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Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia

NON-thermal radio - microwave frequency (RF) radiation

Medical Uses of Copper in Antiquity

Even a little is too much- One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease

Crocetinic acid in saffron may inhibit the pancreatic cancer cell growth

 Lipids Support Protein Machinery


Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):406-14

Authors: Phillips J, Lam C, Palmisano L

OBJECTIVE: To determine the completeness and readability of information found in Wikipedia for leading dietary supplements and assess the accuracy of this information with regard to safety (including use during pregnancy/lactation), contraindications, drug interactions, therapeutic uses, and dosing.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of Wikipedia articles.
INTERVENTIONS: The contents of Wikipedia articles for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were retrieved on July 24, 2012, and evaluated for organization, content, accuracy (as compared with information in two leading dietary supplement references) and readability.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of Wikipedia articles.
RESULTS: No consistency was noted in how much information was included in each Wikipedia article, how the information was organized, what major categories were used, and where safety and therapeutic information was located in the article. All articles in Wikipedia contained information on therapeutic uses and adverse effects but several lacked information on drug interactions, pregnancy, and contraindications. Wikipedia articles had 26%-75% of therapeutic uses and 76%-100% of adverse effects listed in the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and/or Natural Standard[F1] . Overall, articles were written at a 13.5-grade level, and all were at a ninth-grade level or above.
CONCLUSION: Articles in Wikipedia in mid-2012 for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were frequently incomplete, of variable quality, and sometimes inconsistent with reputable sources of information on these products. Safety information was particularly inconsistent among the articles. Patients and health professionals should not rely solely on Wikipedia for information on these herbal supplements when treatment decisions are being made.--PMID: 25063262 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


NON-thermal radio - microwave frequency (RF) radiation

 Dear Editor,

Your readers need to know three undisputable facts: 1) world-class

scientists globally say that the "greatest single threat to human health in our entire history - ever - is NON-thermal radio / microwave frequency (RF) radiation," which is emitted by all of today's wireless devices - even baby monitors! 2) ONLY industry and those who benefit directly from the sale of wireless products say they are safe! 3) Not one single product has had to undergo independent realistic pre-market 'safety' tests to ensure it is safe to be used by, on and around people on a continuous basis 24/7/365 in perpetuity!--On any issue other than wireless technology, Parksville's Mayor LeFebvre would be safe in taking direction from Island Health Authority. But in B.C. (and the world) today, we have the makings of a 'Perfect Storm': Not one of BC's five Health Authorities has any education, qualifications or expertise in NON-thermal microwave radiation - which INDUSTRY adopted from militaries some 40 years ago! Shockingly, nor does BC's provincial Health Officer  (PHO), Dr. Perry Kendall - even though he has been PHO for 16 years! Yet it is he who is tasked with keeping our Health Authorities current in their knowledge of known threats to human health!----Due to his own ignorance of NON-thermal microwave radiation, Dr. Kendall is obliged to accept whatever Health Canada (HC) says is 'safe'. He then must echo, promote and defend HC's position, which he shares with Health

Authorities throughout BC. To this day his position is: if a wireless device

complies with Safety Code 6 (SC6) it must be safe! He doesn't seem to

realize that:


*       even the revised 2015 version of SC6 remains one of the highest

(i.e., most dangerous) in the world!


*       SC6, like those of the USA, were written by INDUSTRY and adopted

wholesale by governments without question!  In anticipation of the coming

health crisis, they even wrote into the Canadian and American regulatory

codes a proviso that does not allow anyone to sue them on health grounds!



better-radiation-exposure-standards>  and



*       in 2014, 53 scientists from 18 countries openly condemned Safety

Code 6 and urged Health Canada to intervene to help avoid an emerging health




*       in 2014, 22 Canadian doctors openly condemned Safety Code 6 and

called on Health Canada to protect Canadians from radio frequency radiation (the kind emitted by cell towers and all wireless devices)?





*       in 2015, at least 206 distinguished scientists from 40 countries

voluntarily signed the "International Scientists Appeal," urging the United

Nations, all UN-member countries and the WHO to protect humans and wildlife

from the dangers of wireless radiation!


*       major insurance companies will not insure wireless products or

companies against lawsuits alleging adverse health effects attributed to

radio / microwave frequency radiation.



In closing, Parksville is extraordinarily fortunate to have an informed

councilor like Leanne Salter who is not afraid to stand up and speak the

truth about the very real but suppressed dangers of any/all wireless

technology. Non-industry scientists and informed people around the globe

know she is right!



James G. ("Jerry") Flynn, Captain (Retired)

5181 Gainsberg Road

Bowser, B.C., V0R 1G0

778 424-9609


 Medical Uses of Copper in Antiquity

Copper Applications in Health & Environment

The first recorded medical use of copper is found in the Smith Papyrus, one of the oldest books known. The Papyrus is an Egyptian medical text, written between 2600 and 2200 B.C., which records the use of copper to sterilize chest wounds and to sterilize drinking water. Other early reports of copper's medicinal uses are found in the Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 B.C. The Ebers Papyrus documents medicine practiced in ancient Egypt and in other cultures that flourished many centuries earlier. Copper compounds were recommended for headaches, "trembling of the limbs" (perhaps referring to epilepsy or St. Vitus' Dance), burn wounds, itching and certain growths in the neck, some of which were probably boils. Forms of copper used for the treatment of disease ranged from metallic copper splinters and shavings to various naturally occurring copper salts and oxides. A "green pigment" is spoken of which was probably the mineral, malachite, a form of copper carbonate. It could also have been chrysocolla, a copper silicate, or even copper chloride, which forms on copper exposed to seawater. In the first century A.D., Dioscorides, in his book De Materia Medica, described a method of making another green pigment known as verdigris by exposing metallic copper to the vapors of boiling vinegar. In this process, blue-green copper acetate forms on the copper surface. Verdigris and blue vitriol (copper sulfate) were used, among other things, in remedies for eye ailments such as bloodshot eyes, inflamed or "bleary" eyes, "fat in the eyes" (trachoma?), and cataracts.

In the Hippocratic Collection (named for, although not entirely written by, the Greek physician Hippocrates, 460 to 380 B.C.), copper is recommended for the treatment of leg ulcers associated with varicose veins. To prevent infection of fresh wounds, the Greeks sprinkled a dry powder composed of copper oxide and copper sulfate on the wound. Another antiseptic wound treatment at the time was a boiled mixture of honey and red copper oxide. The Greeks had easy access to copper since the metal was readily available on the island of Kypros (Cyprus) from which the Latin name for copper, cuprum, is derived.

By the time the Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus began practicing medicine, during the reign of Tiberius (14 to 37 A.D.), copper and its derivatives had been firmly established as an important drug in the medical practitioner's pharmacopoeia. In Celsus' series, De Medicina, books one through six list many purposes for which copper was used together with the preparation and the form of copper most effective for each ailment. For the treatment of venereal disease, for example, Celsus prescribed a remedy consisting of pepper, myrrh, saffron, cooked antimony sulfide, and copper oxide. These were first pounded together in dry wine and when dry, once again pounded together in raisin wine and heated until dry. For a non-healing chronic ulcer, treatment consisted of copper oxide and other ingredients including enough rose oil to give a soft consistency.

Pliny (23 to 79 A.D.) described a number of remedies involving copper. Black copper oxide was given with honey to remove intestinal worms. Diluted and injected as drops into nostrils, it cleared the head and, when taken with honey or honey water, it purged the stomach. It was given for "eye roughness," "eye pain and mistiness," and ulceration of the mouth. It was blown into the ears to relieve ear problems.

In the New World the Aztecs also used copper for medical purposes. Don Francisco de Mendoza commissioned two learned Aztec Indian physicians to record the pharmacological treatments known by the Aztecs at the time of the Conquest. For the treatment of "Faucium Calor" (literally, heat of the throat, or, sore throat) they prescribed gargling with a mixture of ingredients containing copper.

