional Toll

Living with cancer and dealing with chemotherapy can exact an emotional toll. You may feel fearful, stressed, or anxious about your appearance and your health. Some people may suffer from depression. Juggling work, financial, and family responsibilities while undergoing cancer treatment can become overwhelming.

Many cancer patents turn to complementary therapies like massage and meditation for relaxation and relief. If you have trouble coping, mention it to your doctor. They may be able to suggest a local cancer support group where you can speak with others who are undergoing cancer treatment. If feelings of depression persist, professional counseling may be necessary.

- See more at:



List of Digestive Enzymes and Functions

Having a list of digestive enzymes may sometime come in handy for those that are experiencing digestive related problems. This way they will know which enzyme supplement they will take after eating foodstuffs that causes problems. The activity of the enzymes starts from the moment we place the food in our mouth and moves down to the stomach and is completed in the small intestine. These enzymes break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats and make it into a usable form for our body.

Small Intestine Enzymes

1. Cholecystokinin – Stimulates digestion of proteins and fats
2. Secretin – Controls secretion of duodenum and osmoregulation
3. Sucrase – Converts sucrose to disaccharides and monosaccharides
4. Maltase – Converts maltose to glucose
5. Lactase – Converts lactose to glucose and galactose
6. Isomaltase – Converts maltose to isomaltose

Stomach Enzymes

1 Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It breaks proteins into smaller peptide fragments.
2 Gelatinase, degrades type I and type V gelatin and type IV and V collagen, which are proteoglycans in meat.
3 Gastric amylase degrades starch, but is of minor significance.
4 Gastric lipase is a tributyrase by its biochemical activity, as it acts almost exclusively on tributyrin, a butter fat enzyme.
5 Pepsin enzyme is secreted by gastric glands
6 Renin enzyme change the liquid milk to solid

Mouth Enzymes

1. Ptyalin – Converts starch to simple soluble sugars
2. Amylase – Converts starch to soluble sugars
3. Betaine – Maintains cell fluid balance as osmolytes
4. Bromelain – Anti-inflammatory agent, tenderizes meat

Pancreas Enzymes

1. Pancreatic lipase – Degrades triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol
2. Chymotrypsin – Converts proteins to aromatic amino acids
3. Carboxypeptidase – Degradation of proteins to amino acids
4. Pancreatic amylase – Degradation of carbohydrates to simple sugars
5. Elastases – Degrade the protein elastin
6. Nucleases – Conversion of nucleic acids to nucleotides and nucleosides
7. Trypsin – Converts proteins to basic amino acids
8. Steapsin – Breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids
9. Phospholipase – Hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and lipophilic substances


IgM Production and Support 


IgM is a type of Antibody (an Immunoglobulin) that is the largest of all of the Antibodies.  IgM comprises 5% of the total Antibody content of Blood Plasma.



Biological Functions of IgM


Immune System


IgM is a powerful activator of Complement (an endogenous Immune System Protein) that destroys Detrimental Bacteria that enter the bloodstream.

IgM helps to prevent recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections (patients with sub-optimal IgM levels generally experience recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections).  references


Dietary Sources of IgM  references


IgM is a constituent of human and Bovine Colostrum.

IgM is a constituent of Whey Protein.


These Substances may Enhance the Function of IgM




Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) may increase IgM levels.  references

Squalene may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM.  references




Lactobacillus casei may increase the production of IgM.  references




Biostim may lower elevated IgM levels.  [more info]




Vitamin C (at least 1,000 mg per day) may stimulate the production of normal (non-excessive) amounts of IgM.  references


These Foods/Herbs may Enhance the Function of IgM


Dairy Foods


Yogurt may increase the production of IgM.  references




Astragalus may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM.  references

Echinacea may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM.  references

Codonopsis may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM.  references


Immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are a group of disorders that involve defects of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system, leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection. In these disorders, specific diseasefighting antibodies (immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM) are either missing or are present in reduced levels. Children who have immunodeficiency syndromes may be subject to infection, diseases, disorders, or allergic reactions to a greater extent than individuals with fully functioning immune systems.


Immunodeficiency is a defect of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection. Immunoglobulin deficiencies refer to missing or reduced levels of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) associated with an inability to make adequate specific antibody. These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body. Each class of antibody binds to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of certain foreign organisms or substances, attempting to protect the body against reactions or illness. When the immune system is challenged by invading organisms, the antibodies may each play a protective role:

  • Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant class of immunoglobulins, directed toward viruses, bacterial organisms, and toxins. It is found in most tissues and in plasma, the clear portion of blood.
  • Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody produced in an immune response to any invading organism or toxic substance.
  • Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is activated early in response to invasion by bacteria and viruses. It is found in saliva, tears, and all other mucus secretions.
  • As of the early 2000s, IgD activity is not well understood.
  • Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is found in respiratory secretions and is directed toward invasion of the body by parasites and in allergic reactions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis , and allergic asthma .

Immunoglobulins are made by white blood cells known as B cells (B lymphocytes). Any disease that harms the development or function of B cells will, therefore, affect the production of immunoglobulin antibodies. T cells, another type of white blood cell, may also be involved in immunodeficiency disorders. About 70 percent of immunoglobulin deficiencies involve B lymphocytes and 20–30 percent involve T lymphocytes. Another 10 percent may involve both B and T lymphocytes.

Many of the infections that occur in children with immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are caused by bacterial organisms or microbes. Certain of these invasive organisms form capsules when they enter the body, a mechanism used to confuse the immune system. In a healthy body with an adequately functioning immune system, immunoglobulin antibodies bind to the capsule and overcome the bacteria's defenses. Streptococci, meningococci, and Haemophilus influenzae , organisms that cause diseases such as otitis media , sinusitis , pneumonia , meningitis , osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and sepsis, all make capsules. Children with immunoglobulin deficiencies are also prone to viral infections, including echovirus, enterovirus, and hepatitis B . They may also develop infection after receiving live (attenuated) polio vaccine . This is one of the reasons that live polio vaccine is no longer used routinely in the United States.

There are two types of immunodeficiency diseases: primary and secondary. Immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are primary immunodeficiency diseases. They account for 50 percent of all primary immunodeficiencies and are the largest group of immunodeficiency disorders. Some are well defined and some are not fully understood. Secondary disorders occur in normally healthy people who are suffering from an underlying disease that weakens the immune system. Successful treatment of the disease usually reverses the immunodeficiency.

Examples of well defined immunoglobulin deficiency disorders include the following:

