Show of the Month July 2014
Show of the Month July 5 2014
Show of the Month July 19 2014
Show of the Month July 26 2014
Lecithin as a therapeutic agent in ulcerative colitis.
Exposure to a high fat diet in the womb could reduce anxiety and stress in adolescence,
according to new research in rats
Lecithin as a therapeutic agent in ulcerative colitis.
Dig Dis. 2013;31(3-4):388-90
Authors: Stremmel W, Gauss A
Lecithin [phosphatidylcholine (PC)] was shown to account for more than 70% of total phospholipids within the intestinal mucus layer. It is arranged in lamellar membranes (surfactant-like particles) and establishes a hydrophobic barrier preventing invasion of the colonic commensal microbiota. In ulcerative colitis (UC), the mucus PC content was demonstrated to be reduced by about 70%, irrespective of the presence of inflammation. This may be of primary pathogenetic significance allowing bacteria to enter the mucus and induce mucosal inflammation. Therefore, a new therapeutic strategy is being developed to substitute the missing mucus PC content in UC. Indeed, a delayed-release PC formulation was able to compensate the lack of PC and improve the inflammatory activity. In randomized controlled studies, delayed-release PC was proven to be clinically and endoscopically effective, which now awaits a phase III authority approval trial.---PMID: 24246994 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Recipe—Mix 1 tsp of sunflower or egg yolk lecithin in a blender and consume this may create a dynamic of health probiotic assisting in the removal of excess stomach build up of genetic materials and bacterial and fungal issues and possibly viral-throught the phospholipids effect as well as the probiotics from the fermented dairy—with both of these as well you may see an increase in intellect and brain efficiency- and an overall immune improvement as well as digestive balance
Bone marrow fat tissue secretes hormone that helps body stay healthy
July 3, 2014
University of Michigan Health System
It has been known for its flavorful addition to soups and as a delicacy for dogs but bone marrow fat may also have untapped health benefits, new research finds.--A University of Michigan-led study shows that the fat tissue in bone marrow is a significant source of the hormone adiponectin, which helps maintain insulin sensitivity, break down fat, and has been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity-associated cancers. The findings appear in today's online-ahead-of-print issue of Cell Metabolism.--Bone marrow adipose tissue has primarily been associated with negative health effects, most notably because of a documented relationship to reduced bone mass and increased risks of fractures and osteoporosis. The new study however -- which included people with anorexia, patients undergoing chemotherapy, rabbits and mice -- suggests that this type of fat may also have benefits.--"These findings are significant because we've found that bone marrow adipose tissue may have positive, protective roles, and influence adaptive functions outside of the bone tissue, at least during calorie restriction," says senior author Ormond MacDougald, Ph.D., the Faulkner Professor in the Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, a professor of internal medicine, a member of U-M's Brehm Center for Diabetes Research, and a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Cambridge in the UK.--"We know that low adiponectin has been correlated with multiple health problems and our findings suggest that an important source of this protein, and potentially others that we haven't identified yet, is the fat tissue inside bone marrow," adds co-lead author Erica Scheller, D.D.S. Ph.D., a U-M postdoctoral fellow in the MacDougald lab.-Researchers have long studied the function of our fat, or 'adipose' tissue, in hopes of better understanding the link between obesity and ill health. One possible link is adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue that helps preserve insulin action. High levels of adiponectin are linked to decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. People with obesity have the lowest levels of adiponectin -- potentially increasing their risk for developing such diseases while the leaner someone gets, the more adiponectin they have.--An outstanding question in the field has been why adiponectin, which is produced by adipose tissue, increases as people lose body fat. A limitation in understanding this paradox is that previous research has focused on peripheral white adipose tissue, which has been believed to be the sole source of adiponectin.
The new study finds however that bone marrow fat tissue -- which increases as body weight falls -- is a previously unrecognized source of adiponectin during calorie restriction.--The study found that both marrow adipose tissue and adiponectin increased in humans with anorexia, and in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for ovarian or endometrial cancer. Researchers next used mice to study what happens when marrow fat formation is blocked and also found a relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and adiponectin, indicating that fat tissue in marrow can have effects beyond the bone.--The research was performed with National Institutes of Health funding in MacDougald's laboratory at the U-M Medical School, and with collaborators including Clifford Rosen, M.D. of Maine Medical; Mark Horowitz, Ph.D., of Yale University, Anne Klibanski, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital; Susanta Hui, Ph.D., of University of Minnesota; and Venkatesh (Gary) Krishnan, Ph.D., of Eli Lilly and Company.-"Bone marrow adipose tissue has traditionally had a bad reputation because of its relationship to decreased bone mass but we now know that adipose tissue within marrow goes beyond the bone and also serves as an endocrine organ that can influence metabolism," says co-lead author William Cawthorn, Ph.D., a U-M postdoctoral fellow in the MacDougald lab.--"These findings really underscore how little we know about marrow adipose tissue, and also the mechanisms affecting circulating adiponectin levels. This is really just the beginning of much further research to better understand these relationships and their implications."--Story Source--The above story is based on materials provided by University of Michigan Health System. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference-William P. Cawthorn, Erica L. Scheller, Brian S. Learman, Sebastian D. Parlee, Becky R. Simon, Hiroyuki Mori, Xiaomin Ning, Adam J. Bree, Benjamin Schell, David T. Broome, Sandra S. Soliman, Jenifer L. DelProposto, Carey N. Lumeng, Aditi Mitra, Sandeep V. Pandit, Katherine A. Gallagher, Joshua D. Miller, Venkatesh Krishnan, Susanta K. Hui, Miriam A. Bredella, Pouneh K. Fazeli, Anne Klibanski, Mark C. Horowitz, Clifford J. Rosen, Ormond A. MacDougald. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Is an Endocrine Organ that Contributes to Increased Circulating Adiponectin during Caloric Restriction. Cell Metabolism, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.06.003
Recipe---something to explore utilizing soup bones by either pressure cooking them to increase bone marrow access ( adding vinegar or citric acid to the water prior to boiling) may assist in rebuilding the balance between muscle and fat
Sound waves harnessed to enable precision micro- and nano-manufacturing
June 24, 2014
Researcher Dr Amgad Rezk with the lithium niobate chip.