Copper was also employed in ancient India and Persia to treat lung diseases. The tenth century book, Liber Fundamentorum Pharmacologiae describes the use of copper compounds for medicinal purposes in ancient Persia. Powdered malachite was sprinkled on boils, copper acetate as well as and copper oxide were used for diseases of the eye and for the elimination of "yellow bile." Nomadic Mongolian tribes treated and healed ulcers of venereal origin with orally administered copper sulfate.

Turning to more modern times, the first observation of copper's role in the immune system was published in 1867 when it was reported that, during the cholera epidemics in Paris of 1832, 1849 and 1852, copper workers were immune to the disease. More recently copper's role in the immune system has been supported by observations that individuals suffering from Menke's disease (an inherited disease in which there is defective copper absorption and metabolism) generally die of immune system-related phenomena and other infections. Further, animals deficient in copper have been shown to have increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella and Listeria. Evidence such as this has led researchers to suggest strongly that copper compounds not only cure disease but also aid in the prevention of disease.

In 1885, the French physician, Luton, reported on using copper acetate in his practice to treat arthritic patients. For external application he made a salve of hog's lard and 30% neutral copper acetate. For internal treatment, he used pills containing 10 mg. of copper acetate. In 1895, Kobert published his review of the pharmacological actions of copper compounds. Copper arsenate had been used to treat acute and chronic diarrhea as well as dysentery and cholera. A variety of inorganic copper preparations were found to be effective in treating chronic adenitis, eczema, impetigo, scorphulosis, tubercular infections, lupus, syphilis, anemias, chorea and facial neuralgia. An organic complex of copper developed by Bayer was shown to have curative powers in the treatment of tuberculosis. Copper treatment for tuberculosis continued until the 1940s, and various physicians reported on their success in using copper preparations in intravenous injections.

In 1939, the German physician, Werner Hangarter, noticed that Finnish copper miners were unaffected by arthritis as long as they worked in the mining industry. This was particularly striking since rheumatism was a widespread disease in Finland, and workers in other industries and other towns had more rheumatic diseases than did the copper miners. This observation led Finnish medical researchers plus the Germans, Hangarter and Lübke, to begin their now classic clinical trials using an aqueous mixture of copper chloride and sodium salicylate. They successfully treated patients suffering from rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, neck and back problems, as well as sciatica.

Until recently, just as in Pliny's time, the medical profession used copper sulfate as a means to clinically induce vomiting. This is based on the fact that one of the body's natural physiological responses to prevent copper intoxication is vomiting. A Manual of Pharmacology and its Applications to Therapeutics and Toxicology, published by W. B. Saunders Company in 1957 recommends the use of 0.5 gram of copper sulfate, dissolved in a glass of water, in a single dose, or three doses of 0.25 gram fifteen minutes apart, for this purpose.

Since 1934, it has been known that individuals suffering from such diseases as scarlet fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis, arthritis, malignant tumors and lymphogranulomas exhibit an elevation of copper in their blood plasma. Since then, the list of maladies bringing about such elevation has been extended to fever, wounds, ulcers, pain, seizures, cancers, carcinogenesis, diabetes, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and irradiation and tissue stresses, including restricted blood flow. This suggests that this redistribution of copper in the body has a general role in responding to physiological, disease, or injury stress. On the other hand, the elevation of copper in the affected organ has led some to postulate that it was this excess of copper that caused the disease. Nonetheless, this elevation of copper in diseased states is suggested to account for the natural synthesis of copper-dependent regulatory proteins and enzymes in the body required for biochemical responses to stress. It may be that these natural copper complexes expedite the relief of stress and the repair of tissues. Thus, it appears that in addition to the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of inorganic copper compounds as recognized by the ancients, metallo-organic complexes of copper have medicinal capabilities that are fundamental to the healing process itself.

Copper is known to be an essential element in human metabolism. However, copper does not exist in the body in measurable amounts in ionic form. All measurable amounts of copper in the body exist in tissues as complexes with the organic compounds of proteins and enzymes. Therefore, it has been concluded that copper becomes and remains intimately involved in body processes. Some copper complexes serve to store copper, others to transport it, and yet others play important roles in key cellular and metabolic processes. Studies into the roles that these copper complexes play and the mechanisms of these roles have further confirmed that copper enters into the prevention and control of a number of disease states in the body. As will be discussed below, the key to the effective use of copper-based pharmaceuticals is not the use of inorganic compounds of copper, as used by the ancients, but rather the use of metallo-organic complexes or chelates of copper. The process of chelating metals allows them to be smuggled in the transport process across the intestinal wall and thereby enter into the mainstream of nutrient flow and usage in the body[F2] .

The first modern research on the subject of copper medicinal substances was by Professor John R. J. Sorenson, of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, who, in 1966, demonstrated that copper complexes have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases using doses that are nontoxic. Since then, copper metallo-organic complexes have been used to successfully treat patients with arthritic and other chronic degenerative diseases. More than 140 copper complexes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (aspirin and ibuprofen, for example) have been shown to be more active than their parent compounds. Copper aspirinate has been shown not only to be more effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis than aspirin alone, but it has been shown to prevent or even cure the ulceration of the stomach often associated with aspirin therapy. Based on these experiences, the work of Professor Sorenson and other researchers around the world has progressed into the medicinal benefits of organic complexes of copper in a number of disease states. This work, thus far mainly based on animal research, has opened a whole new vista both into the understanding of copper's many-fold role in the body and in the practicality of using supplementary copper in the treatment of wound healing and inflammation-related disease states. Some of these potential indications are:

Ulcer and Wound-Healing Activities of Copper Complexes

It has been demonstrated that copper complexes such as copper aspirinate and copper tryptophanate, markedly increase healing rate of ulcers and wounds. For example, copper complexes heal gastric ulcers five days sooner than other reagents. Further, it has been shown that, whereas non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen and enefenamic acid suppress wound healing, copper complexes of these drugs promote normal wound healing while at the same time retaining anti-inflammatory activity.

Anticonvulsant Activities of Copper Complexes

The brain contains more copper than any other organ of the body except the liver, where copper is stored for use elsewhere. This fact suggests that copper plays a role in brain functions. With reports of seizures in animals and humans following the protracted consumption of copper-deficient diets, it was reasoned that copper has a role to play in the prevention of seizures[F3] . It was subsequently discovered that organic compounds that are not themselves anti-convulsants exhibit anticonvulsant activity when complexed with copper. Further, it was found that copper complexes of all anti-epileptic drugs are more effective and less toxic than their parent drugs.

Anticancer Activities of Copper Complexes

As early as 1912, patients in Germany were treated for facial epithelioma with a mixture of copper chloride and lecithin. Success of such treatment suggested that copper compounds have anticancer activity. Work at the University of Liverpool in 1913 demonstrated that subcutaneous and intravenous injections of a copper salt or colloidal copper softened and degenerated carcinomas transplanted into mice. In 1930, work in France indicated that injections of colloidal copper mobilized and expelled tumor tissue. Recent work with mice in the USA has shown that, indeed, treatment of solid tumors with non-toxic doses of various organic complexes of copper markedly decreased tumor growth and metastasis and thus increased survival rate. These copper complexes did not kill cancer cells but caused them to revert to normal cells[F4] .

Anticarcinogenic Activity of Copper Complexes

Based on work in the treatment of cancers using copper complexes, researchers have found that these same complexes may prevent or retard the development of cancers in mice under conditions where cancers are expected to be induced.

Radiation Protection and Radiation Recovery of Copper Complexes

Ionizing radiation, such as that used in the treatment of cancer, has been shown to induce massive systemic inflammation. Ideally, such radiation-induced injury might be prevented or ameliorated by chemical repair mechanisms in the body. Thus, pharmacological approaches to the repair of radiation-damaged tissue are needed. As early as 1984, copper metallo-organic complexes have been shown to have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities[F5] . They are capable of causing rapid recovery of immunocompetence and recovery from radiation induced tissue changes. The mechanism of this activity appears to be tied to the ability of certain copper complexes to deactivate the superoxide, or "free," radicals liberated by ionizing radiation. In addition, since radiation has the capability of breaking the bonds of natural copper enzymes in the body, supplementing these with non-toxic doses of pharmaceutical copper complexes restores the lost tissue-repair capability. Since these complexes may also have anticarcinogenic activity, it is suggested that there would be merit in using copper complexes in the treatment of cancer and in particular, treating patients undergoing ionizing radiation therapy for their cancer, accidental exposure to radiation, and astronauts undertaking space travel.