  • X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disease stemming from a defect on the X chromosome, consequently affecting more males than females. Defect results in absence or reduced numbers of B cells that do not mature and perform normal function. Mature B cells are capable of making antibodies and developing memory, a feature in which the B cell will rapidly recognize and respond to an infectious agent the next time it is encountered. All classes of immunoglobulin antibodies are decreased in agammaglobulinemia.
  • Immunoglobulin heavy chain deletion, a form of agammaglobulinemia, is a genetic disorder in which part of the antibody molecule is absent. This condition results in the loss of several antibody classes and subclasses, including most IgG antibodies and all IgA and IgE antibodies. The disease occurs because part of the gene for the heavy chain has been lost.
  • X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia can occur in combination with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, producing short stature and delayed puberty , primarily in boys but also occurring in girls.
  • Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy is a temporary disease of unknown cause. It is believed to be caused by a defect in the development of T helper cells (cells that recognize foreign antigens and activate T and B cells in an immune response). As the child ages, the number and condition of T helper cells improves, and this situation corrects itself. Hypogammaglobulinemia is characterized by low levels of gammaglobulin antibodies in the blood. During the disease period, children may have decreased levels of IgG and IgA antibodies. In some infants with this disorder, laboratory tests are able to show that the antibodies present do not react properly with infectious bacteria.
  • IgG subclass deficiency is a disorder associated with a poor ability to respond and make antibody against polysaccharide antigens, primarily pneumococcus.
  • Selective IgA deficiency is an inherited disease characterized by a failure of B cells to switch from making IgM to IgA antibodies. The amount of IgA produced is limited in either serum or the mucosal linings of organs. This condition may result in more infections of mucosal surfaces, such as the nose, throat, lungs, and intestines. However, most persons with this abnormality are asymptomatic.
  • IgM deficiency is characterized by the absence or low level of total IgM antibodies, the body's first defense against infection. This condition results in slow response to infective organisms and slow response to treatment.
  • IgG deficiency with hyper-IgM is a disorder that results when B-cells fail to switch from making IgM to IgG. This condition produces an increase in the amount of IgM antibodies present and a decrease in the amount of IgG and IgA antibodies. This disorder is the result of a genetic mutation.
  • Severe combined immunodeficiency (SVID) is not precisely an immunoglobulin deficiency, but a combined deficiency resulting from a T-cell disorder. The T-cell dysfunction can either be X-linked, affecting more males than females and characterized by the absence of T lymphocytes, or it can occur through autosomal inheritance (not sex linked), resulting in an absence of both T and B lymphocytes and a deficient thymus gland, the lymphoid organ that produces T-cell lymphocytes.
  • Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency with onset of symptoms typically occurring in the second or third decade of life. It is never diagnosed before two years of age and is diagnosed only after drug toxicity and other primary immune deficiencies have been ruled out. IgG and IgA and/or IgM will be measured at about two standard deviations below normal. The individual will typically not make antibodies against protein or polysaccharide antigens and will not make IgM antibodies against incompatible blood group antigens (hemagluttinins). T-cell dysfunction is the variable in this disorder. Children who have this disorder are subject to recurring infections and may not respond appropriately to immunization.



 [F1]I like the way this is worded—GMO Maize( corn) being adopted—more like forced and utilize as a means of atrazine spreading-which we all know as a endocrine mutating chemistry that alters the heterosexual to a homosexual—and now this is going to be imported---another war on Europe without Bullets—just Genetics and BioWarfare

 [F2]This is hilarious and this came from info food site and they actually are reporting this as some kind of benefit—when in all reality no one wants this there is absolutely no need for this tech unless you wanted to cripple a countries health system or peoples health











Show of the Month July18 2015

Transcranial magnetic stimulation holds promise for tinnitus patients

Curcumin and chronic kidney disease (CKD

Cell division speeds up as part of antibody selection

C. zeylanicum ( Cinnamon Tea) aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line


Behavioral Structural Functional Abnormalities associated with various Heavy Metal Toxins


3D printers poised to have major implications for food manufacturing



Transcranial magnetic stimulation holds promise for tinnitus patients

In the largest U.S. clinical trial of its kind funded by the Veterans Affairs (VA) Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, researchers at the VA Portland Medical Center and Oregon Health & Science University found that transcranial magnetic stimulation significantly improved tinnitus symptoms for more than half of study participants. Their findings were published today in the journal JAMA Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery.--"For some study participants, this was the first time in years that they experienced any relief in symptoms. These promising results bring us closer to developing a long-sought treatment for this condition that affects an enormous number of Americans, including many men and women who have served in our armed forces," said Robert L. Folmer, Ph.D., research investigator with the National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research at the VA Portland Health Care System and associate professor of Otolarynology/Head and Neck Surgery in the OHSU School of Medicine.--One of the most common health conditions in the country, tinnitus affects nearly 45 million Americans. People with this audiological and neurological condition hear a persistent sound - that can range from ringing or buzzing to a hissing or white noise hum - when there is no external sound source. The distraction can impair people's ability to sleep or concentrate and is sometimes disabling.--[F1] According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, nearly 15 percent of Americans experience some degree of tinnitus. Currently, there are no proven treatments available. So, patients with the condition often develop coping strategies to manage their reaction to tinnitus.--Military veterans are at greater risk of developing the condition. Tinnitus is the most prevalent service connected disability in the VA health system. Study participants were a mix of veterans and non-veterans.--"We applaud the work of Dr. Folmer and his colleagues. The results of the joint National Center for Rehabilitative Auditory Research/OHSU study are promising for tinnitus patients everywhere," said Melanie West, Chair of the American Tinnitus Association's Board of Directors, the premier member-based tinnitus organization. "We are committed to finding solutions for tinnitus and excited to see the progression of TMS clinical trials producing positive results for some patients."--To conduct this research, Folmer and colleagues, including Sarah Theodoroff, Ph.D., used a TMS system that generates a cone-shaped magnetic field that penetrates the scalp and skull to interact with brain tissue. The higher the stimulation intensity, the deeper the magnetic field can penetrate and affect neural activity. Currently, the Food and Drug Administration has approved transcranial magnetic stimulation only for treatment of depression.

All 64 participants enrolled in the study received one pulse of TMS per second to their skull just above the ear to target the auditory cortex in the brain[F2] . Participants underwent TMS sessions on 10 consecutive workdays, receiving 2,000 pulses of TMS per session. Of the 32 participants who received the "active" TMS treatment, 18 people found their symptoms were alleviated for at least six months. To participate in the study, patients were required to have had tinnitus for at least a year or more.--A significant number of participants who had tinnitus for more than 20 years were pleased to receive some relief from TMS treatment. In light of these encouraging results, Dr. Folmer hopes to conduct a larger clinical trial to refine protocols for the eventual clinical use of TMS for tinnitus.---Source-Oregon Health & Science University

Recipe With Magnets—make a band of a magnetic strip—and apply round earth magnets to the strip so they are one on one side and one on the other- and then apply some tape – chose what ever you wish) and then place either above on the head or allot it to be a choker type under the ear on the neck ---if applied before bed and you have some kind of shielding you may find it is unusually quiet-due to the magnetic field you have placed on the head or neck


Curcumin and chronic kidney disease (CKD): major mode of action through stimulating endogenous intestinal alkaline phosphatase.

Molecules. 2014;19(12):20139-56

Authors: Ghosh SS, Gehr TW, Ghosh S

Curcumin, an active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric (Curcuma longa),[F3]  has significant anti-inflammatory properties. Chronic kidney disease (CKD), an inflammatory disease, can lead to end stage renal disease resulting in dialysis and transplant. Furthermore, it is frequently associated with other inflammatory disease such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. This review will focus on the clinically relevant inflammatory molecules that play a role in CKD and associated diseases. Various enzymes, transcription factors, growth factors modulate production and action of inflammatory molecules; curcumin can blunt the generation and action of these inflammatory molecules and ameliorate CKD as well as associated inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have shown that increased intestinal permeability results in the leakage of pro-inflammatory molecules (cytokines and lipopolysaccharides) from gut into the circulation in diseases such as CKD, diabetes and atherosclerosis. This change in intestinal permeability is due to decreased expression of tight junction proteins and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP). Curcumin increases the expression of IAP and tight junction proteins and corrects gut permeability. This action reduces the levels of circulatory inflammatory biomolecules. This effect of curcumin on intestine can explain why, despite poor bioavailability, curcumin has potential anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and beneficial effects on CKD. --PMID: 25474287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Cell division speeds up as part of antibody selection


Rockefeller University. "Cell division speeds up as part of antibody selection: Research reveals new details about the process by which the immune system refines its antibodies." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 July 2015. <>.