In a breakthrough discovery, researchers at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, have harnessed the power of sound waves to enable precision micro- and nano-manufacturing.--The researchers have demonstrated how high-frequency sound waves can be used to precisely control the spread of thin film fluid along a specially-designed chip, in a paper published today in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.--With thin film technology the bedrock of microchip and microstructure manufacturing, the pioneering research offers a significant advance -- potential applications range from thin film coatings for paint and wound care to 3D printing, micro-casting and micro-fluidics.--Professor James Friend, Director of the MicroNano Research Facility at RMIT, said the researchers had developed a portable system for precise, fast and unconventional micro- and nano-fabrication.--"By tuning the sound waves, we can create any pattern we want on the surface of a microchip," Professor Friend said.--"Manufacturing using thin film technology currently lacks precision - structures are physically spun around to disperse the liquid and coat components with thin film.--"We've found that thin film liquid either flows towards or away from high-frequency sound waves, depending on its thickness.--"We not only discovered this phenomenon but have also unravelled the complex physics behind the process, enabling us to precisely control and direct the application of thin film liquid at a micro and nano-scale."--The new process, which the researchers have called "acoustowetting," works on a chip made of lithium niobate - a piezoelectric material capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical pressure.--The surface of the chip is covered with microelectrodes and the chip is connected to a power source, with the power converted to high-frequency sound waves. Thin film liquid is added to the surface of the chip, and the sound waves are then used to control its flow.--The research shows that when the liquid is ultra-thin - at nano and sub-micro depths -- it flows away from the high-frequency sound waves. The flow reverses at slightly thicker dimensions, moving towards the sound waves. But at a millimetre or more in depth, the flow reverses again, moving away.--Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQ762VTxD2g&feature=youtu.be
Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by RMIT University. --Journal Reference-Amgad R. Rezk, Ofer Manor; Leslie Y. Yeo, and James R. Friend. Double Flow Reversal in Thin Liquid Films Driven by MHz Order Surface Vibration. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 25 June 2014
Special Comment ---with this type of technology the inverse of what can be done is a reality as well with nanoparticles being absorbed in the body through chemtrails-foods-cosmetics-vaccines these frequencies can cause a reaction within the scope of your cells and tissue—this needs to be addressed since this is what is ongoing daily
Cocoa extract may counter specific mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease
June 23, 2014
Mount Sinai Medical Center
A specific preparation of cocoa-extract called Lavado may reduce damage to nerve pathways seen in Alzheimer's disease patients' brains long before they develop symptoms, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published June 20 in the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease (JAD).--Specifically, the study results, using mice genetically engineered to mimic Alzheimer's disease, suggest that Lavado cocoa extract prevents the protein β-amyloid- (Aβ) from gradually forming sticky clumps in the brain, which are known to damage nerve cells as Alzheimer's disease progresses.--Lavado cocoa is primarily composed of polyphenols, antioxidants also found in fruits and vegetables, with past studies suggesting that they prevent degenerative diseases of the brain.--The Mount Sinai study results revolve around synapses, the gaps between nerve cells. Within healthy nerve pathways, each nerve cell sends an electric pulse down itself until it reaches a synapse where it triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters that float across the gap and cause the downstream nerve cell to "fire" and pass on the message.--The disease-causing formation of Aβ oligomers -- groups of molecules loosely attracted to each other -build up around synapses. The theory is that these sticky clumps physically interfere with synaptic structures and disrupt mechanisms that maintain memory circuits' fitness. In addition, Aβ triggers immune inflammatory responses, like an infection, bringing an on a rush of chemicals and cells meant to destroy invaders but that damage our own cells instead.--"Our data suggest that Lavado cocoa extract prevents the abnormal formation of Aβ into clumped oligomeric structures, to prevent synaptic insult and eventually cognitive decline," says lead investigator Giulio Maria Pasinetti, MD, PhD, Saunders Family Chair and Professor of Neurology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. "Given that cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease is thought to start decades before symptoms appear, we believe our results have broad implications for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease and dementia.-Evidence in the current study is the first to suggest that adequate quantities of specific cocoa polyphenols in the diet over time may prevent the glomming together of Aβ into oligomers that damage the brain, as a means to prevent Alzheimer's disease.--The research team led by Dr. Pasinetti tested the effects of extracts from Dutched, Natural, and Lavado cocoa, which contain different levels of polyphenols. Each cocoa type was evaluated for its ability to reduce the formation of Aβ oligomers and to rescue synaptic function. Lavado extract, which has the highest polyphenol content and anti-inflammatory activity among the three, was also the most effective in both reducing formation of Aβ oligomers and reversing damage to synapses in the study mice.--"There have been some inconsistencies in medical literature regarding the potential benefit of cocoa polyphenols on cognitive function," says Dr. Pasinetti. "Our finding of protection against synaptic deficits by Lavado cocoa extract, but not Dutched cocoa extract, strongly suggests that polyphenols are the active component that rescue synaptic transmission, since much of the polyphenol content is lost by the high alkalinity in the Dutching process."--Because loss of synaptic function may have a greater role in memory loss than the loss of nerve cells, rescue of synaptic function may serve as a more reliable target for an effective Alzheimer's disease drug, said Dr. Pasinetti.--The new study provides experimental evidence that Lavado cocoa extract may influence Alzheimer's disease mechanisms by modifying the physical structure of Aβ oligomers. It also strongly supports further studies to identify the metabolites of Lavado cocoa extract that are active in the brain and identify potential drug targets.--In addition, turning cocoa-based Lavado into a dietary supplement may provide a safe, inexpensive and easily accessible means to prevent Alzheimer's disease, even in its earliest, asymptomatic stages.--Story Source- The above story is based on materials provided by Mount Sinai Medical Center. --Journal Reference-Wang J, Varghese M, Ono K, Yamada M, Levine S, Tzavaras N, Gong B, Hurst WJ, Blitzer RD, Pasinetti GM. Cocoa Extracts Reduce Oligomerization of Amyloid-β: Implications for Cognitive Improvement in Alzheimer's Disease. J Alzheimers Dis, June 2014 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-132231
Ceremonial PTSD therapies favored by Native American veterans
June 30, 2014
Washington State University
Urquhart is a Native veteran and graduate student in the WSU College of Education.-Native American veterans battling Post Traumatic Stress Disorder find relief and healing through an alternative treatment called the Sweat Lodge ceremony offered at the Spokane Veterans Administration Hospital.-In the Arizona desert, wounded warriors from the Hopi Nation can join in a ceremony called Wiping Away the Tears. The traditional cleansing ritual helps dispel a chronic "ghost sickness" that can haunt survivors of battle.-These and other traditional healing therapies are the treatment of choice for many Native American veterans, -- half of whom say usual PTSD treatments don't work -- according to a recent survey conducted at Washington State University. The findings will be presented at the American Psychological Association conference in Washington D.C. this August.
The study is available online at https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/nativeveterans.
Led by Greg Urquhart and Matthew Hale, both Native veterans and graduate students in the College of Education, the ongoing study examines the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of Native American veterans concerning PTSD and its various treatment options. Their goal is to give Native veterans a voice in shaping the types of therapies available in future programs.-"Across the board, Native vets don't feel represented. Their voices have been silenced and ignored for so long that they were happy to provide feedback on our survey," said Hale.-Historically, Native Americans have served in the military at higher rates than all other U.S. populations. Veterans are traditionally honored as warriors and esteemed in the tribal community.-A 2012 report by the Department of Veterans Affairs showed that the percentage of Native veterans under age 65 outnumbers similar percentages for veterans of all other racial groups combined.-The WSU survey provides a first-hand look at the veterans' needs, but more importantly, reveals the unique preferences they have as Native American veterans, said Phyllis Erdman, executive associate dean for academic affairs at the college and mentor for the study.
Urquhart said many Native veterans are reluctant to seek treatment for PTSD because typical western therapy options don't represent the Native cultural worldview.-"The traditional Native view of health and spirituality is intertwined," he explained. "Spirit, mind, and body are all one -- you can't parcel one out from the other -- so spirituality is a huge component of healing and one not often included in western medicine, although there have been a few studies on the positive effects of prayer."-For many years, the U.S. government banned Native religious ceremonies, which subsequently limited their use in PTSD programs, said Urquhart. Seeking to remedy the situation, many Veterans Administration hospitals now offer traditional Native practices including talking circles, vision quests, songs, drumming, stories, sweat lodge ceremonies, gourd dances and more. Elders or traditional medicine men are also on staff to help patients process their physical and emotional trauma.-"PTSD is a big issue and it's not going away anytime soon," said Hale who identifies as Cherokee and was a mental health technician in the Air Force.-Urquhart, who is also Cherokee and developed mild symptoms of PTSD after a tour as a cavalry scout in Iraq, said there have been very few studies on Native veterans and PTSD. He and Hale designed their survey to be broader and more inclusive than any previous assessments. It is the first to address the use of equine therapy as a possible adjunct to both western treatments and Native ceremonial approaches.
Standard treatments disappointing
So far, 253 veterans from all five branches of the military have completed the survey, which includes 40 questions, most of them yes or no answers. It also includes an open-ended section where participants can add comments. The views reflect a diverse Native population ranging from those living on reservations to others who live in cities.-The majority of survey takers felt that "most people who suffer from PTSD do not receive adequate treatment," said Urquhart. For Native veterans who did seek standard treatment, the results were often disappointing. Sixty percent of survey respondents who had attempted PTSD therapy reported "no improvement" or "very unsatisfied."-Individual counseling reportedly had no impact on their PTSD or made the symptoms worse for 49 percent of participants. On the other hand, spiritual or religious guidance was seen as successful or highly successful by 72 percent of Native respondents. Animal assisted therapy -- equine, canine, or other animals -- was also highly endorsed.-"The unique thing about equine therapy is that it's not a traditional western, sit-down-with-a-therapist type program. It's therapeutic but doesn't have the stigma of many therapies previously imposed on Native Americans," said Urquhart.-Strongly supportive of such efforts, Erdman is expanding the long-running WSU Palouse Area Therapeutic Horsemanship (PATH) program to include a section open to all veterans called PATH to Success: A Warrior's Journey.