Heart Disease and Copper Complexes

Numerous studies have drawn attention to the relationship between copper deficiency and heart disease. First observed in rats in 1936, this effect has now been traced to both a deficiency in copper and an imbalance in the copper-to-zinc ratio in the body. Work by Dr. L.M. Klevay at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center in 1973 has led to the postulation that copper has a direct effect on the control of cholesterol[F6] . In continuing work published in 1975, he theorized that a metabolic imbalance between zinc and copper - with more emphasis on copper deficiency than zinc excess - is a major contributing factor to the etiology of coronary heart disease. Subsequent work by other investigators has shown that copper complexes also can have a valuable role in the minimization of damage to the aorta and heart muscle as oxygenated blood reperfuses into tissues following myocardial infarction[F7] . This action is based on the anti-inflammatory action of copper complexes. These and other studies suggest the use of copper dietary supplements as a means of preventing and controlling such diseases as atherosclerosis (a form of arteriosclerosis), coronary heart disease, aortic aneurysms and myocardial infarction. It has been speculated that the reason that the heart attack rate in France is lower than in the rest of Europe is because of the French practice of drinking red wine. Red wine has a higher copper content than white wine because it is prepared with the skin of the grape intact. The copper originates in the wine from the copper fungicides used on the grapes in the field--Based on an abundance of historical data such as the foregoing, many researchers anticipate that copper will become an increasingly important component of tomorrow's medical treatments.


top1. The historical part of this paper is based on H.H.A. Dollwet and J.R.J. Sorenson, Historic uses of copper compounds in medicine, Trace Elements in Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1985, pp 80 - 87.


Scientific Evidence

The evidence presented here is based on trials done in the UK primarily in the University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences by Professor Bill Keevil and in The University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust by Professor Tom Elliott.

Presented at Materials Science and Technology Conference, September 25-28, 2005, Pittsburgh, PA

Copper for the 21st Century Symposium

Copper Alloys for Human Infectious Disease Control
H.T. Michels1;
S.A. Wilks2; J.O. Noyce2; and C.W. Keevil2
1Copper Development Association Inc.,
2University of
Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Environmental Healthcare Unit, UK

Several bacteria, known to be human pathogens, die when placed on copper alloy surfaces. The concentration of live bacteria drops from several orders of magnitude to zero on copper alloys in a few hours. In marked contrast, no reduction is seen in the concentration of live organisms on stainless steel during the six-hour test period. The copper alloys tested include high coppers, brasses, bronzes, copper -nickels and copper-nickel-zincs. The bacteria tested include E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, both food-borne pathogens associated with several large-scale food recalls, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a serious hospital-acquired infection. The study results suggest the selection of copper alloys for surfaces exposed to human touch or food contact. Using copper alloys in this manner can materially assist in reducing the transmission of potentially infectious organisms.

The focus of the present study is on the inhibitory effects of the surfaces of a range of commercial wrought copper-base alloys, on bacteria, with stainless steel as an experimental control. The tested organisms include E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, which are food-borne pathogens associated with several large-scale food recalls, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a serious hospital-acquired, or nosocomial infection. According to the March 28, 2001 issue of the New York Times, 76 million illnesses associated with contaminated food were reported annually in the United States, which resulted in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths. Although most E. coli strains are harmless to humans, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that the cost to society associated with infectious strains of E. coli is $5 billion annually. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported in 1999 that L. monocytogenes accounts for the highest hospitalization rate (90%) and the second highest fatality rate (20%) of all food-borne human pathogens. On average, there are 2,500 cases of L. monocytogenes reported each year and they result in 500 fatalities. According to a July 2004 report by the Infectious Disease Society of America, two million people are infected each year while in the hospital, and 70% of those infections are resistant to at least one drug. This resulted in 90,000 deaths and a cost to society of $5 billion annually. -According to the CDC, the growth rate of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is increasing.

Copper for preventing Microbial Environmental contamination

AL Casey,1 PA Lambert,2 L Miruszenko,1 TSJ Elliott.1
1 University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
2 Aston University, Birmingham, UK

Trial run by Dr Tom Elliott, Deputy Medical Director and Consultant Microbiologist, at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust.

Transmission of infection involves various vehicles, including contaminated surfaces which have stimulated interest in antimicrobial materials. Copper has antimicrobial activity and its application in the clinical setting has been explored. Activity of copper against a wide range of hospital pathogens was also determined.


In vitro activity - Microorganisms were applied to copper and stainless steel and viability determined over 3 hours at room temperature following their recovery into a universal neutralising solution. Viability on the metal was also determined by direct observation using epifluorescence microscopy of propidium iodide/SYTO 9 stained cells. Clinical assessment - A pilot study assessed the number of microorganisms on copper containing toilet seats, grab rails, tap handles, light switches and door push plates on a busy medical ward. The copper-containing items harboured fewer microorganisms than standard items on a control ward (p=0.01). The study design was adjusted to sample copper-containing and control items on the same ward. A copper-containing: toilet seat, set of tap handles and a ward entrance door push plate were sampled and compared against equivalent standard items.


In vitro activity - The viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Enterococcus spp. and Candida albicans was progressively reduced by at least 3 log 10 cycles over 3 hours on copper but not stainless steel surfaces. Clinical assessment - All copper-containing items harboured significantly fewer microorganisms (90%-100%) than their control equivalents.


Copper surfaces exhibit a pronounced antimicrobial action upon a range of pathogens, reducing viability over 3 hours contact at room temperature. Antimicrobial activity was also evident over a period of several months in the clinical setting. Copper surfaces may therefore, be a valuable tool in preventing nosocomial infection.


Uses of Copper Compounds-- Other Copper Compounds

Copper Acetates

Basic copper acetate (verdigris) was at one time made in France by interleaving copper metal sheets with fermented grape skins and dregs left after wine manufacture. After some time when the copper sheets had become coated with verdigris they were removed, exposed to the air for a few days and then replaced. This process was repeated until the whole sheet had become corroded. The resulting product was known as blue verdigris and was used as a fungicide at 1 kg basic copper acetate in 500 litres water.

Present manufacture is based on the action of acetic acid on copper metal, copper oxide or copper carbonate. They can also be prepared by treating a copper sulphate solution with lead acetate. Copper acetates are used as an intermediate in the manufacture of Paris green (cupric aceto-arsenite); as a catalyst in a number of organic reactions including rubber aging; as a chemical in textile dyeing; and as a pigment for ceramics. Copper acetates have also been used for impregnating kraft paper to produce an anti-tarnish wrapping paper for high grade silver ware.

Cuprous Oxide

Can be produced either electrolytically from copper or by the action of alkaline reducing agents on copper sulphate solutions. Formulated proprietary brands of cuprous oxide are extensively employed as fungicides and seed dressings. Another important application is in anti-fouling paints. Other uses include the colouring of porcelain and glass.

Cupric Oxide (black copper oxide)

Can be produced either by adding caustic soda to hot copper sulphate solutions or by treating copper scale with nitric acid and heating to redness. Cupric oxide is used in the ceramic industry for imparting blue, green or red tints in glasses, glazes and enamels. It is occasionally employed for incorporation in mineral supplements for insuring against an insufficiency of copper in the diet of animals. Among its other uses is the preparation of cuprammonium hydroxide solutions for the rayon industry.

Cupric Chloride

Obtained either by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrochloric acid or by the action of chlorine on copper. Its principal use is in the petroleum industry for sweetening (catalytic oxidation of the mercaptans) and as an ingredient of catalysts for other chemical processes. It is also used as a mordant in calico printing and dyeing.