It's a basic principle of immunology: When a germ invades, the body adapts to that particular target and destroys it. But much remains unknown about how the immune system refines its defensive proteins, called antibodies, to most effectively zero in on that invader. Experiments at The Rockefeller University offer new insight into the details of this selection process.--In research published in Science on July 16, scientists led by Michel Nussenzweig, Zanvil A. Cohn and Ralph M. Steinman Professor and head of the Laboratory of Molecular Immunology, uncovered a new mechanism by which the B cells that produce the most finely tuned antibodies rise to dominance. This discovery builds on earlier work published last year.--"Through a process called affinity maturation B cells compete, and those cells that produce the highest affinity antibodies win and come to dominate the B cell population. Our work so far has revealed two of the mechanisms that allow high affinity B cells to overwhelm the others," says Alex Gitlin, a graduate student in the lab and first author of the paper.--B cells have genes that code for antibodies, which latch onto foreign proteins, called antigens, as part of an immune response. During an infection, B cells and other immune cells form tiny structures called germinal centers in the spleen and lymph nodes[F4] .--Within germinal centers, B cells evolve in a Darwinian-like fashion. The gene responsible for producing their antibodies mutates rapidly, a million times faster than the normal rate of mutation in the human body, and the cells proliferate. B cells whose mutations increase the antibody's affinity for the antigen are selected, and these cells then continue to mutate and proliferate.--"Previously, we showed that high affinity cells spend more time dividing and mutating in between rounds of competition. We now show that these high affinity cells also use this additional time more effectively -- by dividing at faster rates," Gitlin says. In this manner, the germinal center produces the high affinity antibodies that are the basis of an effective immune response.--Vaccines[F5]  initiate this process by exposing the body to pieces of a pathogen or to a weakened or dead version of it, prompting the immune system to develop protective antibodies. Because vaccines depend on effective antibody responses for protection, a better understanding of the antibody selection process in the germinal center might potentially be of use for developing more effective vaccines.--The team's research has focused on the dynamics inside the germinal center. Within it, B cells travel between two areas known as the dark zone and the light zone. In the dark zone, the B cells mutate and proliferate, before traveling to the light zone, where they pick up pieces of antigen. The higher the affinity of their antibodies, the more antigen they pick up.

Their previous experiments demonstrated that another type of immune cell, the T cell, operates in the light zone to recognize the higher affinity B cells based on the amount of antigen they display. The more antigen the B cells present to T cells, the stronger the signal the T cells send. As a result, the high affinity B cells spend more time in the dark zone in between visits to the light zone.--This time, the team, which also included collaborators at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center and Harvard Medical School, identified another reason the high affinity cells come to dominate: more rapid cell divisions. They induced the selection of an engineered set of B cells in mice, and used labels that the cells incorporate as they replicate their DNA in preparation for cell division. With these techniques they found that a signal from the T cell also prompts the high affinity B cells to divide more rapidly while in the dark zone. In effect, these cells have both more time and more speed with which to duplicate themselves[F6] .--By labeling DNA replication and following its progression, the team took a close look at how the S phase of the cell cycle, in which the cell copies its DNA in preparation for division,[F7]  is sped up. They found that acceleration during this phase was due to the double-stranded DNA molecule being unzipped and copied more rapidly at the so-called replication fork.--"Together, these studies describe two complementary ways in which signals from T cells empower the best equipped set of B cells to take over the immune response during affinity maturation. Other mechanisms, which are yet to be discovered, are also likely to be at play," Gitlin says. "The dynamics of germinal centers are crucial to this basic immunological process, and they may also have important implications for improving vaccines and understanding lymphomas, which often arise from germinal center B cells due to their high rates of proliferation and mutation."-Story Source--The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Rockefeller University. Note: Journal Reference-Alexander D. Gitlin, Christian T. Mayer, Thiago Y. Oliveira, Ziv Shulman, Mathew J. K. Jones, Amnon Koren, Michel C. Nussenzweig. T cell help controls the speed of the cell cycle in germinal center B cells. Science, 2015 DOI: 10.1126/science.aac4919


C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1).

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2015;116(2):132-5

Authors: Assadollahi V, Gholami M, Zendedel A

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of C. zeylanicum aqueous extract on cell growth in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1).
BACKGROUND: Today, application of Cinnamon for treatment of cancer investigates extensively. Cinnamon has antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties.
METHODS: In this experimental study, THP-1 was incubated in 2, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 mg/ml C. zeylanicum solutions for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Cell cycle was assessed with flow cytometry. Apoptotic cells were identified by Hoechst 33342 staining. Cell proliferation was assessed by the MTT assay. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analytical tests.
RESULTS: Samples that supplemented with 0.1 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract enhanced induction of apoptosis in THP-1 cell line compared to samples that supplemented with 2, 1 and 0.01 mg/ml. According to flow cytometry analysis, after 24 and 72 hours of incubation in 0.1 and 2 mg/ml C. zeylanicum aqueous extract, respectively, the amount of cells in apoptosis phase was higher than that in the control sample.
CONCLUSION: Supplemented C. zeylanicum aqueous extract induced apoptosis in the human myelocytic leukemia cell line (Fig. 4, Ref. 20).-PMID: 25665482 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Behavioral Structural Functional Abnormalities associated with various Heavy Metal Toxins


Behavioral Structural Functional Abnormalities associated with various Heavy Metal Toxins

Psychiatric Disturbances

Social Deficits, Social withdrawal


Repetitive perseverative stereotyped behaviors, OCD-typical behaviors


Depression mood swings flat affect
impaired facial recognition

Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Mercury

Schizoid tendencies, hallucinations, delirium


Irritability aggressive behaviors temper tantrums

Lead, Mercury

Suicidal Behaviors

Copper, Mercury

Sleep difficulties/ disturbances

Lead, Mercury, Thallium

Chronic fatigue (CFS), weakness, malaise

Aluminum, Arsenic, Cadmium, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Thallium

Anorexia, symptoms reflecting eating disorders loss of appetite/weight

Arsenic, Lead, Mercury

Anxiety, nervous tendencies


Attention problems (ADHD) lacks eye contact impaired visual fixation

Lead, Mercury

Speech and Language Deficits

Speech disorders

Aluminum, Mercury

Loss of speech developmental problems with language


Speech comprehension deficits


Dysarthria, articulation problems
slurred speech, unintelligible speech


Cognitive Impairments

Mental retardation borderline intelligence

Arsenic, Lead, Mercury

Uneven performance on IQ scores low IQ scores

Copper, Lead

Poor concentration attention deficits (ADHD) response inhibition

Aluminum, Lead

Poor memory (short term verbal and auditory)

Aluminum, Lead

pre-senile and senile dementia



Aluminum, Arsenic

Impaired reaction time
lower performance on timed tests


Sensory Abnormalities

Abnormal Sensations in the mouth and extremities


Hearing loss difficulty hearing

Arsenic, Lead, Mercury

Abnormal touch sensations, diminished touch sensations aversion to touch


Blurred vision, sensitivity to light

Arsenic, Mercury

Motor Disorders

Choreiform movements myoclonal jerks unusual postures

Copper, Mercury

Difficulty walking swallowing talking

Copper, Mercury

Flapping circling rocking toe walking


Problems with intentional movements or imitation


Abnormal gait/posture, uncoordination loss of balance, problems sitting lying crawling and walking


Decreased locomotor activity

Aluminum, Arsenic

Convulsions, seizure

Aluminum, Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Thallium


Structural and Functional Abnormalities associated with various heavy metal toxins

Physiological Impairment

Brain and Central Nervous System

Neurofibrillary tangles


Neuritis retrobulbar neuritis

Aluminum, Arsenic, Thallium


Aluminum, Arsenic, Lead, Thallium

Alterations in nerve conduction velocity


Alterations in the spinal chord


Accumulates in CNS structures

Aluminum, Mercury

Abnormal EEGs

Arsenic, Lead

Autonomic disturbances

Copper, Lead, Mercury, Thallium

Peripheral Nervous System

Peripheral neuropathy

Arsenic, Mercury

Alterations in peripheral nerves


Loss of feeling/ numbness in the extremities, parasthesia

Arsenic, Mercury, Thallium

Gastrointestinal Tract

Nausea vomiting diarrhea
loss of appetite

Arsenic, Copper, Mercury, Thallium

Abdominal pain stomach cramps
burning of the throat and mouth

Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Mercury, Thallium

Esophagitis, gastroenteritis, colitis

Arsenic, Mercury, Thallium

Cancers (colon pancreatic stomach or rectal)


Renal and Hepatic Impairment

Liver dysfunction damage

Arsenic, Copper, Thallium

Cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis


Kidney disease, kidney failure

Arsenic, Lead, Mercury

Renal toxicity, tubular proteinosis

Arsenic, Copper, Lead

Kidney Damage histological alterations

Arsenic, Lead

Cardiovascular System

Blood vessel damage


Anemia, decreased red blood cell count

Arsenic, Copper, Lead

Hypertension, increased heart rate (tachycardia)

Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Thallium

Electrocardiac disorders

Peripheral vascular disease,
cardiovascular disease, vascular collapse

Arsenic, Lead

Respiratory System

Pulmonary Fibrosis

Aluminum, Arsenic

Pneumonia laryngitis pharyngitis bronchitis

Aluminum, Arsenic, Mercury

Restrictive airway disorders asthmatic conditions pneumoconisis

Arsenic, Aluminum

Respiratory tract cancers


Immune System



Decreased white blood cell count

Arsenic, Thallium

Reproductive System

Genital abnormalities

Aluminum, Thallium

Disturbances in menstrual cycle
menstrual pains

Copper, Mercury

Birth defects, premature births, spontaneous abortion

Arsenic, Lead, Mercury

Reproductive dysfunction

Arsenic, Aluminum, Cadmium, Lead

Other Physical Disturbances

Rashes contact dermatitis eczema itchy/irritating skin

Aluminum, Arsenic, Copper, Mercury

Muscle pain, headache, acrodynia, colic

Arsenic, Copper, Lead, Thallium

Alopecia (hair loss)





3D printers poised to have major implications for food manufacturing

Date-July 13, 2015

Source-Institute of Food Technologists (IFT)


Summary-The use of 3D printers has the potential to revolutionize the way food is manufactured within the next 10 to 20 years, impacting everything from how military personnel get food on the battlefield to how long it takes to get a meal from the computer to your table, according to new research.


The use of 3D printers has the potential to revolutionize the way food is manufactured within the next 10 to 20 years, impacting everything from how military personnel get food on the battlefield to how long it takes to get a meal from the computer to your table, according to a July 12th symposium at IFT15: Where Science Feeds Innovation hosted by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) in Chicago.--The price of 3D printers has been steadily declining, from more than $500,000 in the 1980s to less than $1,000 today for a personal-sized device, making them increasingly available to consumers and manufacturers Although they are not widely used in food manufacturing yet, that availability is fueling research into how they can be used to customize foods or speed delivery of food to consumers."No matter what field you are in, this technology will worm its way in," said Hod Lipson, Ph.D., a professor of engineering at Columbia University and a co-author of the book Fabricated: The New World of 3D Printing. "The technology is getting faster, cheaper and better by the minute. Food printing could be the killer app for 3D printing."-Lipson, addressing the conference by video, said 3D printing is a good fit for the food industry because it allows manufacturers to bring complexity and variety to consumers at a low cost. Traditional manufacturing is built on mass production of the same item, but with a 3D printer, it takes as much time and money to produce a complex, customized product that appeals to one person as it does to make a simple, routine product that would be appealing to a large group.-For example, Lipson said, users could choose from a large online database of recipes, put a cartridge with the ingredients into their 3D printer at home, and it would create the dish just for that person. The user could customize it to include extra nutrients or replace one ingredient with another.

The U.S. military is just beginning to research similar uses for 3D food printing, but it would be used on the battlefield instead of in the kitchen, said Mary Scerra, food technologist at the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center (NSRDEC) in Natick, Massachusetts. She said that by 2025 or 2030, the military envisions using 3D printing to customize meals for soldiers that taste good, are nutrient-dense, and could be tailored to a soldier's particular needs.

"Imagine warfighters in remote areas -- one has muscle fatigue, one has been awake for a long period without rest, one lacks calories, one needs electrolytes, and one just wants a pizza," Scerra said. "Wouldn't it be interesting if they could just print and eat?"--She noted that there are still several hurdles to overcome, such as the cost of bringing the technology to remote areas, the logistics of making it work in those locations and, perhaps most importantly, making sure the food tastes good.-"If the meals aren't palatable, they won't be consumed," Scerra said. "It doesn't matter how nutritious they are."-Anshul Dubey, research and development senior manager at PepsiCo, said 3D printing already is having an impact within the company, even though it is not yet being used to make food. For example, consumer focus groups were shown 3D-printed plastic prototypes of different shaped and colored potato chips. He said using a prototype such as that, instead of just a picture, elicits a more accurate response from the focus group participants.--"Even though the future of food 3D printing looks far off, that doesn't mean it's not impacting the industry," he said.Story Source--The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). Institute of Food Technologists (IFT). "3D printers poised to have major implications for food manufacturing." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 July 2015. <



 [F1]Key word here is no external sound –then this must be a frequency and as a result of the magnetic field surrounding the head it would block the frequency which maybe transmitting from the inside out or a receptor may be entering in as a result the filed acts as a wall and blocks the transmission from entering

 [F2]This is where you may want to apply an experiment using either a electromagnet or a earth neodyme magnet

 [F3]Tumeric Herb ( spice)

 [F4]It would appear to sustain the impact of the immune system then the lymph and spleen to be upheld and maintained

 [F5]Have never worked or have ever been proven to work and now with the nano delivery system and and the XNA incorporated in the delivery this is not the same and can even bypass the immune system –instead of triggering a immune response will cause a dysfunction

 [F6]This as well could be where nano particle cluster to wait for an opportunity to sabotage the replication

 [F7]What if there was another XNA in there –would it be able to overwrite what can happen when this is being added








Show of the Month July 25 2015


Photo’s of fruits with exposure to nano chemistry

Soybean oil causes more obesity than coconut oil, fructose

Panax ginseng hair re-growth

Breakthrough in knowledge of how nanoparticles grow

Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified

Rare form- Novel structures built from DNA emerge


DNA nanoforms- Miniature architectural forms -- some no larger than viruses -- constructed through DNA origami

Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step


World's largest DNA origami created



Photo’s of fruits with exposure to nano chemistry



Apple Sprayed


Pear nano


 Nano Cherry



Apple sprayed nano


Pear nano2


Cherry coated with nano


NANO Spray on foods we eat-these are topical and the skis are loaded with these toxins—based on the studies in the nanodata and nanodanger links they could not wash this out after 4 days in a solution with pears—you can se the penetration ongoing here in all 3 of the fruits—these were taken with a 800X camscope—you can see these as well with a 60 X scope as well