Giving veterans a voice
Urquhart, Hale, and teammate, Nasreen Shah say their research is gaining wide support in Native communities throughout the nation.-The team plans to distribute the survey results to all U.S. tribes, tribal governments, Native urban groups, and veteran warrior societies. They also hope the departments of Veterans Affairs and Indian Health Services will take notice and continue to incorporate more traditional healing methods into their programs.-As one Iroquois Navy veteran commented on the survey, "Traditional/spiritual healing can be very effective together with in depth education and background in modern treatment methods."-A Nahua Army veteran agreed, writing, "Healing ceremonies are absolutely essential, as is story telling in front of supportive audiences. We need rituals to welcome back the warriors."-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Washington State University. The original article was written by Rebecca E. Phillips. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
Future soldiers could be protected against germ warfare by genetically modified blood cells
Monday, 30 June 2014
Soldiers on future battlefields could be protected against germ warfare agents by having blood transfusions with genetically modified cells that can neutralise deadly biological toxins, scientists have found.----Human red blood cells have been genetically engineered to produce protein antidotes and other antibody-based medicines that can be safely delivered to any part of the body, researchers said.---A study has shown that the technique works well when carried out on laboratory mice, and that modified human stay circulating in the body for up to four months, giving transfusion patients long red blood cells -term protection, they said.---Red blood cells normally carry oxygen from the lungs to the living tissues and are the most numerous of all the cells, accounting for about a quarter of the 100 trillion cells of the human body. They are deliberately small and flexible to allow them to flow through narrow capillaries.--They also lack their own chromosomes because the red cell nucleus is lost during development, making any genetic modification inherently safer as they cannot replicate to produce a cancerous tumour and are naturally removed from the bloodstream after four months[F1] .--“We wanted to create high-value red cells that do more than simply carry oxygen. Here we’ve laid out the technology to make mouse and human red blood cells in culture that can express what we want and potentially be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes,” said Harvey Lodish of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Massachusetts.--A study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that it is possible to use human red blood cells as microscopic vehicles for carrying a cargo of genetically engineered proteins in the cell’s outer membrane that can be targeted against specific toxins.-[F2] -The research was supported by the US Defence Research Projects Agency (Darpa),[F3] the scientific funding arm of the US military, which is interested in developing the technology for future treatments or vaccines against biological weapons, the researchers said.--“Because the modified human red blood cells can circulate in the body for up to four months, one could envision a scenario in which the cells are used to introduce [F4] antibodies that neutralise a toxin. The result would be long-lasting reserves of antitoxin antibodies,” said Hidde Ploegh, professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the study’s senior authors.--The researchers made the genetic modifications to the precursor cells that develop into fully mature red blood cells. The technique could also be used to produce modified red cells engineered to remove bad cholesterol from the blood stream, to carry clot-busting proteins to treat strokes or deep-vein thrombosis or to deliver anti-inflammatory antibodies to alleviate chronic inflammation, the researchers said.--“Moreover, the established safety of blood transfusions inspires confidence that these engineered red blood cells indeed will find use in humans,” they said.—
Special Comment –this whole thing is a farce---in order to inject anything one would need to know in advance what the enemy had in there biological arsenal that was going to be released this at best with be a hypothesis---and as a result the wrong mix would be in the blood and may in fact expedite the effect of what is being released
***************************************************************************Exposure to a high fat diet in the womb could reduce anxiety and stress in adolescence,according to new research in ratsThe new results are contrary to earlier studies in adult rats which established a link between exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) andincreased anxiety behaviour.However the new research, which examined the influence of maternal HFD on severalmeasures of anxiety behaviour and gene development in adolescent offspring, found that the offspring of ratsparentally exposed to HFD exhibited reduced levels of anxiety and this was especially the case in females Thedata suggests that adolescence constitutes an additional period when the effects of developmental programming may modify mentalhealth trajectories the authors said Anxiety levels are controlled by corticosteroids (like glucocorticoid receptors - GR)in the limbic regions of the brain that control the body’s ability to reduce or increase inflammation and stress levels(the amygdala and hippocampus Previous studies on adult rats identified increased anxiety when exposed to a HFD, as well as increasedinflammation The new latest data could suggest 'a developmental shift' between adolescence and adulthood in the effects of HFD on anxiety,said the team offspring less anxious Ten adult female rats (or dams) were placed on a HFD consisting of 60% fat, 20% proteinand 20% carbohydrate and another 10 were exposed to the control house chow diet (CHD) comprising 3.5% fat, 28.5%protein, and 58% carbohydrate The rats started the diet four weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation and weresubjected to three behavioural tests to gauge their responses to potentially stressful scenarios Results revealed a greater abundance of GR[F5] in the hippocampus among HFD-exposed male and female offspring compared to CHD offspring - with levels were significantly higherin females Adolescent analysis of corticosteroid receptors revealed that hippocampal GR expression was increased in HFD-exposedoffspring, particularly in females, which supports our behavioral results indicating decreased anxiety among HFD-exposed offspring said the report There were no significant differences in GR gene activity in the amygdala of HFD-exposed adolescentsFaster weight gain Dams-fed HFD gained more weight than CHD dams throughout gestation. There was no difference in body weight ofthe pups from either group at birth but those from HFD dams put on weight faster than CHD pups prior to weaning Howeverby the time the ‘pups’ reached adolescent there was no discernible difference in body weight between the groups The researchersadded: This suggests our findings are attributable to parental HFD exposure rather than differences in current body weight
[F1]This is alarming---any genetic modification initiates itself the the current DNA and rewrites the code this will enter every section of the body ---and there is nothing to validate this---once the genetic matrix has been altered in plants or soil through the same measures and we see this being altered this will have a similar effect as well when it comes to he blood and any other protein that it may come in contact with
[F2]Or can be utilize to target with bioengineered pathogens---you have to read this in the context that is really there not some misleading cozy idea of some breakthrough---basically this tech can be used to target a host just with a simple prick of a nano bot or a genetically engineered insect
[F3]DARPA—really wanting to utilize something that is going to be constructive in a military –is this an oxy moron?
[F4]A toxin to neutralize the immune system
[F5]glucocorticoid receptors - GR
Show of the Month July 19 2014
Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil
Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics
Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.
J Nat Prod. 2014 Mar 28;77(3):603-10
Authors: Ramos Alvarenga RF, Wan B, Inui T, Franzblau SG, Pauli GF, Jaki BU
The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. --PMID: 24641242 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Cinnamon may be used to halt progression of Parkinson's disease
July 9, 2014
Rush University Medical Center
Neurological scientists at Rush University Medical Center have found that using cinnamon, a common food spice and flavoring material, can reverse the biomechanical, cellular and anatomical changes that occur in the brains of mice with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results of the study were recently published in the June 20 issue of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.--“Cinnamon has been used widely as a spice throughout the world for centuries,” said Kalipada Pahan, PhD, study lead researcher and the Floyd A. Davis professor of neurology at Rush. “This could potentially be one of the safest approaches to halt disease progression in Parkinson’s patients.”--“Cinnamon is metabolized in the liver to sodium benzoate, which is an FDA-approved drug used in the treatment for hepatic metabolic defects associated with hyperammonemia[F1] ,” said Pahan. It is also widely used as a food preservative due to its microbiocidal effect.--Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamonum cassia) and original Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) are two major types of cinnamon that are available in the US.--“Although both types of cinnamon are metabolized into sodium benzoate, by mass spectrometric analysis, we have seen that Ceylon cinnamon is much more pure than Chinese cinnamon as the latter contains coumarin, a hepatotoxic molecule,” said Pahan[F2] .--“Understanding how the disease works is important to developing effective drugs that protect the brain and stop the progression of PD,” said Pahan. “It is known that some important proteins like Parkin and DJ-1 decrease in the brain of PD patients.”--The study found that after oral feeding, ground cinnamon is metabolized into sodium benzoate, which then enters into the brain, stops the loss of Parkin and DJ-1, protects neurons, normalizes neurotransmitter levels, and improves motor functions in mice with PD.--This research was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health.--“Now we need to translate this finding to the clinic and test ground cinnamon in patients with PD. If these results are replicated in PD patients, it would be a remarkable advance in the treatment of this devastating neurodegenerative disease,” said Dr. Pahan.--Parkinson's disease is a slowly progressive disease that affects a small area of cells within the mid-brain known as the substantia nigra. Gradual degeneration of these cells causes a reduction in a vital chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine. The decrease in dopamine results in one or more of the classic signs of Parkinson's disease that includes: resting tremor on one side of the body; generalized slowness of movement; stiffness of limbs; and gait or balance problems. The cause of the disease is unknown. Both environmental and genetic causes of the disease have been postulated.