Copper Oxychloride

Is a basic copper chloride and is usually manufactured either by the action of hydrochloric acid on copper metal or by the air oxidation of cuprous chloride suspensions. It has a number of applications, by far the most important being as an agricultural fungicide for which purpose it is extensively employed in formulated form as dusts, wettable powders and pastes.

Cuprous Chloride

Prepared either by heating a solution of cupric chloride with copper turnings or by the action of a reducing agent, such as sulphur dioxide, on a mixture of common salt and copper sulphate solution. The petroleum industry uses cuprous chloride in their "oil sweetening" process. Ammoniacal solutions of cuprous chloride are employed for the absorption of any carbon monoxide which may be present in a gas as an impurity.

Cupric Nitrate

Produced either by dissolving copper carbonate in nitric acid or direct from copper and nitric acid. It has a number of small uses, such as in ceramics, in dyeing as a mordant, in fireworks and in photography.

Copper Cyanide

Manufactured from sodium cyanide and copper sulphate. It is mainly used for copper electroplating.

Copper Soaps

Usually made by the interactlon of the corresponding soap with copper sulphate solution. Small quantities of these, such as copper stearate, copper oleate and copper abietate (from resins), are employed mainly for rot-proofing textiles, ropes, etc. They are also used in paints as they are soluble in oils, white spirits, etc.

Copper Naphthenate

Usually manufactured either from copper sulphate and naphthenic acid in combination with an alkali or by heating naphthenic acid and copper oxide. It is widely used as an oil-based wood preservative and as a rot-proofing agent.

Anhydrous and Monohydrated Copper Sulphate

Obtained by heating copper sulphate pentahydrate when four molecules water of crystallization are removed the product becomes copper sulphate monohydrate which is green in colour. At a higher temperature all the water of crystallization is removed and anhydrous copper sulphate is the white powder which results. They can also be obtained by crystallization from copper sulphate pentahydrate in boiling sulphuric acid. The main applications are in the production of proprietary wood preservatives and agricultural fungicides as well as for the production of a number of copper compounds. Sometimes they are utilised to detect the presence of moisture.


Even a little is too much- One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease

We hate to ruin Thanksgiving, but a new report appearing in the Nov. 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal suggests that for some people, overindulgence at the dinner table or at snack time is enough to trigger signs of metabolic disease[F8] . Specifically, in some people just one high-calorie shake was enough to make people with metabolic disease worse, while in others, relatively short periods of overeating trigger the beginnings of metabolic disease. This information could be particularly useful for health care providers, nutritionists, and others who counsel people on disease prevention and eating habits.--"Acute effects of diet are mostly small, but may have large consequences in the long run," said Suzan Wopereis, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology Group in Zeist, The Netherlands. "Our novel approach allows detection of small but relevant effects, thereby contributing to the urgently needed switch from disease-care to health-care, aiming for a life-long optimal health and disease prevention.--To make this discovery, Wopereis and colleagues used two groups of male volunteers. The first group included 10 healthy male volunteers. The second group included nine volunteers with metabolic syndrome and who had a combination of two or more risk factors for heart disease, such as unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood lipids, and abdominal fat. Both groups had blood samples taken, before and after consuming a high-fat milk-shake. In these blood samples, the researchers measured 61 biomarkers, such as cholesterol and blood sugar. They found that biochemical processes related to sugar metabolism, fat metabolism and inflammation were abnormal in subjects with metabolic syndrome. The 10 healthy male volunteers were also given a snack diet consisting of an additional 1300 kcal per day, in the form of sweets and savory products such as candy bars, tarts, peanuts and crisps for four weeks. The response of the same 61 biomarkers to the challenge test was evaluated. Signaling molecules such as hormones regulating the control of sugar and fat metabolism and inflammation were changed, resembling the very subtle start of negative health effects similar to that affecting those with metabolic disease.---"Eating junk food is one of those situations where our brains say 'yes' and our bodies say 'no[F9] ,'" said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal. "Unfortunately for us, this report shows that we need to use our brains and listen to our bodies. Even one unhealthy snack has negative consequences that extend far beyond any pleasure it brings."--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. --Journal Reference-A. F. M. Kardinaal, M. J. van Erk, A. E. Dutman, J. H. M. Stroeve, E. van de Steeg, S. Bijlsma, T. Kooistra, B. van Ommen, S. Wopereis. Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health. The FASEB Journal, 2015; 29 (11): 4600 DOI: 10.1096/fj.14-269852 -Cite This Page-Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. "Even a little is too much: One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease: Biomarkers that quantify health can help inform prevention strategies for metabolic disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 November 2015. <>.


Crocetinic acid in saffron may inhibit the pancreatic cancer cell growth

For several years now, researchers in the University of Kansas Medical Center's Department of Cancer Biology have been examining the effects of crocetin on pancreatic cancer, a deadly disease which responds poorly to current chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Crocetin is derived from saffron, a popular spice and food colorant and a key ingredient in many traditional Indian medicines.-In a study just published in the journal Oncotarget, a team of researchers led by KU Cancer Center Cancer Prevention & Survivorship Program member, Animesh Dhar, Ph.D., an associate professor of cancer biology at KU Medical Center, found that crocetinic acid, a purified compound from crocetin, showed the inhibition of growth in human pancreatic cancer cells grown either in a dish or as tumors under the skin of mice.-Dhar said after 21 days, there was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the group of mice who received the crocetinic acid.--"The mice who were given the crocetinic acid demonstrated a 75 percent reduction in their tumor growth, while the mice in the control group, which didn't receive the crocetinic acid, actually saw a 250 percent increase in tumor growth," Dhar said.--Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancer. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. More than 43,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year and about the same number die each year from the disease. Only about 3 percent of people with pancreatic cancer live more than five years after diagnosis.[F10] --In the KU Medical Center trial, the crocetinic acid also targeted and inhibited pancreatic cancer stem cells -- the deadly population of cells that usually resist conventional chemotherapy.--"Unless these stem cells are destroyed, the cancer will return," said Shrikant Anant, Ph.D., a professor of molecular and integrative physiology at KU Medical Center and associate director of cancer prevention and control at The University of Kansas Cancer Center and a co-author on the study. "If we can determine that crocetinic acid is successful in inhibiting or destroying the stem cells, it will be a major step forward in the treatment of pancreatic cancer."Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Kansas Cancer Center-Journal Reference-Parthasarathy Rangarajan, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Santanu Paul, Deep Kwatra, Kanagaraj Palaniyandi, Shamima Islam, Sitaram Harihar, Satish Ramalinagam, William Gutheil, Sandeep Putty, Rohan Pradhan, Subhash Padhye, Danny R. Welch, Shrikant Anant, Animesh Dhar. Crocetinic acid inhibits hedgehog signaling to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem cells. Oncotarget, 2015; 6 (29): 27661 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.4871

University of Kansas Cancer Center. "Crocetinic acid in saffron may inhibit the pancreatic cancer cell growth." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 November 2015. <>.