Soybean oil causes more obesity than coconut oil, fructose

A diet high in soybean oil causes more obesity and diabetes than a diet high in fructose, a sugar commonly found in soda and processed foods, UC Riverside researchers found.--The scientists fed male mice a series of four diets that contained 40 percent fat, similar to what Americans currently consume. In one diet the researchers used coconut oil, which consists primarily of saturated fat. In the second diet about half of the coconut oil was replaced with soybean oil, which contains primarily polyunsaturated fats and is a main ingredient in vegetable oil. That diet corresponded with roughly the amount of soybean oil Americans currently consume.--The other two diets had added fructose, comparable to the amount consumed by many Americans. All four diets contained the same number of calories and there was no significant difference in the amount of food eaten by the mice on the diets. Thus, the researchers were able to study the effects of the different oils and fructose in the context of a constant caloric intake.--Compared to mice on the high coconut oil diet, mice on the high soybean oil diet showed increased weight gain, larger fat deposits, a fatty liver with signs of injury, diabetes and insulin resistance, all of which are part of the Metabolic Syndrome.[F1]  Fructose in the diet had less severe metabolic effects than soybean oil although it did cause more negative effects in the kidney and a marked increase in prolapsed rectums, a symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which like obesity is on the rise.--The mice on the soybean oil-enriched diet gained almost 25 percent more weight than the mice on the coconut oil diet and 9 percent more weight than those on the fructose-enriched diet. And the mice on the fructose-enriched diet gained 12 percent more weight than those on a coconut oil rich diet[F2] .--"This was a major surprise for us -- that soybean oil is causing more obesity and diabetes than fructose -- especially when you see headlines everyday about the potential role of sugar consumption in the current obesity epidemic," said Poonamjot Deol, the assistant project scientist who directed the project in the lab of Frances M. Sladek, a professor of cell biology and neuroscience.-The paper, "Soybean oil is more obesogenic and diabetogenic than coconut oil and fructose in mouse: potential role for the liver," was published July 22 in the journal PLOS ONE.—In the U.S. the consumption of soybean oil has increased greatly in the last four decades [F3] due to a number of factors, including results from studies in the 1960s that found a positive correlation between saturated fatty acids and the risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result of these studies, nutritional guidelines were created that encouraged people to reduce their intake of saturated fats, commonly found in meat and dairy products, and increase their intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in plant oils, such as soybean oil.-Implementation of those new guidelines, as well as an increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States, has led to a remarkable increase in the consumption of soybean oil, which is found in processed foods, margarines, salad dressings and snack foods. Soybean oil now accounts for 60 percent of edible oil consumed in the United States. That increase in soybean oil consumption mirrors the rise in obesity rates in the United States in recent decades.-During the same time, fructose consumption in the United States significantly increased, from about 37 grams per day in 1977 to about 49 grams per day in 2004[F4] .--The research outlined in the paper is believed to be the first side-by-side look at the impacts of saturated fat, unsaturated fat and fructose on obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which along with heart disease and hypertension, are referred to as the Metabolic Syndrome.--The study also includes extensive analysis of changes in gene expression and metabolite levels in the livers of mice fed these diets. The most striking results were those showing that soybean oil significantly affects the expression of many genes that metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds that enter the body, suggesting that a soybean oil-enriched diet could affect one's response to drugs and environmental toxicants[F5] , if humans show the same response as mice.--The UC Riverside researchers also did a study with corn oil, which induced more obesity than coconut oil but not quite as much as soybean oil.[F6]  They are currently doing tests with lard and olive oil. They have not tested canola oil or palm oil.- The researchers cautioned that they didn't study the impacts of the diets on cardiovascular diseases and note in the paper that the consumption of vegetable oils could be beneficial for cardiac health, even if it also induces obesity and diabetes.[F7] --They also noted that there are many different types of saturated and unsaturated fats. This is particularly true for the saturated fats in animal products that were associated with heart disease in the studies in the 1960s: they tend to have a longer chain length than the saturated fats in coconut oil.--The latest paper relates to previously released findings by scientists in Sladek's lab and at the UC Davis West Coast Metabolomics Center, which compared regular soybean oil to a new genetically modified soybean oil.-That research, presented at a conference in March, found that the new genetically modified, high oleic soybean oil (Plenish), which has a lower amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid than traditional soybean oil, is healthier than regular soybean oil but just barely. Using mice, the researchers found that the Plenish oil also induces fatty liver although somewhat less obesity and diabetes. Importantly, it did not cause insulin resistance, a pre-diabetic condition. It should be noted that -both the regular soybean oil and Plenish are from soybeans that are genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide RoundUp.--The researchers are now finalizing a manuscript about these findings that also incorporates tests done with olive oil.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of California - Riverside. The original item was written by Sean Nealon. Journal Reference-Poonamjot Deol, Jane R. Evans, Joseph Dhahbi, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Diana S. Han, Stephen Spindler, Frances M. Sladek. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (7): e0132672 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132672



Panax ginseng hair re-growth

This research program on the novel functions of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer focused on the effects of ginseng rhizome on hair re-growth in androgenetic alopecia. Extracts of red ginseng [F8] rhizome showed greater dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR[F9] ) when compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg3, a unique ginsenoside in red ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC50 values of 259.4 and 86.1µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR.--Topical administration of extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2mg/mouse) to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice.[F10]  These results suggest that red ginseng rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model.


Breakthrough in knowledge of how nanoparticles grow

A team of researchers from the University of Leicester and France's G2ELab-CNRS in Grenoble have for the first time observed the growth of free nanoparticles in helium gas in a process similar to the decaffeination of coffee, providing new insights into the structure of nanoparticles.--Nanoparticles have a very large surface area compared with their volume and are often able to react very quickly. This makes them useful as catalysts in chemical reactions and they are often used in sports equipment, clothing and sunscreens.--In a paper published by the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters and funded by the Royal Society, The Leverhulme Trust, the British Council and CONACYT, the teams from the University of Leicester's Department of Physics and Astronomy and the CNRS in Grenoble measured how helium ions cluster with neutral helium atoms and grow into nanoparticles.--During the study they examined how helium ions drift through a cell filled with helium atoms. When the pressure of helium was increased the researchers observed a decrease in the mobility of the ions.--Dr Klaus von Haeften from the University of Leicester's Department of Physics and Astronomy, who has received a Visiting Professorship from the University Joseph Fourier, said: "We concluded that the increased pressure forced more and more helium atoms to bind to the ions gradually, until the clusters grew to nanometre-sized particles. This process continued until the nanoparticles reached the maximum size possible which also depended on the temperature.--"Further increase of the pressure was found to reduce the size, which we interpreted as compression.[F11]  These size changes could then be followed in great detail. For low and moderate pressures the size changed rather rapidly whereas in the high pressure region the changes were slow."-By analysing how quickly the particle volume changed with pressure the researchers were able to investigate the structure of the nanoparticles.--Nelly Bonifaci from the G2ELab-CNRS said: "At low and moderate pressure the nanoparticles were much softer than solid helium and we concluded that they must be liquid. At high pressures they became progressively harder and eventually solid."[F12] --Dr von Haeften added: "By choosing helium we were able to study a system of greatest possible purity and our results are therefore very precise. Similar processes occur in the decaffeination of coffee in high pressure carbon dioxide,[F13]  in dry cleaning and in chemical manufacturing. In all these processes nanoparticles grow. By knowing their size we can much better understand these processes and improve them."--This is the first time that researchers have been able to observe the growth of free nanoparticles in a large range of pressure in gaseous helium.--Frédéric Aitken from the G2ELab-CNRS added: "Our work is an important benchmark for the research on the formation and size of nanoparticles."--The original article 'Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression' has appeared in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters and is available at-Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Leicester. -Journal Reference-Hejer Gharbi Tarchouna, Nelly Bonifaci, Frédéric Aitken, Luis Guillermo Mendoza Luna, Klaus von Haeften. Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2015; 3036 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01159


Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified

Newborn children born with a mutation in the Plasmalemma Vesicle Associated Protein (PLVAP) gene develop severe protein losing enteropathy, according to a case study1 published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the basic science journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Protein losing enteropathy is a condition of the GI tract that results in loss of protein from the body, and often leads to severe abdominal swelling, malnutrition and early death in affected infants[F14] --The investigators utilized next-generation DNA sequencing to analyze an infant who died from severe protein losing enteropathy. The patient's symptoms largely resembled those of Plvap knockout mice at both ultrastructural and biochemical levels, strongly supporting a critical involvement of PLVAP in the development of protein losing enteropathy.-"These findings come at a critical time in medical research; the recent promise of gene therapy may make targeted correction of PLVAP mutations possible," said Dr. Abdul Elkadri, lead study author from the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario. "In the meantime, we can use these findings to develop more rapid diagnostic strategies to screen infants for this genetic mutation and prevent severe complications at an early stage of the disease."--Interestingly, in the case reported in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the defect caused by mutations in PLVAP were due to increased leakage from small blood vessels rather than active loss from the cells lining the intestines[F15] . This finding is different from most cases of enteropathy, including the Microvillus Inclusion Disease and Congenital Tufting Enteropathy, which affect young children. In these latter conditions, genetic abnormalities cause cellular abnormalities primarily affecting intestinal epithelial tissue structure and function.[F16] --"As we move into the era of precision medicine, studies uncovering genetic causes of GI and liver disorders are much needed to guide the effective identification and treatment of patients," said James R. Goldenring, MD, PhD, AGAF, associate editor, Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. "A combination of basic research and clinical investigation, as exemplified by this work, will help achieve improved patient outcomes."--The study findings demonstrate two important concepts applicable to the broader medical community: first, mutations in single genes can lead to severe congenital abnormalities in newborn children, and second, mouse models are extremely useful in understanding congenital abnormalities in humans.--This novel monogenic lethal defect discovered by Dr. Elkadri and colleagues sheds fresh light on some new focus points, which must be explored by future studies.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Gastroenterological Association. Journal Reference-Abdul Elkadri, Cornelia Thoeni, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Ryan Murchie, Conghui Guo, James D. Stavropoulos, Christian R. Marshall, Paul Wales, Robert H.J. Bandsma, Ernest Cutz, Chaim M. Roifman, David Chitayat, Yaron Avitzur, Radu V. Stan, Aleixo M. Muise. Mutations in Plasmalemma Vesicle Associated Protein Result in Sieving Protein-Losing Enteropathy Characterized by Hypoproteinemia, Hypoalbuminemia, and Hypertriglyceridemia. CMGH Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2015; 1 (4): 381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2015.05.001 --American Gastroenterological Association. "Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 July 2015. <>