Parkinson's disease affects about 1.2 million patients in the United States and Canada. Although 15 percent of patients are diagnosed before age 50, it is generally considered a disease that targets older adults, affecting one of every 100 persons over the age of 60. This disease appears to be slightly more common in men than women.--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Rush University Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference-Saurabh Khasnavis, Kalipada Pahan. Cinnamon Treatment Upregulates Neuroprotective Proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s11481-014-9552-2
Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics
by Pip Taylor
A quick glance in the dairy case and it's obvious that probiotics are wildly popular. Their range of health benefits spans everything from the prevention of obesity to a better mood. They've been praised for their ability to reduce allergies and certain cancer risks as well, for which there is well-supported scientific evidence. But what about for endurance athletes? Can these "friendly" bacteria offer a performance-enhancing boost?--Probiotics are live microbes available in supplements or fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir and homemade versions of sauerkraut and pickled vegetables. Probiotics help support and maintain the existing human gut flora, which is being found to hold the key to determining many aspects of human health. The composition, numbers and types of bacteria that reside in our gut influence body weight, mood state, oral and skin health and, most importantly, our immune system function. --For triathletes, probiotics may be considered a performance enhancer—albeit an indirect one—due to the following effects:
Strengthened immunity: For the elite or serious amateur athlete, frequent hard training means that the immune system is often suppressed, leaving you more susceptible to common colds and illnesses. Studies have shown that athletes who supplement with probiotics are less likely to suffer from upper respiratory infections, and when they do, the duration and severity of that cold is less
Reduced incidence of GI distress: GI issues are the bane of many athletes' existence, striking pros and amateurs alike and often even after careful race planning. Probiotics have been shown to prevent or reduce various gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, which translates to less time spent in the port-a-potties and more time setting PR's.
Improved digestion and absorption of nutrients: Better nutrient uptake means that athletes pushing the limits will be better placed to not only nail hard workouts, but also recover faster and be able to return to training more quickly. Although the mechanisms may not be yet understood, all of these effects lead to more consistent training and enhanced recovery.---Originally from: http://www.ironman.com/triathlon-news/articles/2013/08/probiotics-for-triathletes.aspx#ixzz36pkCZW8A
Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes' Immune Boost
A daily probiotic capsule was found to enhance the activity of T cells, key players in the immune system, report the researchers after following 20 elite, endurance athletes during four months of intensive winter training.---"In combination with the recent report that L rhamonasus supplementation reduced the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms in marathon runners in the 2 weeks after the race [Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab, 2007, Vol. 17, pp. 352-363], our findings point to the potential benefits of this form of nutritional intervention," wrote the authors led by David Pyne from the Australian Institute of Sport.--The study is published online ahead of print in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.--Consumers are increasingly aware of the health benefits associated with probiotics, including improved intestinal health and immune system stimulation.--Indeed, probiotics remains a major growth market. The European sector is set to more than triple in value over the next few years, according to Frost & Sullivan, to reach $137.9 million (€118.5m) in 2010.--The new study adds to the body of science by reporting that the 'friendly' bacteria may also produce benefits in endurance athletes undergoing strenuous training, previously reported to be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) linked to the role of strenuous exercise in suppressing the immune system. --Pyne and co-workers recruited the athletes and randomly assigned them to receive either a daily probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus fermentum or placebo. After 28 days of receiving either the probiotic or placebo, they received nothing for one month (washout period) before crossing over to the other intervention. By the end of the study all the athletes had each had the probiotic and placebo formulations.--Athletic performance of the subjects was assessed using a treadmill, while blood samples were taken at regular intervals to measure the immune response. The length and severity of respiratory tract infections were recorded by the subjects themselves.--The researchers report no difference in running performance as a result of placebo or probiotics supplementation. On the other hand, the number of days of symptoms of URTI was halved when the athletes took the probiotic, compared to placebo.--
Specifically, symptoms of URTI's lasted 30 days when receiving the Lactobacillus supplements, compared to 72 days while taking the placebo. The severity of the symptoms was also less when receiving probiotics, stated the researchers. --The blood samples showed that blood levels of interferon gamma, an important component of the body's immune response, were doubled when the subjects received probiotics, compared to placebo. However, no significant differences were observed in levels of immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin A1 in the saliva, or levels of interleukin (IL)4 and IL12.--Pyne and co-workers report that the benefits appear to be mediated via an enhancement of the functioning T-lymphocyte function. They do state, however, that the specific mechanism remains unclear and that it was not possible to draw definitive conclusions from the findings of the current study.---"Further investigations are required to determine whether the beneficial effects of probiotic administration can translate to both the general public and specialised populations like elite athletes, clinical conditions, immuno-compromised subjects, and military and industrial settings," wrote Pyne and co-workers. ---"The finding of clinical benefits with probiotic supplementation in a small cohort of physically fit subjects, provides the basis for further studies examining the beneficial effects of L fermentum VRI-003 administration on immune function in both the general community and specific populations," they concluded. ---Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Published online ahead of print, doi 10.1136/bjsm.2007.044628
"Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VR1-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes"--Authors: A.J. Cox, D.B. Pyne, P.U. Saunders, P.A. Fricker
Probiotics and athletic performance
Probiotic bacteria are defined as live food ingredients that are beneficial to the health of the host. Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, including effects on gastrointestinal tract function and diseases, immune function, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and allergic conditions. A systematic review of the medical literature failed to identify any studies that directly investigated the potential ergogenic effects of probiotics on athletic performance. Two published articles suggest that probiotics may enhance the immune responses of fatigued athletes. In summary, although scientific evidence for an ergogenic effect of probiotics is lacking, probiotics may provide athletes with secondary health benefits that could positively affect athletic performance through enhanced recovery from fatigue, improved immune function, and maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal tract function.
Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.
de Vrese M1, Schrezenmeir J.
According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated--as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii--with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous[F3] microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis). A prebiotic is "a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health", whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides.