Lipids Support Protein Machinery

In the membranes of mitochondria -- the power stations of the cell -- are many different embedded proteins. These proteins perform key functions for the mitochondria. A team led by the biochemist Dr. Thomas Becker from the University of Freiburg discovered that lipids [F1] -- the fatlike substances that form the basic building blocks of biological membranes -- help a protein machinery to integrate proteins into the outer membrane of mitochondria. The researchers published their findings in the current issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.--Mitochondria perform vital functions for the cell. They produce the energy for cell metabolism, for example. Mitochondrial dysfunctions can cause severe neurological diseases. Certain proteins of the outer membrane that form a so-called beta-barrel structure are essential for the development of the mitochondria. These proteins enable the transport of proteins and metabolic intermediates, or so-called metabolites. Ribosomes within the cytosol -- the cell fluid -- produce these beta-barrel proteins. The protein translocases, which are two protein machineries in the outer membrane of the mitochondria, integrate the barrel structures into the membrane. The translocase of the outer membrane, in short TOM complex, transports the proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria. The so-called SAM complex then integrates the proteins into the membrane. While TOM and SAM are well researched by scientists, the role of lipids is still only poorly understood.[F2] --In mitochondria, the main building block of the membranes are the so-called phospholipids, of which phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant one[F3] . Becker's team discovered a previously unknown role of PC in the development of beta-barrel proteins. The scientists found out that the function of the SAM complex depends on the concentration of PC in the membrane. In collaboration with the research group of Professor Dr. Günther Daum from the Graz University of Technology in Austria, the team from the University of Freiburg analysed the mitochondria of baker's yeast mutants, which had a significantly lower concentration of PC. Max-Hinderk Schuler from Becker's research group at the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Freiburg demonstrated that, in the mutated baker's yeast, the integration of the beta-barrel proteins into the outer membrane is impaired. This can be explained by the fact that the function and stability of the SAM complex in these mutants is disturbed. In contrast, the activity of the TOM complex is not inhibited. This means that beta-barrel proteins can pass the TOM complex unimpeded, while their integration into the outer membrane does not occur at full speed when the concentration of PC is reduced. This work shows that protein machinery and lipids are closely connected in protein transport and that the integration of the beta-barrel proteins in the target membrane depends on the composition of the membrane.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. -Journal Reference-Max-Hinderk Schuler, Francesca Di Bartolomeo, Lena Böttinger, Susanne E. Horvath, Lena-Sophie Wenz, Günther Daum, Thomas Becker. Phosphatidylcholine Affects the Role of the Sorting and Assembly Machinery in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial β-Barrel Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2015; 290 (44): 26523 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.687921 -Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. "Lipids Support Protein Machinery." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 November 2015. <>.


 [F1]Lipids are a diverse group of compounds and include all biological compounds that are not soluble in water, but are soluble in organic solvents.

Classification of Lipids 

Saponifiable Lipids:   

Simple Lipids:      Glycerides:    Monoglycerides  



Dietary Fats: Peroxidized Fats 

Fatty Acids:  Unsaturated Fatty Acids    Trans Fatty Acids

Monounsaturated Fatty Acids  

Saturated Fatty Acids

Waxes:  Lanolin 

Jojoba Oil    

Compound Lipids:      



Phosphosphingolipids   Sphingomyelin


Glycosphingolipids      Cerebrosides


Unsaponifiable Lipids Steroids Sterols:  Cholesterol  


Steroid Hormones:    

Corticosteroid Hormones  

Sexual Steroid Hormones 

Steroid Saponins*            

Terpenes      Monoterpenes           



Triterpenes   Triterpenoid Saponins*    


Saponins      Triterpenoid Saponins*           

Steroid Saponins*            


 [F2]And this is how pathogens can also invade or how NANO can integrate through the usage of the cells or enter into the cell to sabotage the cells process and disrupt the program response the cells normal function

 [F3]Eggs Anyone- Sunflower Lecithin-EggYolk Lecithin and your animal proteins


 [F1]This Database is not the best but it will be adequate enough to give a breakdown of chemistry ~ but at the same time it is avery incomplete database in regard testing of usage and accuracy

 [F2]This is another method or an old terminology of using materials usually protein bound to allow better access into the system~ these days better methods of binding and transport using acids or other mineral combinations to either gain entry on a cellular level or on a tissue level or a lipid levels ( lipsome) (Hyrdogel) ( Glyconutrient) these methods activate or transport to the body and allow for a better delivery method to gain access and effect

 [F3]May even combine this with taurine to further balance the brain


 [F5]Copper heals the effects of Radiation and restores the system

 [F6]Copper Regulates Cholesterol

 [F7]Heart Protectant and Support

 [F8]This would be indicating there is something in the foods that the body is overloading on ~ chemical~ carcinogen~ metals~ Genetics~ NANO  that would trigger or cause this effect

 [F9]Nature of  the genetic programming of the food to be addictive and the moe you eat the more you want and quitting these foods can have the same type of withdrawals as quitting drugs

 [F10]That is because conventional treatments cause the untimely death through an archaic and barbaric methods that are not deisgn fo success but rather a shortened time for termination







Show of the Month  November  14 2015

Combined potentiating action of phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic effect

Other Support for Diabetes Removal

Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots

Researchers use graphene quantum dots to detect humidity and pressure

Heart Letter from a Heart Patient

Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses



Combined potentiating action of phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic effect using in vivo rat and in vitro NIH/3T3 cell culture system.

Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015 Mar;175(5):2542-63

Authors: Singh V, Singh SP, Singh M, Gupta AK, Kumar A

The present investigation was undertaken to analyze the ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimitic effect by determining the levels of blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) after daily administration of each alone and in combined at 250 mg/kg in alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with the extracts restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The anti-diabetic effect further potentiated the insulin signaling pathway by co-administration of both extracts. The molecular mechanisms of modulating gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor were also evaluated on specific targets of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), AKT, and the glucose transporter (GLUT4) on NIH/3T3 cell line by western blotting, ELISA, semiquantitative RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. The active principle of both extracts revealed insulin mimicking effect as indicated by increased expression of pIRS1 and pAKT in time-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in PI3-K content between unchallenged and challenged groups. Enhanced expression of GLUT-4 transcript further suggested that the Cinnamomum and Aloe phytochemicals could serve as a good adjuvant in the present armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs by either mimicking or improving insulin action. This study reveals that ethanolic extracts of C. tamala and A. vera have potent therapeutic efficacy and prospect for the development of phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus.--
PMID: 25536877 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Aloe vera


Extract of A. vera reduces hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in diabetic patients [202, 203]. Similar antidiabetic effects were observed in alloxan- and STZ-treated animal models [204–206]. Aloeresin A, an active compound of A. vera, inhibited -glucosidase activity [118]. A. vera and probably its active compounds exert their antidiabetic actions via inhibition of -glucosidase and intestinal glucose absorption. In addition, extract of A. vera resulted in a reduction of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance [207]. As a whole, A. vera and its active components may treat diabetes via suppression of -glucosidase activity (gut glucose absorption) and insulin resistance.


. Cinnamon


Both common cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. zeylanicum) and cassia (C. aromaticum) have long been used as flavoring agents and in drinks and medicines worldwide [135]. Cinnamon has traditionally been used for rheumatism, wounds, diarrhea, headaches, and colds [136]. Recently, extensive studies have been performed on the action of cinnamon on diabetes and metabolic syndrome [135]. Cinnamon was shown to reduce blood glucose via reduction of insulin resistance and increase of hepatic glycogenesis [135, 137]. Cinnamon phenolics were proposed to be the active compounds in modulation of insulin signaling [53, 138, 139]. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde had antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects on rodent models of diabetes [53]. This compound from cinnamon extract is thought of as a potential antidiabetic agent [139]. Unfortunately, the molecular target of cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde remains unclear.



 Other Support for Diabetes Removal


. Fenugreek


The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are used as a food supplement and also have a long history of medicinal use for labor induction, helping digestion and improving metabolism and health [34]. Animal studies have shown that extract of fenugreek seeds can lower blood glucose levels [140, 141]. Fenugreek is considered a promising agent for diabetes and its complications [34]. The glucose-lowering action of this plant involves reduction of insulin resistance [142]. Diosgenin, GII, galactomannan, trigoneosides, and 4-hydroxyisoleucine have been identified as the active antidiabetic compounds in fenugreek. However, little is known about the mechanisms of these compounds [55]. Among them, diosgenin was shown to reduce adipocyte differentiation and inflammation, implying its action in reduction of insulin resistance [54]. A clinical study indicated that fenugreek exerts hypoglycemic control via increasing insulin sensitivity


Silymarin is a flavonoid mixture composed of silybin, silydianin, and silychristin, which are active components of the plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum) [146]. Aside from antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, the modes of action through which silymarin and/or milk thistle exert antidiabetic activity are not well understood [66–74]. It has been reported that silymarin can rescue -cell function in alloxan-treated rats [68].



Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was first isolated from Berberis vulgaris. This compound has multiple functions ranging from inflammation inhibition and cancer suppression to reduction of metabolic syndrome and other activities [93, 152–155]. With respect to T2D, this compound lowered hyperglycemia, increased insulin resistance, stimulated pancreatic -cell regeneration, and decreased lipid peroxidation in a mouse model of T2D [89–92]. Thus, it may be useful for treatment of T2D and other types of diabetes. A meta-analysis study suggests that berberine per se does not show glycemic control in T2D patients. Combination treatment of berberine with other OAAs showed better glycemic control than either treatment alone. Of note, berberine had a mild antidyslipidemic effect on patients



Bitter melon, the fruit of the plant Momordica charantia is used in Ayurvedic medicine [156]. The biochemistry and bioactivities associated with the antidiabetic effect of the extracts of bitter melon and M. charantia as a whole have been extensively studied. One in vitro study showed that bitter melon could increase insulin secretion from cells. Moreover, immunostaining data indicated that the juice of the bitter melon increased cells in the pancreas of STZ-treated rats. Modes of action of bitter melon and M. charantia include insulin secretion, inhibition of glucose reabsorption in guts, preservation of islet cells and their functions, increase of peripheral glucose utilization, and suppression of gluconeogenic enzymes [38]. Of note, momorcharin and momordicin, isolated from M. charantia and its fruit, act to lower blood glucose likely because they possess insulin-like chemical structures [38].


Chinese green tea has been used as a beverage and food supplement since antiquity in China. It is made of the leaves and leaf buds of the Camellia sinensis species. One of the claimed health benefits of this tea is reduction of T2D risk and amelioration of T2D. Chinese green tea and oolong tea can prevent and/or ameliorate type 2 diabetes in humans [188–190] and experimental mouse models [191, 192]. EGCG, a major flavonol in tea, was shown to have antidiabetic activities in rodents [104, 105]. EGCG appears to have multiple antidiabetic actions including islet protection, increasing insulin secretion, decreasing insulin tolerance, and decreasing gluconeogenesis and insulin-mimetic action [104–106]. The role of EGCG in islet protection was shown to protect against -cell death mediated by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAP) in vitro [193]. EGCG was reported to activate AMPK in adipocytes


Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed drinks worldwide. Recently, several studies have demonstrated an association between coffee intake and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and a lower risk of T2D [224]. However, the active compound(s) and responsible target(s) are poorly understood. Accumulating data imply that constituents other than caffeine are active in glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity. A study on people who consumed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee showed no difference in the risk of T2D and insulin sensitivity in those drinking either type of coffee after 8 weeks of consumption [225]. However, caffeine improved the function of adipocytes and the liver [225]. Coffee is one of the major sources of dietary antioxidants. Roasting at high temperature can convert chlorogenic acid into quinides, which are known to reduce blood glucose levels in animal models [126]. In addition, coffee consumption might also mediate levels of GLP-1 [127]. Taken together, adequate coffee consumption is beneficial for T2D and its complications.


 Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots

March 24th, 2015 in Nanotechnology / Nanomaterials
Graphene quantum dots deposited on a sporating bacteria produces a graphene coated spore. Upon attachment of electrodes across the cell, a bio-electronic device is produced that is highly sensitive to humidity. Here, the spore reacts actively to humidity; and the reaction is translated to an electronic response from the interfaced graphene quantum dots. Graphene quantum dots deposited on a sporating bacteria produces a graphene coated spore. Upon attachment of electrodes across the cell, a bio-electronic device is produced that is highly sensitive to humidity. Here, the spore reacts actively to humidity; and the reaction is translated to an electronic response from the interfaced graphene quantum dots. Credit: Berry Research Laboratory at UIC- As nanotechnology makes possible a world of machines too tiny to see, researchers are finding ways to combine living organisms with nonliving machinery to solve a variety of problems- Like other first-generation bio-robots, the new nanobot engineered at the University of
Illinois at Chicago is a far cry from Robocop. It's a robotic germ.[F1] - UIC researchers created an electromechanical device—a humidity sensor—on a bacterial spore. They call it NERD, for Nano-Electro-Robotic Device. The report is online at Scientific Reports, a Nature open access journal.

 "We've taken a spore from a bacteria, and put graphene quantum dots on its surface—and then attached two electrodes on either side of the spore," said Vikas Berry, UIC associate professor of chemical engineering and principal investigator on the study.-"Then we change the humidity around the spore[F2] ," he said.--When the humidity drops, the spore shrinks as water is pushed out. As it shrinks, the quantum dots come closer together, increasing their conductivity, as measured by the electrodes.--[F3] "We get a very clean response—a very sharp change the moment we change humidity," Berry said. The response was 10 times faster, he said, than a sensor made with the most advanced man-made water-absorbing polymers.--There was also better sensitivity in extreme low-pressure, low-humidity situations.--"We can go all the way down to a vacuum and see a response," said Berry, which is important in applications where humidity must be kept low, for example, to prevent corrosion or food spoilage[F4] . "It's also important in space applications, where any change in humidity could signal a leak," he said.-Currently available sensors increase in sensitivity as humidity rises, Berry said. NERD's sensitivity is actually higher at low humidity.--"This is a fascinating device," Berry said. "Here we have a biological entity[F5] . We've made the sensor on the surface of these spores, with the spore a very active complement to this device. The biological complement is actually working towards responding to stimuli and providing information."

Provided by University of Illinois at Chicago--"Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots." March 24th, 2015.


Researchers use graphene quantum dots to detect humidity and pressure

May 8th, 2013 by Jennifer Tidball in Nanotechnology / Nanophysics -

Vikas Berry, William H. Honstead professor of chemical engineering, and his research team are using graphene quantum dots to improve electron tunneling-based sensing devices. The latest research from a Kansas State University chemical engineer may help improve humidity and pressure sensors, particularly those used in outer space.-Vikas Berry, William H. Honstead professor of chemical engineering, and his research team are using graphene quantum dots to improve sensing devices in a twofold project. The first part involves producing the graphene quantum dots, which are ultrasmall pieces of graphene. Graphene is a single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms and has superior electrical, mechanical and optical properties.[F6]  The second part of the project involves incorporating these quantum dots into electron-tunneling based sensing devices.-To create the graphene quantum dots, the researchers used nanoscale cutting of graphite to produce graphene nanoribbons. T.S. Sreeprasad, a postdoctoral researcher in Berry's group, chemically cleaved these ribbons into 100 nanometers lateral dimensions.--The scientists assembled the quantum dots into a network on a hydroscopic microfiber that was attached to electrodes on its two sides. They placed the assembled quantum dots less than a nanometer apart so they were not completely connected. The assembling of dots is similar to a corn on the cob structure—the corn kernels are nanoscale quantum dots and the cob is the microfiber.--Several researchers—including four 2012 alumni in chemical engineering: Augustus Graham, Alfredo A. Rodriguez, Jonathan Colston and Evgeniy Shishkin—applied a potential across the fiber and controlled the distance between the quantum dots by adjusting the local humidity, which changes the current flowing through the dots.--"If you reduce the humidity around this device, the water held by this fiber is lost," Berry said. "As a result, the fiber shrinks and the graphenic components residing atop come close to one another in nanometer scale. This increases the electron transport from one dot to the next. Just by reading the currents one can tell the humidity in the environment."[F7] --Decreasing the distance between the graphene quantum dots by 0.35 nanometers increased the device's conductivity by 43-fold, Berry said. Furthermore, because air contains water, reducing air pressure decreased its water content and caused the graphene quantum dots to get closer together, which increased conductivity. Quantum mechanics suggests that electrons have a finite probability to tunnel from an electrode to a nonconnected electrode, Berry said. This probability is inversely and exponentially proportional to the tunneling distance, or the gap between the electrodes.--The research has numerous applications, particularly in improving sensors for humidity, pressure or temperature.--"These devices are unique because, unlike most humidity sensors, these are more responsive in vacuum," Berry said. "For example, these devices can be incorporated into space shuttles, where low humidity measurements are required. These sensors might also be able to detect trace amounts of water on Mars, which has 1/100th of the earth's atmospheric pressure. This is because the device measures humidity at a much higher resolution in vacuum."--While the heart of the device is the modulation of electron tunneling, the response of the device is through the polymer microfiber, Berry said. His team also is looking at changing the polymer to find other applications for this research.--"If you replace this polymer with a polymer that is responsive to other stimuli, you can make a different kind of sensor," Berry said. "I envision this project to have a broad impact on sensing."--The research is supported by Berry's five-year, $400,000 National Science Foundation CAREER award. The research results appear in a recent issue of the journal Nano Letters in an article titled "Electron-tunneling modulation in percolating-network of graphene quantum dots[F8] : fabrication, phenomenological understanding, and humidity/pressure sensing applications."--Berry's research team also is studying molecular machines interfaced with graphene. In this work, the researchers are able to mechanically actuate the molecules, which undergo a change in the electric field around them and influence the carrier density of the interfaced graphene. This work will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal Small in an article titled "Covalent functionalization of dipole-modulating molecules on trilayer graphene: an avenue for graphene-interfaced molecular machines."--The researchers have found that graphene responds sensitively to molecular motion. Phong Nguyen, a doctoral student in chemical engineering and lead author of the work, tethered actuating molecules on graphene and measured the device's response.--"The next phase of science beyond nanotechnology will be molecular technology," Berry said. "We are working on developing routes to incorporate molecular machines into devices."--More information: Paper: by Kansas State University-----"Researchers use graphene quantum dots to detect humidity and pressure." May 8th, 2013.