Rare form- Novel structures built from DNA emerge

Date-July 20, 2015

Source-Arizona State University

Summary-Scientists have worked for many years to refine the technique of DNA origami. His aim is to compose new sets of design rules, vastly expanding the range of nanoscale architectures generated by the method. In new research, a variety of innovative nanoforms are described, each displaying unprecedented design control.


The images show the scaffold-folding paths for A) star shape B) 2-D Penrose tiling C) 8-fold quasicrystalline 2-D pattern D) waving grid. E) circle array. F) fishnet pattern G) flower and bird design The completed nanostructures are seen in the accompanying atomic force microscopy images.

The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University----DNA, the molecular foundation of life, has new tricks up its sleeve. The four bases from which it is composed snap together like jigsaw pieces and can be artificially manipulated to construct endlessly varied forms in two and three dimensions. The technique, known as DNA origami, promises to bring futuristic microelectronics and biomedical innovations to market.--Hao Yan, a researcher at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute, has worked for many years to refine the technique. His aim is to compose new sets of design rules, vastly expanding the range of nanoscale architectures generated by the method. In new research, a variety of innovative nanoforms are described, each displaying unprecedented design control.--Yan is the Milton D. Glick Distinguished Chair of Chemistry and Biochemistry and directs Biodesign's Center for Molecular Design and Biomimetics.--In the current study, complex nano-forms displaying arbitrary wireframe architectures have been created, using a new set of design rules. "Earlier design methods used strategies including parallel arrangement of DNA helices to approximate arbitrary shapes, but precise fine-tuning of DNA wireframe architectures that connect vertices in 3D space has required a new approach," Yan says.--Yan has long been fascinated with Nature's seemingly boundless capacity for design innovation. The new study describes wireframe structures of high complexity and programmability, fabricated through the precise control of branching and curvature, using novel organizational principles for the designs. (Wireframes are skeletal three-dimensional models represented purely through lines and vertices.)[F17] --The resulting nanoforms include symmetrical lattice arrays, quasicrystalline structures, curvilinear arrays, and a simple wire art sketch in the 100-nm scale, as well as 3D objects including a snub cube with 60 edges and 24 vertices and a reconfigurable Archimedean solid that can be controlled to make the unfolding and refolding transitions between 3D and 2D.[F18] --The research appears in the advanced online edition of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.--In previous investigations, the Yan group created subtle architectural forms at an astonishingly minute scale, some measuring only tens of nanometers across--roughly the diameter of a virus particle[F19] . These nano-objects include spheres, spirals, flasks, Möbius forms, and even an autonomous spider-like robot capable of following a prepared DNA track.[F20] --The technique of DNA origami capitalizes on the simple base-pairing properties of DNA, a molecule built from the four nucleotides Adenine (A), Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) and (Guanine). [F21] The rules of the game are simple: A's always pair with T's and C's with G's. Using this abbreviated vocabulary, the myriad body plans of all living organisms are constructed; though duplicating even Nature's simpler designs has required great ingenuity.-The basic idea of DNA origami is to use a length of single-stranded DNA as a scaffold for the desired shape. Base-pairing of complementary nucleotides causes the form to fold and self-assemble. The process is guided by the addition of shorter "staple strands," which act to help fold the scaffold and to hold the resulting structure together. Various imaging technologies are used to observe the tiny structures, including fluorescence-, electron- and atomic force microscopy.[F22] --Although DNA origami originally produced nanoarchitectures of purely aesthetic interest, refinements of the technique have opened the door to a range of exciting applications including molecular cages for the encapsulation of molecules, enzyme immobilization and catalysis, chemical and biological sensing tools, drug delivery mechanisms, and molecular computing devices.--The technique described in the new study takes this approach a step further, allowing researchers to overcome local symmetry restrictions, creating wireframe architectures with higher order arbitrariness and complexity. Here, each line segment and vertex is individually designed and controlled. The number of arms emanating from each vertex may be varied from 2 to 10 and the precise angles between adjacent arms can be modified.--In the current study, the method was first applied to symmetrical, regularly repeating polygonal designs, including hexagonal, square and triangular tiling geometries. Such common designs are known as tessellation patterns.---A clever strategy involving a series of bridges and loops was used to properly route the scaffold strand, allowing it to pass through the entire structure, touching all lines of the wireframe once and only once. Staple strands were then applied to complete the designs.--In subsequent stages, the researchers created more complex wireframe structures, without the local translational symmetry found in the tessellation patters. Three such patterns were made, including a star shape, a 5-fold Penrose tile and an 8-fold quasicrystalline pattern. (Quasicrystals are structures that are highly ordered but non-periodic. Such patterns can continuously fill available space, but are not translationally symmetric.) Loop structures inserted into staple strands and unpaired nucleotides at the vertex points of the scaffold strands were also used, allowing researchers to perform precision modifications to the angles of junction arms.--The new design rules were next tested with the assembly of increasingly complex nanostructures, involving vertices ranging from 2 to 10 arms, with many different angles and curvatures involved, including a complex pattern of birds and flowers. The accuracy of the design was subsequently confirmed by AFM imaging, proving that the method could successfully yield highly sophisticated wireframe DNA nanostructures.--The method was then adapted to produce a number of 3D structures as well, including a cuboctahedron, and another Archimedian solid known as a snub cube--a structure with 60 edges, 24 vertices and 38 faces, including 6 squares and 32 equilateral triangles[F23] . The authors stress that the new design innovations described can be used to compose and construct any imaginable wireframe nanostructure-- a significant advancement for the burgeoning field.---On the horizon, nanoscale structures may one day be marshaled to hunt cancer cells in the body or act as robot assembly lines for the design of new drugs.[F24] -Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Arizona State University. The original item was written by Richard Harth. Journal Reference-Fei Zhang, Shuoxing Jiang, Siyu Wu, Yulin Li, Chengde Mao, Yan Liu & Hao Yan. Complex wireframe DNA origami nanostructures with multi-arm junction vertices. Nature Nanotechnology, 2015 DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.162


DNA nanoforms- Miniature architectural forms -- some no larger than viruses -- constructed through DNA origami

Date:April 14, 2011

Source:Arizona State University

Summary:Miniature architectural forms -- some no larger than viruses -- have been constructed through a revolutionary technique known as DNA origami. Now, scientists have expanded the capability of this method to construct arbitrary, two and three-dimensional shapes, mimicking those commonly found in nature.

Figure 1 a and b display schematics for 2D nanoforms with accompanying AFM images of the resulting structures. 1-c-e represent 3D structures of hemisphere, sphere and ellipsoid, respectively, while figure 1f shows a nanoflask, (each of the structures visualized with TEM imaging).