Zinc deficiency magnifies, prolongs lethal immune response to sepsis
July 15, 2014
Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science
The immune system recognizes proteins unique to bacteria and immediately starts to recruit zinc into cells to help fight off the infection. New research from Ohio State scientists has found that adequate zinc is essential for keeping the immune system in balance, particularly during severe infections like sepsis.---During a severe infection known as sepsis, a deficiency in zinc intake can cause an amplified and potentially deadly immune response, according to new research conducted by scientists at The Ohio State University. By analyzing the DNA of zinc-deficient mice with sepsis, the researchers identified a critical immune system pathway that relies on zinc to stop overproduction of an inflammatory protein that if left unchecked, can start to destroy healthy cells.--"When the body detects an infection, zinc is recruited to help produce immune response proteins, and then it's used to stop their production," said lead author Daren Knoell, PharmD, PhD, a professor of pharmacy and internal medicine at Ohio State. "But zinc deficiency during sepsis appears to cause a catastrophic malfunctioning of the system, resulting in a magnified and prolonged inflammatory response."--Sepsis, a complication resulting from a systemic infection, is a leading cause of death in US intensive care units. As many as 20% of people who develop sepsis will die, not from the infection itself -- but from the overload of inflammatory chemical signals created by the immune system which ultimately leads to organ failure.--Knoell and his research team found that zinc moderates the pathway that controls the "on-off switch" of genes that produce immune response proteins, preventing the inflammation they cause from harming healthy tissue. It's the second zinc-dependent immune regulating pathway that Knoell and his team have discovered in the past five years.--"This research builds upon our past findings and further demonstrates that our immune system requires zinc to achieve a balanced and effective defense against overwhelming infection," said Knoell. "This new evidence provides further incentive to determine the extent to which zinc may be useful to prevent or treat sepsis, particularly in patients that may be zinc deficient."--While the findings seem to suggest that zinc supplementation could benefit patients at risk for sepsis, Knoell says it's not that simple.--"During illness, the body diverts zinc from the blood to the organs, so a deficiency is hard to detect, particularly in people who are already sick," said Knoell, who is a member of Ohio State's Food Innovation Center. "Without a way to better define the deficiency, we aren't able to define the ideal patient or a therapeutic dose of zinc."--Determining zinc's role in sepsis is also challenging. Next to iron, zinc is the most abundant mineral in the human body, interacting with as many as 10,000 proteins within the genome. While scientists have known that zinc is essential to human health and the immune system for hundreds of years, until recently, very little was known about how it functions on a molecular level.-- To help identify genes and signaling pathways that may be influenced by zinc, Knoell and his team performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of lung tissue taken from zinc-deficient mice with sepsis. They found that in the presence of sepsis, multiple networks and pathways were impacted by the zinc deficiency. One of the most robust alterations was observed in the JAK-STAT3 pathway and the production of serum amyloid A (SAA) -- a protein which has only recently been identified as a key player in the body's immune response--"Without zinc present in sufficient quantities, the JAK-STAT pathway keeps giving the genes the "on" signal, and continues production of this inflammatory protein," said Knoell. "When we add zinc back into the equation, it stops JAK-STAT, SAA production and the acute response activity-- Knoell says that finding SAA's presence in the development of sepsis is interesting, as the protein has been connected with other inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer's and cardiovascular disease.-- These findings not only provide some evidence for why zinc-based cold remedies may work, but also provide hints of how a zinc imbalance might also play a role in chronic diseases connected with inflammation-- Knoell, who is also a researcher at Ohio Stat's Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Institute, has been studying the relationship between zinc and sepsis for 8 years. Previous research by his lab identified zinc's impact on another immune regulating pathway called NF-kappaB. Knoell's lab was the first to show how the mineral helped control activity of an NF-kappaB protein called IKKbeta in human immune cells, subsequently reducing inflammation and preventing damage to cells.--- Earlier research conducted by Knoell also showed that zinc-deficient mice developed overwhelming inflammation in response to sepsis and were three times more likely to die than mice on a normal diet. Zinc supplementation improved outcomes in the zinc-deficient mice--Knoell says a next step is to see if these recent findings apply to humans. Knoell says his lab and other researchers are also actively looking for zinc-related biomarkers that can help scientists determine how much zinc is being utilized by the immune system and to help predict who might be at risk for developing sepsis-"Once we can determine at risk patients, then we can start a much more systematic evaluation of zinc supplementation," Knoell said. "With so few interventions available for sepsis, I'm hopeful we'll see more energy around developing a zinc-based therapy in the next few years."-- Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference-Ming-Jie Liu, Shengying Bao, Jessica R. Napolitano, Dara L. Burris, Lianbo Yu, Susheela Tridandapani, Daren L. Knoell. Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (4): e94934 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094934 .
Show of the Month July 26 2014
EYE-Occular Support and Prevention-- Glaucoma Remedies
THE SECRET COVENANT
Potassium supplements may increase survival in patients taking diuretics for heart failure
July 16, 2014
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania
Researchers from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that patients taking prescription potassium supplements together with loop diuretics for heart failure have better survival rates than patients taking diuretics without the potassium. Moreover, the degree of benefit increases with higher diuretic doses. The team, including senior author Sean Hennessy, PharmD, PhD, associate professor of epidemiology in Penn's Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CCEB), report their findings in a study published online July 16 in PLOS ONE.--Loop diuretics -- one type of diuretic or "water pill" named after the part of the kidney it acts on -- are commonly used in the treatment of heart failure (and associated lower-limb edema or swelling) to help push out extra fluid that can accumulate when the heart is not working properly. But they also flush out needed potassium, causing many doctors, but not all, to prescribe the supplements. However, its survival benefit has never been studied, and because of this lack of evidence, there is controversy about whether potassium should be prescribed to all patients receiving loop diuretics.--In a retrospective study, the researchers examined existing health care data from Medicaid between 1999 and 2007 to study approximately 180,000 new starters of loop diuretics who were prescribed supplemental potassium and an equal number of people who started a loop diuretic without the potassium supplement. The researchers found that in patients receiving at least 40 mg/day of furosemide (one form of loop diuretic), adding supplemental potassium appeared to reduce mortality by 16 percent, a large and statistically significant reduction.---"Our findings provide evidence that adding potassium supplementation may increase survival rates among patients taking loop diuretics," said the study's lead author, Charles E. Leonard, PharmD, MSCE, a senior research investigator in the CCEB and senior manager of the Ambulatory Drug Use & Effects Program at Penn. "Nonetheless, because this is the first such study of this question, we hope that others confirm these results in independent studies."--They also found that in patients receiving less than 40 mg/day of furosemide, potassium appeared to reduce the mortality rate by seven percent, a suggestive but statistically non-significant finding. (The overall mortality rate was about nine percent per year in the population under examination.)--The use of potassium supplementation under investigation was preventive, as opposed to being prescribed to patients who already had measured reductions in potassium. Only patients receiving supplemental potassium in solid, not liquid form, were studied[F4] , the latter possibly being indicative of an inability to swallow and therefore a marker for a possibly complicating corollary medical impairment.--Loop diuretics act at the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney and help the body push out extra fluid that could accumulate in the lungs or legs and ankles when the heart is unable to completely pump blood throughout the body. But they may also cause the body to eliminate excessive amounts of potassium, which might be expected to increase mortality from heart arrhythmias. As a precaution therefore, many doctors prescribe potassium supplements to their patients receiving loop diuretics.--These results appear to support the common (but not universal) practice of using potassium together with loop diuretics. Today, nearly 5.8 million Americans suffer from heart failure.--"Using potassium supplementation for patients receiving loop diuretic therapy may be a relatively inexpensive way to save lives," said Hennessy. "In today's climate of seeking cost-effective measures to keep patients healthy, this is a therapy that certainly merits additional consideration." Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length. Journal Reference--Charles E. Leonard, Hanieh Razzaghi, Cristin P. Freeman, Jason A. Roy, Craig W. Newcomb, Sean Hennessy. Empiric Potassium Supplementation and Increased Survival in Users of Loop Diuretics. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (7): e102279 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102279
Recipe---instead of using a Diuretic from a Doctor Utilize Nettle and Dandelion Root to accomplish the same thing---Herbalist have known that Dandelion Puts Back in Potassium when used to accomplish the diuretic effect and as well regulates liver and insulin in the system further reducing any unwanted imbalance