 Heart Letter from a Heart Patient


Hi Tony,


I just wanted to share something with you.  Recently I was diagnosed with A-Fib and the cardiologist, of course, wanted me to take a blood thinning drug to which I was opposed. The cardiologist was not happy because I requested an alternative method and he knew I stopped taking the statin my family dr prescribed and I did so based on a couple of things; one was the information you have provided along with other research and I was having bad side effects.  Anyway, the cardiologist was extremely upset and would not talk to me because I stopped taking the statin (though my family dr said if you did not have the symptoms before taking them, had side effects while taking them and don't have them now that you stopped then I won’t argue you had side effects - when I asked he said there are alternative methods ) 


After taking your advise along increasing my mineral intake (a-fib is an electrical issue which is electrolyte issue or mineral deficiency) and now my symptoms are now reduced to almost nothing and I believe will go away altogether.  My family dr stated a-fib can be brought on by excessive stress and dehydration so I am being more mindful of my water intake.


Last week I had a follow up with the cardiologist and though I said my symptoms had diminished (he had no idea I did not take the drug they prescribed) and told him of the incredibly stressful job I have, he told me your heart should be able to handle stress and there is clearly something wrong with your heart and said  ”we need to hit this hard there are several drugs you need to take (can’t remember the names of the drugs as I was in shock at what he was saying) and then due to your age, if those don’t work then we immediately need to do surgery (again can’t remember the name due to my shock)      I looked at him and said “I have just turned in the monitor last week shouldn't we wait a period of time to see what this(the drug) will do?”  Again he did not know I wasn’t taking the drug but taurine,  magnesium, and minerals along with working on my acid/alkaline levels, for absorption, and he responded again with “no there is clearly something wrong with your heart and we need to hit this hard right now with drugs.”  I looked  at him in disbelief!! 


Perhaps it has taken a little longer to get the medical mindset you have talked about here in Indiana but I can say I will “NEVER” go back to this cardiologist! If I do I will go only to advise him he is not worth the paper his degree is printed on and that he is nothing more than a licensed drug dealer!!  


Sorry to be lengthy here but I have now seen first hand what you have talked about on your video’s and wanted to tell you about it and to also say again “Thank you for all that your do and please, please, please keep up the good work!!”  I have referred your site to more people then you can imagine and I have been successful in getting a lot (not all) of people to re-think what they eat and what their drs. tell them etc... and they are seeing for them selves the truth!


OH, OH,OH!!  one more thing this cardiologist said to me “they now have this great devise a really small devise that can be injected into you through a syringe and it can be monitored for three years!!!!”  Not only that but they can control things in their offices due to the monitor!!!  Can you believe this!!?!?!?  Talk about ANTI-CHRIST and the mark of the beast!!!!!!


Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses

New research from the University of Southampton has found that copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).--Animal coronaviruses that 'host jump' to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. The Southampton researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus -- 229E -- can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper. --A newly-published paper in mBio -- a journal of the American Society for Microbiology -- reports that human coronavirus 229E, which produces a range of respiratory symptoms from the common cold to more lethal outcomes such as pneumonia, can survive on surface materials including ceramic tiles, glass, rubber and stainless steel for at least five days. While human-to-human transmission is important, infections can be contracted by touching surfaces contaminated by respiratory droplets from infected individuals, or hand touching, leading to a wider and more rapid spread--On copper, and a range of copper alloys -- collectively termed 'antimicrobial copper' -- the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated (within a few minutes, for simulated fingertip contamination). Exposure to copper destroyed the virus completely and irreversibly, leading the researchers to conclude that antimicrobial copper surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health.--Lead researcher Dr Sarah Warnes said: "Transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated surfaces is far more important than was originally thought, and this includes viruses that cause respiratory infections. This is especially important when the infectious dose is low and just a few virus particles can initiate an infection.--"Human coronavirus, which also has ancestral links with bat-like viruses responsible for SARS and MERS, was found to be permanently and rapidly deactivated upon contact with copper. What's more, the viral genome and structure of the viral particles were destroyed, so nothing remained that could pass on an infection. With the lack of antiviral treatments, copper offers a measure that can help reduce the risk of these infections spreading."--Speaking on the importance of the study, Professor Bill Keevil, co-author and Chair in Environmental Healthcare at the University of Southampton, said: "Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths, globally, than any other infectious agent. The evolution of new respiratory viruses, and the re-emergence of historic virulent strains, poses a significant threat to human health.--"The rapid inactivation and irreversible destruction of the virus observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces suggests that the incorporation of copper alloy surfaces -- in conjunction with effective cleaning regimes and good clinical practice -- could help control transmission of these viruses."--Previous research by Professor Keevil and Dr Warnes has proved copper's efficacy against norovirus, influenza and hospital superbugs, such as MRSA and Klebsiella, plus stopping the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria to create new superbugs.--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Southampton. Journal Reference-S. L. Warnes, Z. R. Little and C. W. Keevil. Human coronavirus 229E remains infectious on common touch surface materials. mBio, November 2015 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01697-15 -Cite This Page-University of Southampton. "Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 November 2015. <>.



 [F1]Interesting choices of words~ when you think of the nano size in billionths then it is essentially a germ and one with vaccines and other medicants or nutriceuticals can infect a host with~ and with the self assembling of these nano they could manifest a host of conditions

 [F2]Environmental Control-spunds like some form of weather modification technology

 [F3]How NanoParticles can destroy or damage cellular membranes by pushing out fluids in cells and increasing there conductivity- a circuit to amplify the flow of energy

 [F4]Tech that is in the food chainthat is regulating food spoilage~ this is already under way the removal of salt as a natural preservative and introducing this tech into the food supply has repercussions~ with the consumption if these particles and a activator of current to make them conductive or a frequency the damage not only on a cellular level is going to happen but as well on a organ level~ a totally disruptive flow of communication with the spot burst from this tech

 [F5]Here is a subjective thought~ where did the biological entity come from..was it an aborted fetus and the dna was used as a means of construct~ was it genetically engineered and created meaning a life form that is now being made in a lab…or was it created utilizing nanobiology which would make this an artificial life ~ thoughts to consider

 [F6]Carbon is apparently the material of choice for communications and information and data

 [F7]One of the ways to conduct the power is by causing moisture loss- as a result the carbon nanoparticles( graphene) get closer and as a result the power or transmission increases from nano to nano and the closer the more it is amplified ~ here at 0.35nano the output is 43 times

 [F8]This is a fancy way of saying nanoparticles communication and charging each other like cells  and networking







Show of the Month  November 21 2015

Scarcity, not abundance, enhances consumer creativity, study says

MIT Chemists Create New Adaptable Metallic-Cage Gels

Upgrading synthetic biology's toolkit- New method could enable reprogramming of mammalian cells