Credit: Image courtesy of Arizona State University

Miniature architectural forms -- some no larger than viruses -- have been constructed through a revolutionary technique known as DNA origami. Now, Hao Yan, Yan Liu and their colleagues at Arizona State University's Biodesign Institute have expanded the capability of this method to construct arbitrary, two and three-dimensional shapes, mimicking those commonly found in nature.[F25] --Such diminutive forms may ultimately find their way into a wide array of devices, from ultra-tiny computing components to nanomedical sentries used to target and destroy aberrant cells or deliver therapeutics at the cellular or even molecular level.[F26] --In the April 15 issue of Science, the Yan group describes an approach that capitalizes on (and extends) the architectural potential of DNA. [F27] The new method is an important step in the direction of building nanoscale structures with complex curvature -- a feat that has eluded conventional DNA origami methods. "We are interested in developing a strategy to reproduce nature's complex shapes," said Yan.--The technique of DNA origami was introduced in 2006 by computer scientist Paul W.K. Rothemund of Caltech. It relies on the self-assembling properties of DNA's four complementary base pairs, which fasten together the strands of the molecule's famous double-helix. When these nucleotides, labeled A, T, C, and G, interact, they join to one another according to a simple formula -- A always pairs with T and C with G.[F28] --Nanodesigners like Yan treat the DNA molecule as a versatile construction material -- one they hope to borrow from nature and adapt for new purposes.--In traditional DNA origami, a two-dimensional shape is first conceptualized and drawn. This polygonal outline is then filled in using short segments of double-stranded DNA, arranged in parallel. These segments may be likened to pixels[F29]  -- digital elements used to create words and images displayed on a computer screen.--Indeed, Rothemund and others were able to use pixel-like segments of DNA to compose a variety of elegant 2-dimensional shapes, (stars, rhomboids, snowflake forms, smiley faces, simple words and even maps), as well as some rudimentary 3-dimensional structures[F30] . Each of these relies on the simple rules of self-assembly guiding nucleotide base paring.-Once the desired shape has been framed by a length of single-stranded DNA, short DNA "staple strands" integrate the structure and act as the glue to hold the desired shape together. The nucleotide sequence of the scaffold strand is composed in such a way that it runs through every helix in the design, like a serpentine thread knitting together a patchwork of fabric[F31] . Further reinforcement is provided by the staple strands, which are also pre-designed to attach to desired regions of the finished structure, through base pairing.--"To make curved objects requires moving beyond the approximation of curvature by rectangular pixels. People in the field are interested in this problem. For example, William Shih's group at Harvard Medical School recently used targeted insertion and deletion of base pairs in selected segments within a 3D building block to induce the desired curvature. Nevertheless, it remains a daunting task to engineer subtle curvatures on a 3D surface, " stated Yan.--"Our goal is to develop design principles that will allow researchers to model arbitrary 3D shapes with control over the degree of surface curvature. In an escape from a rigid lattice model, our versatile strategy begins by defining the desired surface features of a target object with the scaffold[F32] , followed by manipulation of DNA conformation and shaping of crossover networks to achieve the design," Liu said.--To achive this idea, Yan's graduate student Dongran Han began by making simple 2-dimensional concentric ring structures, each ring formed from a DNA double helix. The concentric rings are bound together by means of strategically placed crossover points. These are regions where one of the strands in a given double helix switches to an adjacent ring, bridging the gap between concentric helices. Such crossovers help maintain the structure of concentric rings, preventing the DNA from extending.[F33] --Varying the number of nucleotides between crossover points and the placement of crossovers allows the designer to combine sharp and rounded elements in a single 2D form, as may be seen in figure 1 a & b, (with accompanying images produced by atomic force microscopy, revealing the actual structures that formed through self-assembly). A variety of such 2D designs, including an opened 9-layer ring and a three-pointed star, were produced.--The network of crossover points can also be designed in such a way as to produce combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane curvature, allowing for the design of curved 3D nanostructures. While this method shows considerable versatility, the range of curvature is still limited for standard B form DNA, which will not tolerate large deviations from its preferred configuration -- 10.5 base pairs/turn. However, as Jeanette Nangreave, one of the paper's co-authors explains, "Hao recognized that if you could slightly over twist or under twist these helices, you could produce different bending angles."--Combining the method of concentric helices with such non-B-form DNA (with 9-12 base pairs/turn), enabled the group to produce sophisticated forms, including spheres, hemispheres, ellipsoid shells and finally -- as a tour de force of nanodesign -- a round-bottomed nanoflask, which appears unmistakably in a series of startling transmission electron microscopy images (see figure 1, c-f ).

"This is a good example of teamwork in which each member brings their unique skills to the project to make things happen." The other authors include Suchetan Pal and Zhengtao Deng, who also made significant contributions in imaging the structures.--Yan hopes to further expand the range of nanoforms possible through the new technique. Eventually, this will require longer lengths of single-stranded DNA able to provide necessary scaffolding for larger, more elaborate structures. He credits his brilliant student (and the paper's first author) Dongran Han with a remarkable ability to conceptualize 2- and 3D nanoforms and to navigate the often-perplexing details of their design. Ultimately however, more sophisticated nanoarchitectures will require computer-aided design programs -- an area the team is actively pursuing.--The successful construction of closed, 3D nanoforms like the sphere has opened the door to many exciting possibilities for the technology, particularly in the biomedical realm. Nanospheres could be introduced into living cells for example, releasing their contents under the influence of endonucleases or other digestive components. Another strategy might use such spheres as nanoreactors -- sites where chemicals or functional groups could be brought together to accelerate reactions or carry out other chemical manipulations.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Arizona State University. -Journal Reference-Dongran Han, Suchetan Pal, Jeanette Nangreave, Zhengtao Deng, Yan Liu and Hao Yan. DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space. Science, 15 April 2011: 342-346 DOI: 10.1126/science.1202998 --Arizona State University. "DNA nanoforms: Miniature architectural forms -- some no larger than viruses -- constructed through DNA origami." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 April 2011. <>.



Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step

Date:February 23, 2015

Source:McGill University

Summary:Researchers have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block -- a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be used in applications such as optical and electronic devices or smart drug-delivery systems.


In the new method for building nanotubes, blocks tagged with a fluorescent dye are incorporated step by step, enabling researchers to monitor formation of the structures as they are constructed.--Researchers at McGill University have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block -- a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be used in applications such as optical and electronic devices or smart drug-delivery systems.-Many researchers, including the McGill team, have previously constructed nanotubes using a method that relies on spontaneous assembly of DNA in solution. The new technique, reported today in Nature Chemistry, promises to yield fewer structural flaws than the spontaneous-assembly method. The building-block approach also makes it possible to better control the size and patterns of the DNA structures, the scientists report.--"Just like a Tetris game, where we manipulate the game pieces with the aim of creating a horizontal line of several blocks, we can now build long nanotubes block by block," said Amani Hariri, a PhD student in McGill's Department of Chemistry and lead author of the study. "By using a fluorescence microscope we can further visualize the formation of the tubes at each stage of assembly, as each block is tagged with a fluorescent compound that serves as a beacon. We can then count the number of blocks incorporated in each tube as it is constructed."--This new technique was made possible by the development in recent years of single-molecule microscopy, which enables scientists to peer into the nano-world by turning the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. (That groundbreaking work won three U.S.- and German-based scientists the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.)-Hariri's research is jointly supervised by chemistry professors Gonzalo Cosa and Hanadi Sleiman, who co-authored the new study. Cosa's research group specializes in single-molecule fluorescence techniques, while Sleiman's uses DNA chemistry to design new materials for drug delivery and diagnostic tools.--The custom-built assembly technique developed through this collaboration "gives us the ability to monitor the nanotubes as we're building them, and see their structure, robustness and morphology," Cosa said.--"We wanted to control the nanotubes' lengths and features one-by-one," said Sleiman, who holds the Canada Research Chair in DNA Nanoscience. The resulting "designer nanotubes," she adds, promise to be far cheaper to produce on a large scale than those created with so-called DNA origami, another innovative technique for using DNA as a nanoscale construction material.--Funding for the research was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, NanoQuébec, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Fonds de recherché du Québec -- Nature et technologies.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by McGill University. Journal Reference-Amani A. Hariri, Graham D. Hamblin, Yasser Gidi, Hanadi F. Sleiman, Gonzalo Cosa. Stepwise growth of surface-grafted DNA nanotubes visualized at the single-molecule level. Nature Chemistry, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.2184 -

McGill University. "Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 February 2015. <>.