Gut microbes turn carbs into colorectal cancer
July 17, 2014
Colorectal cancer has been linked to carbohydrate-rich western diets[F5] , but the underlying mechanisms have been unclear. A study published by Cell Press July 17th in the journal Cell shows that gut microbes metabolize carbohydrates in the diet, causing intestinal cells to proliferate and form tumors in mice that are genetically predisposed to colorectal cancer. Treatment with antibiotics or a low-carbohydrate diet significantly reduced tumors in these mice, suggesting that these easy interventions could prevent a common type of colorectal cancer in humans.--"Because hereditary colorectal cancer is associated with aggressive and rapid tumor development, it is critical to understand how major environmental factors such as microbes and diet interact with genetic factors to potentially affect disease progression[F6] ," says senior study author Alberto Martin of the University of Toronto. "Our study provides novel insights into this question by showing that gut bacteria interact with a carbohydrate-rich diet to stimulate a prevalent type of hereditary colon cancer[F7] ." --Carbohydrates account for about half of the daily caloric intake of adults on a western-style diet, and previous studies have linked carbohydrate-rich diets to colorectal cancer in humans. [F8] This type of cancer is also frequently associated with mutations in a tumor suppressor gene called APC as well as the MSH2 gene, which plays a critical role in repairing DNA damage[F9] . However, it has been unclear why mutations affecting the DNA repair pathway are much more common in colorectal cancer compared with other cancers. Because gut microbes also contribute to the development of colorectal cancer, Martin and his team suspected that they could interact with diet to explain how the mutations could cause this type of cancer.--To explore this question in the new study, Martin and his collaborators used mice that had APC and MSH2 mutations and thus were predisposed to develop colorectal cancer. Treatment with either antibiotics or a low-carbohydrate diet reduced cell proliferation as well as the number of tumors in the small intestines and colons of these mice. These two treatments also reduced levels of certain gut microbes that metabolize carbohydrates to produce a fatty acid called butyrate. When the researchers increased butyrate levels in the antibiotic-treated mice, cell proliferation and the number of tumors increased in the small intestines.[F10] --Taken together, the findings suggest that carbohydrate-derived metabolites produced by gut microbes drive abnormal cell proliferation and tumor development in mice genetically predisposed to colorectal cancer. "By providing a direct link between genetics and gut microbes, our findings suggest that a diet reduced in carbohydrates as well as alterations in the intestinal microbial community could be beneficial to those individuals that are genetically predisposed to colorectal cancer," Martin says.--Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.--Journal Reference-Antoaneta Belcheva, Thergiory Irrazabal, Susan J. Robertson, Catherine Streutker, Heather Maughan, Stephen Rubino, Eduardo H. Moriyama, Julia K. Copeland, Sachin Kumar, Blerta Green, Kaoru Geddes, Rossanna C. Pezo, William W. Navarre, Michael Milosevic, Brian C. Wilson, Stephen E. Girardin, Thomas M.S. Wolever, Winfried Edelmann, David S. Guttman, Dana J. Philpott, Alberto Martin. Gut Microbial Metabolism Drives Transformation of Msh2-Deficient Colon Epithelial Cells. Cell, 2014; 158 (2): 288 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.04.051
Acute glaucoma discovered to be an inflammatory disease
July 14, 2014
University of California, San Diego Health Sciences
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine and Sun Yat-sen University in China have shown that acute glaucoma in mice is largely an inflammatory disease and that high pressure in the eye causes vision loss by setting in motion an inflammatory response similar to that evoked by bacterial infections.---The study, published in this week's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, has immediate clinical relevance in treating the tens of millions of people worldwide from what is known as acute closed-angle glaucoma.--"Our research is the first to show an inflammatory mechanism by which high ocular pressure causes vision loss in acute glaucoma patients," said co-senior author Kang Zhang, MD, PhD and professor of ophthalmology.--The second leading cause of irreversible blindness globally, glaucoma refers to a group of eye diseases associated with elevated intraocular pressure broadly classified as either open-angle or closed-angle. Open-angle is sometimes called the silent thief of sight because of its slow, often overlooked progression. By contrast, acute closed-angle glaucoma often is a painful ophthalmologic emergency in which there is a sudden rise in eye pressure and immediate damage to eyesight.--Less than 10 percent of glaucoma patients in America have the closed-angle form, but in parts of Asia it accounts for almost half of all cases. The higher prevalence of closed-angle glaucoma in Asians and women is believed to be due to a shallower anterior (frontal) eye chamber. --In the study, researchers showed that a rapid, sustained large increase in eye pressure in mice turns on a gene (TLR4) that activates a protein known as caspase-8. This signaling protein in turn triggers the production of inflammatory proteins that normally help mammals fight microbial infections.--"This immune response is a double-edge sword because, while these proteins protect us from infection in a normal situation, they stimulate apoptosis (programmed cell death) in retinal cells in cases of acute glaucoma[F11] ," said Zhang, who is also a staff physician at the Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System.--To further confirm the mechanism linking high eye pressure to retinal damage, researchers showed that they could slow retinal cell death in mice with acute glaucoma by suppressing either the TLR4 gene or caspace-8 protein.--The latter is particularly significant because caspace-8 inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for treating cancer and stroke. "By injecting these inhibitors into the eyes of acute glaucoma patients, it may be possible to evaluate and bring them vision-sparing treatments more quickly," said co-author Robert N. Weinreb, MD, chairman and Distinguished Professor of Ophthalmology.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-W. Chi, F. Li, H. Chen, Y. Wang, Y. Zhu, X. Yang, J. Zhu, F. Wu, H. Ouyang, J. Ge, R. N. Weinreb, K. Zhang, Y. Zhuo. Caspase-8 promotes NLRP1/NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1 production in acute glaucoma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1402819111
EYE-Occular Support and Prevention
Choline deficiency may cause degeneration of the Eyes. [more info]
Inositol may stimulate the growth of Eye membranes. [more info]
Vitamin A may improve the structural integrity of the Mucous Membranes that line the Eyes and may maintain the health of the Cornea of the Eyes: [more info]
11-cis Retinal (an endogenous isomer of the Retinal form of Vitamin A) is essential to Eyesight - it combines with Opsin to form the visual Pigment - Rhodopsin.
Vitamin B2 may improve the function of the Eyes (it is a component of Visual Pigments in the Retina). references
Vitamin C concentrates in the Eyes. [more info]
The Retina of the eye may be prone to degeneration when a Vitamin E deficiency exists. [more info]
Taurine concentrates in the Retina of the Eyes and may be essential for optimal Sight
Selenium may help to maintain the health of the Eyes. references
Zinc concentrates in the Retina of the Eye.
Anthocyanosides may strengthen the lens of the Eye (by improving blood supply to the eyes). [more info]
Kaempferol may be beneficial for the health of the Eyes. [more info]
Myricetin may improve the health of the Eyes. [more info]
Oligomeric Proanthocyanidins (OPCs) may enhance the health of the Eyes and significantly improve Sight. references
Collagen is an important structural component of the Eyes.
Rosemary—Goji berry –Marigold—Nettle—Parsely—Head of the carrot( part where the leaf and the top part of the carrot are connected--
Rosemary—Goji berry –Marigold—Nettle—Parsely—Head of the carrot( part where the leaf and the top part of the carrot are connected
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) - applied topically as eyedrops – may reduce intraocular pressure in persons afflicted with Glaucoma. [more info]
Folic Acid may help to prevent Glaucoma (by counteracting the toxicity of Glutamic Acid, a suspected cause of Glaucoma). references
Lipoic Acid may alleviate Glaucoma. references
Glaucoma patients are often found to be deficient in Vitamin B1 (indicating that restoring Vitamin B1 levels to normal via supplementation may be beneficial for Glaucoma patients). references
Coenzyme Q10 may help to prevent Glaucoma (by counteracting the toxicity of Glutamic Acid, a suspected cause of Glaucoma). references
Coenzyme Q10 may help to prevent Glaucoma (by counteracting the toxicity of Glutamic Acid, a suspected cause of Glaucoma)
CDP-Choline (1,000 mg per day) may alleviate (chronic simple) Glaucoma. references
Hydergine (5 - 20 mg per day) may lower intraocular pressure in Glaucoma patients. references
Picamilon may improve Eyesight in (chronic simple) Glaucoma patients. references
Vinpocetine may help to stabilize the condition of Glaucoma patients. references
THE SECRET COVENANT
An illusion it will be, so large, so vast it will escape their
Those who will see it will be thought of as insane.
We will create separate fronts to prevent them from seeing the
connection between us.
ØØØWe will behave as if we are not connected to keep the illusion alive.
Our goal will be accomplished one drop at a time so as to never bring
suspicion upon ourselves. This will also prevent them from seeing
the changes as they occur.
We will always stand above the relative field of their experience
for we know the secrets of the absolute.
We will work together always and will remain bound by blood and
secrecy. Death will come to he who speaks.
ØØØWe will keep their lifespan short and their minds weak while
pretending to do the opposite.
We will use our knowledge of science and technology in subtle
ways so they will never see what is happening.
ØØØWe will use soft metals, aging accelerators and sedatives in
food and water, also in the air. ( sounds like Chem. Trails …fluoride…chlorine….hormone additives ( will age you exponentially)
They will be blanketed by poisons everywhere they turn.
The soft metals will cause them to lose their minds. We will
promise to find a cure from our many fronts, yet we will
feed them more poison. ØØØ ( Sounds to me like the medical field and the the pharmaceutical Industry, and the agro fields eh!!)