World's largest DNA origami created

Date:September 11, 2014

Source:North Carolina State University

Summary:Researchers have created the world's largest DNA origami, which are nanoscale constructions with applications ranging from biomedical research to nanoelectronics. DNA origami are self-assembling biochemical structures that are made up of two types of DNA.


Scaffolded DNA origami utilizes numerous chemically synthesized, short DNA strands (staple strands) to direct the folding of a larger, biologically derived strand of DNA (scaffold strand). Molecular recognition (base pairing, i.e., A binds to T and G binds to C) directs the DNA to self-assemble into a specific structure as programed by the staple strand sequences. Unique staple strands produce a molecular pegboard with single-digit nanometer site-specificity precision. The atomic force microscopy image (right) demonstrates the final origami structure.---Researchers from North Carolina State University, Duke University and the University of Copenhagen have created the world's largest DNA origami, which are nanoscale constructions with applications ranging from biomedical research to nanoelectronics.--"These origami can be customized for use in everything from studying cell behavior to creating templates for the nanofabrication of electronic components," says Dr. Thom LaBean, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at NC State and senior author of a paper describing the work.-DNA origami are self-assembling biochemical structures that are made up of two types of DNA[F34] . To make DNA origami, researchers begin with a biologically derived strand of DNA called the scaffold strand. The researchers then design customized synthetic strands of DNA, called staple strands. Each staple strand is made up of a specific sequence of bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine -- the building blocks of DNA), which is designed to pair with specific subsequences on the scaffold strand.--The staple strands are introduced into a solution containing the scaffold strand, and the solution is then heated and cooled. During this process, each staple strand attaches to specific sections of the scaffold strand, pulling those sections together and folding the scaffold strand into a specific shape.[F35] 

The standard for DNA origami has long been limited to a scaffold strand that is made up of 7,249 bases, creating structures that measure roughly 70 nanometers (nm) by 90 nm, though the shapes may vary.-However, the research team led by LaBean has now created DNA origami consisting of 51,466 bases, measuring approximately 200 nm by 300 nm.--"We had to do two things to make this viable," says Dr. Alexandria Marchi, lead author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher at Duke. "First we had to develop a custom scaffold strand that contained 51 kilobases. We did that with the help of molecular biologist Stanley Brown at the University of Copenhagen.--"Second, in order to make this economically feasible, we had to find a cost-effective way of synthesizing staple strands -- because we went from needing 220 staple strands to needing more than 1,600," Marchi says.--The researchers did this by using what is essentially a converted inkjet printer to synthesize DNA directly onto a plastic chip.--"The technique we used not only creates large DNA origami, but has a fairly uniform output," LaBean says. "More than 90 percent of the origami are self-assembling properly."-The research was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CDI-0835794, OISE-1246799, and EPMD-1231888, and by the University of Copenhagen.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by North Carolina State University. Journal Reference-Alexandria N. Marchi, Ishtiaq Saaem, Briana N. Vogen, Stanley Brown, Thomas H. LaBean. Toward Larger DNA Origami. Nano Letters, 2014; 140908131837007 DOI: 10.1021/nl502626s -North Carolina State University. "World's largest DNA origami created." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 September 2014. <>.



 [F1]Breaking down the Liver and pancreas


 [F3]Would correlate when a lot of “health Concerns” were starting to manifest from reproductive damage to the damage of the pancreas and other ill health which can be related to this toxin that was introduced into the food chain

 [F4]This what is called the dynamic duo—on there own they are lethal together they are more annihilating

 [F5]Interesting enough the soy with glyphosates will spread aluminum through the body-so this comes as no surprise how this is also altering genetics to be more accessible to being poisoned and or re-written

 [F6]And both sources are GMO and have a glyphosate or atrazine sprayed on them ~ so there is more then just a connection

 [F7]This is basically where they screw the reader or the uninformed~ anything that is going to cause a disruption in the pancreas-digestive system and liver is not going to have any positive impact to the heart ~ it would be the contrary –if the other organs are being subjected to destruction ot debilitation then this would further strain the heart-but as per usual you will get this kind of stupidity thrown into a study which then makes it ‘s credibility  less~ simple deduction with tell you the heart is not going to benefit nor is the brain or other organs or cells and infact this would also cause genetic damage

 [F8]Chinese or Korean or Japanese Ginseng

 [F9]Blocks the T conversion that maybe the cause of hair fall out

 [F10]May want to boil this up strain it and then apply to scalp

 [F11]Theory on my part –am wondering if a sweat lodge  or a high heat with a binding agent to allow them to bind as in a ligand to flush them out

 [F12]Solidifying NANO

 [F13]Sugar—this would correlate to HNA since the HNA uses a different set of sugars and is a more programmable DNA –the sugars would be what would cause this to grow –since the sugars are a polymer and with this would act as a catalyst to “harden the nano”

 [F14]Now we have to think what would cause this-Genes do not normally go awry unless there is a cause or a factor—now we know that hesian flies who eat GMO corn have an explosive effect on there digestive system to literally cause ther eintestines to come undone

 [F15]Now again the thought would be what would cause this-glyphosates-atrazine-grains and soy and rice that would have been GE or nanoparticles that would perforate the lining or stress the colon-flushing out the healthy bacteria—this is all tied to genetics and nano as well-and possibly ( speculating here ) XNA

 [F16]Genetic Abnormalities—I love how this is again caused by the body and not by something that would effect the genetic code –such as nano-or GE-or XNA

 [F17]This would reflect the nano poisoning and the nano ribbons and fibres that twine and self replicate like a life form-or self assemble to become a base or foundation for other materials to be utilized in it’s construct

 [F18]Pay attention to these shapes and sizes these are what you will see patterning  themselves inside or externally on the skin areas and underneath the skin when drawing this out the patterns will be there as well and bound to some form of polymerized material whether it be the collagen or a sugar that may not be normally there( XNA)

 [F19]This then would be easily mis interpretated or mis diagnosed if you did not know this existed you would assume it would be pathological not technical

 [F20]This what You will se manifest in some form or other

 [F21]Building  blocks of the DNA ( we are talking here XNA definitely)

 [F22]How it is designed

 [F23]Shapes and connections of shapes

 [F24]Or be used to take out whatever and or who ever they want to it would appear to be a pestilence when in reality it would be a nanoconstruct self assembling and manipulating to become pathological and the medical field would then say they have no cure-due to the fact they would be wrongly diagnosing the cause—they would see an affect but not see the cause and as per usual they would treat the cause-total failure is all you could expect

 [F25]Would be difficult to determine if you did not know what you are looking for

 [F26]Or act as a delivery method to create a condition of nano/bio poisoning

 [F27]This would be XNA a programmable DNA that could literally copy or follow a command in it’s construct

 [F28]In XNA the difference is the sugars the pairings of the DNA strands and the different sugars allows this to be able to happen

 [F29]Pixels are a concentration of dots that are micron sized to be layered or in a construct to form whatever shape now take the nano this is a billionth in size

 [F30]These are some of the structures reported with those who have been afflicted with the nano poisoning of morgellons

 [F31]This is something you see when you draw these out with a solution or pressure and you will see the shapes with a wire or ribbon like material depending at what stage you see they are in the self assembling

 [F32]Polymer materials that could be protein fat or sugar-forming either a crystal or threads which then would allow this to be utilized as a ligan to form the construct and the shape and to be able to utilize the raw material—this simulates how bacterial-viruses –fungas and mold and algae grow as well

 [F33]Basically an interlocking

 [F34]Interesting-when you think about it all that would be needed is another DNA( XNA) incorporated to human  DNA and you would wind up getting new constructs forming within and without the body—the other concept here is this as well what enzymes would trigger this and what enzymes  would break it down- the XNA has an enzyme base that the human body does not have but it does have a sugar molecule that could be disrupted so a nano delivery would have to be utilized

 [F35]Hot and cold will effect the construction