The poisons will be absorbed trough their skin and mouths, ØØØ ( Chem Trails….Plastic Particulates….Hormones in water)
they will destroy their minds and reproductive systems.
ØØØFrom all this, their children will be born dead, and we will conceal
this information. ( Genetic programmed death…)
The poisons will be hidden in everything that surrounds them,
in what they drink, eat, breathe and wear. ØØØ ( Synthetics that use toxic SOY and other Genetically Modifed Organisms )….We must be ingenious in dispensing the poisons for they
can see far.
We will teach them that the poisons are good, with fun images
and musical tones. ØØØ ( tech toys and TV)
Those they look up to will help. We will enlist them to
push our poisons. ØØØ ( Medical industry….Pharmaceutical Industry…Religious Institutions…Agencies of the global gov’t )
They will see our products being used in film and
will grow accustomed to them and will never know
their true effect. ØØØ ( Bloody TV and Videos and Music Videos and radio )
When they give birth we will inject poisons into the blood
of their children and convince them its for their help. ØØØ ( Bloody Injections )
We will start early on, when their minds are young, we will
target their children with what children love most, sweet
things. ØØØ ( Addiction to junk )
When their teeth decay we will fill them with metals
that will kill their mind and steal their futureØØØ( Mercury…. Plastics ... Braces ) When their ability to learn has been affected,
we will create medicine that will make them sicker and cause other
diseases for which we will create yet more medicine.
We will render them docile and weak before us by our power. ØØØ ( Estrogenic Foods and Flouride-Nanoparticle/biofilm-Vaccines-Smart Meter Freq-ELF-EMF- )
ØØØThey will grow depressed, slow and obese, and when they
come to us for help, we will give them more poison.
ØØØWe will focus their attention toward money and material goods
so they many never connect with their inner self. We will distract
them with fornication, external pleasures and games so they may
never be one with the oneness of it all. ØØØ ( Lust…. Distractions through debt and Slavery not thinking in any other term but of going in the circle ) Their minds will belong to us and they will do as we say.
If they refuse we shall find ways to implement mind-altering technology
into their lives. We will use fear as our weapon.
ØØØWe will establish their governments and establish opposites within. We will own both sides.
We will always hide our objective but carry out our plan.
ØØØThey will perform the labor for us and we shall prosper from their toil.
Our families will never mix with theirs. Our blood must be pure
always, for it is the way.
ØØØWe will make them kill each other when it suits us.
ØØØWe will keep them separated from the oneness by dogma and religion. ( The Illusion of God through Religion…this is Why I hate all religions…it does nothing but enslave and bring us against the truth…which is we are all Created in the Image of God….and the way to God is By God not through Religion!!!!!!!!!! )
We will control all aspects of their lives and tell them what to think and how.
We will guide them kindly and gently letting them think they are guiding
We will foment animosity between them through our factions. ØØØ ( Team Concept ..remember when they wanted everyone to be on a Team at the job site breeding competition to keep everyone against each other so they would be distracted to what management was doing….this is why a lot of those who were free thinkers never got the jobs they should have ….)
When a light shall shine among them, we shall extinguish it by ridicule,
or death, whichever suits us best.
We will make them rip each other's hearts apart and kill their own children. ØØØ ( Abortions ….Genetic experimentation with human and animal genetics)
We will accomplish this by using hate as our ally, anger as our friend. ØØØ ( Ever wonder why you feel so miserable all the time or aggressive for no reason or agitated )… ØØØ
The hate will blind them totally, and never shall they see that from their
conflicts we emerge as their rulers. They will be busy killing each other. ( Divide and Conquer) They will bathe in their own blood and kill their neighbors for as long as we see fit. ØØØWe will benefit greatly from this, for they will not see us, for they cannot see us. ( we will be to busy fearing the other Guy or Gal …Anarchy is the objective so they can re implement there hold of power Continuing this Bloody cycle for another millennium ) We will continue to prosper from their wars and their deaths.
We shall repeat this over and over until our ultimate goal is accomplished.
We will continue to make them live in fear and anger though images and sounds. We will use all the tools we have to accomplish this.
The tools will be provided by their labor. ØØØ ( imagine that you digging your own grave for them so then when you are ready you can drop in the Hole you dug )
We will make them hate themselves and their neighbors.
We will always hide the divine truth from them, that we are all one.
This they must never know! They must never know that color is an illusion, they must always think they are not equal.
Drop by drop, drop by drop we will advance our goal.
We will take over their land, resources and wealth to exercise total
control over them.
We will deceive them into accepting laws that will steal the little
freedom they will have.
We will establish a money system that will imprison them forever,
keeping them and their children in debt.
When they shall ban together, we shall accuse them of crimes and present a
different story to the world for we shall own all the media.
We will use our media to control the flow of information and their sentiment
in our favor.
When they shall rise up against us we will crush them like insects, for
they are less than that.
They will be helpless to do anything for they will have no weapons.
We will recruit some of their own to carry out our plans, we will promise them eternal life, but eternal life they will never have for they are not of us. ØØØ ( this is the way to use those who seek power and then when the agenda is completed destroy those who aided in there rise…Hussein was installed by the US cia and when gotten in Power Murdered all those who were at the top who got him to that point!!! Hitler did this so did Marxs…..)
The recruits will be called "initiates" and will be indoctrinated to believe
false rites of passage to higher realms. Members of these groups will think they are one with us never knowing the truth. They must never learn this truth for they will turn against us. ØØØ ( the special forces who get this training eventually are exterminated by there own respective gov’ts this is the show of appreciation that these gov’ts have )
For their work they will be rewarded with earthly things and great titles,
but never will they become immortal and join us, never will they receive
the light and travel the stars. They will never reach the higher realms, for the killing of their own kind will prevent passage to the realm of enlightenment. This they will never know.
The truth will be hidden in their face, so close they will not be able to focus
on it until its too late.
Oh yes, so grand the illusion of freedom will be, that they will never know they are our slaves. ØØØ ( The financial institutions have given out money for next to nothing and as a result the sheep or cattle have laid themselves to sleep thinking they are secure and settled in there homes…when in fact they have made there own prisons and pastures for entrapment ) When all is in place, the reality we will have created for them will own them.This reality will be their prison. They will live in self-delusion.
ØØØWhen our goal is accomplished a new era of domination will begin.
Their minds will be bound by their beliefs, the beliefs we have established
from time immemorial.
But if they ever find out they are our equal, we shall perish then. THIS THEY MUST NEVER KNOW.
ØØØIf they ever find out that together they can vanquish us, they will take action.
They must never, ever find out what we have done, for if they do, we shall
have no place to run, for it will be easy to see who we are once the veil has
fallen. Our actions will have revealed who we are and they will hunt us down and no person shall give us shelter.
This is the secret covenant by which we shall live the rest of our present
and future lives, for this reality will transcend many generations and life
spans. This covenant is sealed by blood, our blood. We, the ones who from
heaven to earth came. This covenant must NEVER, EVER be known to exist. It must NEVER, EVER be written or spoken of for if it is, the consciousness it will spawn will release the fury of the PRIME CREATOR upon us and we shall be cast to the depths from whence we came and remain there until the end time of infinity itself.
Chronic central cholesterol treatment enhances spatial learning and memory
The clear effect of cholesterol replenishment in rescuing impaired LTD in old animals prompted us to test whether the infusion of cholesterol into the brain of old rats would improve some of the cognitive deficits typical of this stage of life. Therefore, 19 month old rats were perfused in the lateral ventricle for 1 month with a cholesterol replenishment solution (containing the 300 μM cholesterol MβCD complex + 5 μM free cholesterol dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid – aCSF). Subsequently, the spatial learning ability of the animals was evaluated in the reference version of the Morris water maze, an established hippocampal dependent task (see Materials and Methods) where aged animals typically exhibit impaired learning of the location of the hidden escape platform (Gallagher et al, 1993).
Post hoc statistical comparison of the learning curves demonstrated significant differences for the two groups of rats (repeated measure ANOVA, F1,11 = 5.848, P = 0.016: Fig 8A). A more detailed analysis of each training day indicated that cholesterol treated rats outperformed their controls in the water maze on day 4 (F1,2 = 7,707; P = 0.008). The Bonferroni post hoc test indicated significant differences to find the hidden platform between cholesterol treated rats and controls in trial 11 (P = 0.019). One day after the acquisition of spatial learning, the strength of long term spatial memory was evaluated in a probe trial (i.e., free swimming without platform). During the probe trial, rats that received cholesterol spent more time swimming in the quadrant of the pool that contained the platform during training (target quadrant) than those that did not (t18 = 2.659, P = 0.016: Fig 8B and C). No differences in swim speed or thigmotactic behavior were found during spatial training or in the probe trial. These results show that cholesterol perfusion can rescue learning and memory in old rats.
· A. The spatial abilities of 20M rats subjected to intraventricular infusion of control or cholesterol solution were evaluated in the Morris water maze. The animals were trained three times each day over 4 days, and the learning curves were plotted for the two groups. Average group distance (cm) to find the hidden platform across trials is shown, whereby cholesterol treated rats (n = 9) outperformed their controls (n = 11) in the water maze on day 4 (repeated‐measure ANOVA, F1,2 = 7,707; P = 0.008), and significant differences were found in trial 11 (Bonferroni post hoc test, P = 0.019).
Constitutive hippocampal cholesterol loss underlies poor cognition in old rodents
Mauricio G Martin Tariq Ahmed Alejandra Korovaichuk Cesar Venero Silvia A Menchón Isabel Salas Sebastian Munck Oscar Herreras Detlef Balschun Carlos G Dotti
Cognitive decline is one of the many characteristics of aging. Reduced longterm potentiation (LTP) and longterm depression (LTD) are thought to be responsible for this decline, although the precise mechanisms underlying LTP and LTD dampening in the old remain unclear. We previously showed that aging is accompanied by the loss of cholesterol from the hippocampus, which leads to PI3K/Akt phosphorylation. Given that Akt dephosphorylation is required for glutamate receptor internalization and LTD, we hypothesized that the decrease in cholesterol in neuronal membranes may contribute to the deficits in LTD typical of aging. Here, we show that cholesterol loss triggers pAkt accumulation, which in turn perturbs the normal cellular and molecular responses induced by LTD, such as impaired AMPA receptor internalization and its reduced lateral diffusion. Electrophysiology recordings in brain slices of old mice and in anesthetized elderly rats demonstrate that the reduced hippocampal LTD associated with age can be rescued by cholesterol perfusion. Accordingly, cholesterol replenishment in aging animals improves hippocampal dependent learning and memory in the water maze test.[F12]
It is well established that cognitive deficits go hand in hand with aging. Restoring cholesterol levels in the aged hippocampus to values found in the young can rescue learning and memory in the old, linking age dependent cholesterol decline with synaptic plasticity and neuronal function.
· A mild yet significant reduction in membrane cholesterol characterizes the aging rodent hippocampus.
· Low synaptic hippocampal cholesterol determines reduced Akt dephosphorylation after NMDA induced LTD, together with reduced glutamate (AMPA) receptor lateral diffusion and endocytosis.
· Low synaptic hippocampal cholesterol plays a role in the poor LTD of old mice and rats, in ex vivo and in vivo paradigms.
· Normal levels of pAkt after NMDA, proper receptor lateral diffusion, and internalization and normal (young animals‐like) LTD in the old can be rescued by membrane cholesterol replenishment.
· Cholesterol replenishment in living old rats improves learning and memory.
EMBO Mol Med (2014) 6: 902–917FREE
Aging is associated with cognitive decline, such that individuals older than 65 develop cognitive deficits or age associated memory impairments. The hippocampus, a brain structure that is central to the formation of declarative and other types of memory, is particularly sensitive to aging. However, these impairments are not paralleled by an increase in neuronal death (Burke & Barnes, 2006), indicative that more subtle mechanisms must be affected by aging to produce memory decline.
We previously showed that the phosphorylated form of the serine–threonine kinase Akt (pAkt) accumulates in old hippocampal neurons, both in vivo and in vitro (Martin et al, 2008, 2011; Trovò et al, 2013), which probably reflects the strong need for survival signaling. Nevertheless, the counter effect of robust survival might be reduced performance. In fact, pAkt phosphorylation negatively regulates long term depression (LTD), a key process in learning and memory (see below and Peineau et al, 2007).
The accumulation of pAkt[F13] with age may be the result of different processes. We previously observed that the increase with age of the cholesterol hydroxylating enzyme cholesterol 24hydroxylase (CYP46A1), the major catabolic enzyme of cholesterol in the brain (Lund et al, 2003), triggers cholesterol loss dependent, ligand independent, activation of the TrkB receptor and, consequently, Akt phosphorylation (Martin et al, 2008, 2011; Sodero et al, 2011a,b). A second mechanism driving the increase in pAkt with age is also linked to cholesterol loss, and it involves the increase in plasma membrane sphingomyelin, similarly contributing to ligand independent TrkB phosphorylation and PI3K/Akt activation (Trovò et al, 2011). Increased PI3K/Akt activity in old neurons also seems to arise from the constitutive increase with age of interleukin 1B (IL 1B) activity and from the age associated detachment from the plasma membrane of the PIP2 binding protein, myristoylated alanine rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS: Trovò et al, 2013). Altered binding of MARCKS to the membrane favors the accumulation of PIP3 in the synaptic fraction of old mice, with the subsequent increase in Akt phosphorylation (Trovò et al, 2013).
Activity dependent changes in synaptic strength, such as long term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission, are considered to be the cellular substrates of learning and memory (Neves et al, 2008; Collingridge et al, 2010). Competitive interactions between these forms of synaptic plasticity have been proposed to participate in memory storage (Diamond et al, 2005; Nicholls et al, 2008; Ge et al, 2010). Indeed, glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) determines whether NMDA receptor activation induces or inhibits LTD (Peineau et al, 2007). Moreover, the activation of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) during LTD dephosphorylates GSK3β at Ser9, resulting in its activation and receptor internalization. Since pAkt is a GSK3β inhibitor, PP1 mediated Akt dephosphorylation further contributes to the enhancement of GSK3β activity. Significantly, GSK3β and Akt dephosphorylation are impaired by okadaic acid, a compound that also blocks LTD by inhibiting PP1 (Peineau et al, 2007). Conversely, activation of NMDA receptors leads to the stimulation of PI3K/Akt pathway during LTP, provoking the phosphorylation of GSK3β at Ser9 to prevent LTD. Thus, it appears reasonable to assume that the loss of cholesterol and the consequent enhancement of PI3K/Akt activity that occurs in the hippocampus during aging will have a detrimental effect on LTD and, consequently, on cognition. Since most studies coincide that aging is accompanied by a decreased propensity to develop LTD (Lee et al, 2005; Billard & Rouaud, 2007; Ahmed et al, 2011), we investigated here whether and how this is related to age‐associated constitutive cholesterol loss
[F2]But this is still effective—you would need to take somethingwith the cinnamon to block that coumarin---which in minutia amounts can have an actual benefit as well
[F3] indigenous or endemic to a region
[F4]Capsule-powder or tablet
[F5]What is in the carbs?
[F6]Read Carefully here “genetic factors” not necessary about YOUR genetics---look at this closely the mice are genetically engineered---if the carb they are using as well genetically modified your bacteria in the colon is going react negatively with these genetics and these probiotics are going to cause a biological reaction to generate something that would not be there normally and cause a over growth and promote tumours—because the chemistry in these genes are designed to form this type activity
[F7]Hereditary—is a cover word for GMO
[F8]Question here should be asked what type of carbohydrate are we referring to
[F9]These will as well stops or blocks the immune response to protecting the RNA-DNA
[F10]This would be a result again from the genetic interaction—normally butyric acid protects the body’s system
[F11]What is actually going on here is the immune response is doing what it is supposed to be doing but the programmed response is attaching itself to something that is causing it to be overly responsive-over activating the immune system causing it to become self destructive---nanoparticulates would in deed cause this response
[F12]Welll what do you know an increase in fat can restore learning
[F13]phosphorylated form of the serine–threonine kinase Akt (pAkt)