Navy researchers recruit luminescent nanoparticles to image brain function

Study provides strongest evidence yet of a link between breakfast quality and educational outcomes



Scarcity, not abundance, enhances consumer creativity, study says

Even in an age of affluence and abundance in which round-the-clock consumerism and overspending are the norm, limits and constraints can still serve a purpose. According to new research co-written by a University of Illinois expert in new product development and marketing, resource scarcity actually translates into enhanced consumer product-use creativity.--A general sense of scarcity activates a constraint mindset that manifests itself through increased novelty in subsequent product-usage contexts -- that is, limits force consumers to think beyond the traditional functionality of a given product, thus enhancing product-use creativity, says published research from Ravi Mehta, a professor of business administration at Illinois.--"As the Western world becomes more affluent, I wanted to know how a sense of abundance affects creativity, because it's creativity that moves society forward," Mehta said. "New inventions and innovations -- they all come from creativity. So how does an abundance mindset affect creativity? What we found is that abundant resources may have a negative effect on creativity. When you have fewer resources, you use them more creatively."--Across six experiments that tested their hypotheses, Mehta and co-author Meng Zhu of Johns Hopkins Carey Business School consistently demonstrated that scarcity leads to more novel product usages "without compromising the appropriateness of the consumption solutions," according to the paper.--It's a phenomenon that can be observed anecdotally in many poor parts of the world, Mehta said.--"If you look at people who don't have resources or only have limited resources, they actually end up being more creative with what they have," he said. "If you go to a poor country and see how they solve problems by repurposing older products, it's super-innovative. When times are tough, resource-poor people become more creative in their use of everyday products."--The inverse also is true: When a general sense of abundance is prevalent, a constraint mindset will not be activated and individuals are less likely to move away from the traditional functionality [F1] of a given product, thereby resulting in lower levels of creativity.--"Everyday life here in the U.S. is so abundant that our control condition matched up with abundance, which makes sense," Mehta said. "Abundance is our default setting here in the U.S."--The implications for advertisers and marketers are, if you want to promote creativity, don't feature abundance, Mehta said.--"Our research indicates that highlighting abundance -- presenting abundant rather than scarce supply of the available items, for example -- could backfire, leading the designers or consumers in a focus group to be less creative. That finding suggests that marketers should activate a general sense of scarcity rather than abundance."--The long-term implications of favoring abundance over creativity are even more pronounced.--"Findings from other research indicate that as we become a more abundant society, our aggregate average creativity levels decrease," Mehta said. -According to the paper, a prior analysis of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking performance data over the past five decades indicated that, in spite of the rise in IQ scores, creative thinking scores have significantly decreased since 1990, especially for kindergarteners through third-grade students.-"Once we become used to not being creative -- to being merely passive consumers -- it seems that the creativity muscle begins to atrophy, which does not bode well for future generations," Mehta said. "It also doesn't bode well for the present, because we need every ounce of creativity that we have to tackle our problems."-Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The original item was written by Phil Ciciora. -Journal Reference-Ravi Mehta, Meng Zhu. Creating When You Have Less: The Impact of Resource Scarcity on Product Use Creativity. Journal of Consumer Research, 2015; ucv051 DOI: 10.1093/jcr/ucv051 --University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. "Scarcity, not abundance, enhances consumer creativity, study says." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 November 2015. <>.



MIT Chemists Create New Adaptable Metallic-Cage Gels

By combining the flexibility of polymer gels with the rigid structure provided by metal-based clusters, chemists from MIT have created a new material that could be well-suited for a range of possible functions, including drug release, gas storage, or water filtration.

These new gels, known as polyMOCs, are a hybrid of two materials called metallogels and metal organic cages. Metallogels, which consist of metals bound to polymer chains, are similar to regular polymer gels in that they are soft and viscoelastic. Metal organic cages (MOCs), on the other hand, have a rigid structure and tend to form crystalline materials.--“One can imagine a class of materials that borrows from both of those, and so has the well-defined, self-assembled structures of the MOCs, but also has the viscoelastic properties of a polymer gel. That’s what we’ve tried to make,” says Jeremiah Johnson, the Roger and Georges Firmenich Assistant Professor of Natural Product Chemistry and the senior author of a paper describing the gels in Nature Chemistry.--The paper’s lead author is Aleksandr Zhukhovitskiy, a graduate student in MIT’s Department of Chemistry.

Self-assembly---To create these gels, Johnson and colleagues built on a technique known as metallo-supramolecular assembly. This strategy allows chemists to generate three-dimensional shapes, such as spheres, paddlewheels, or pyramids, by mixing polymers that are attached to molecules called ligands. These ligands are organic compounds that can bind to a metal atom.[F2] --In this case, the researchers used a ligand containing two pyridine groups that each can bind to the metal palladium. Each atom of palladium can form bonds with four other ligand molecules, creating a rigid, cage-like structure with 12 palladium centers and 24 ligands. These centers then connect with other metallic cages by flexible polymer linkers, forming a large, self-assembled gel.[F3] ---While each metal cage can have up to 24 polymer chains attached to it, only four or five of those connect to other metal cages. These extra, unattached chains loop back and attach to their own metal cage. These loops are commonly referred to as “defects,” but the MIT team saw them as an opportunity to enhance the material by replacing some of the ligands on those chains with new functional molecules.--“We can take the ligands that aren’t connected to another cage and swap those out, while keeping the same net number of chains connecting junctions,” Johnson says. “This allows us to make completely different materials in terms of their composition, but they can have the same mechanical properties.”--By using these clusters of metallic organic cages, they’ve been able to increase the functionality, and this gives the materials very different properties and mechanical behavior[F4] ,” says Stuart Rowan, a professor of macromolecular science and engineering at Case Western Reserve University who was not involved in the work. “It’s very elegant, fundamental science that opens the door to a whole range of directions.”-In this study, the researchers added a fluorescent molecule called pyrene in place of some of the looped ligands. “When we look at this material under a UV light it’s fluorescent, but mechanically it’s identical to a material without the pyrene ligand. The modulus is the same, the swelling behavior is the same, but now this gel is intensely fluorescent,” Johnson says.

Many possible functions--This technique is general enough that the researchers should be able to add many other types of molecules with different functions[F5] , Johnson says. Such gels could be used for drug delivery by designing them to store drug molecules within the metal cages. They could also be used for storing gases such as hydrogen, which would be useful in cars that run on fuel cells. By adding ligands that can grab and isolate heavy metals, these gels could also be adapted for water purification[F6] .--“You could imagine attaching all kinds of things onto those extra ligands to adapt the material for applications of interest,” Johnson says. “Currently we’re working on making ligands that can not only put something outside of the cage, but also inside the cage, so we could do controlled uptake or release of molecules from the inside of these cages.”--The researchers are also experimenting with creating similar gels with different cage shapes, and developing materials that use metals other than palladium. These metals, including zinc, iron, and titanium, are cheaper and potentially less toxic than palladium.[F7] --Publication: Aleksandr V. Zhukhovitskiy, et al., “Highly branched and loop-rich gels via formation of metal–organic cages linked by polymers,” Nature Chemistry, 2015; doi:10.1038/nchem.2390


Upgrading synthetic biology's toolkit- New method could enable reprogramming of mammalian cells

Through the assembly of genetic components into "circuits" that perform logical operations in living cells, synthetic biologists aim to artificially empower cells to solve critical problems in medicine, energy and the environment. To succeed, however, they'll need far more reliable genetic components than the small number of "off-the-shelf" bacterial parts now available.--Now a new method developed by Assistant Professor Ahmad S. Khalil (BME), Professor James J. Collins (BME, MSE, SE) and collaborators at Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts General Hospital and MIT could significantly increase the number of genetic components in synthetic biologists' toolkit and, as a result, the size and complexity of the genetic circuits they can build. The development could dramatically enhance their efforts not only to understand how biological organisms behave and develop, but also to reprogram them for a variety of practical applications.--Described in the August 2 online edition of Cell, the method offers a new paradigm for constructing and analyzing genetic circuits in eukaryotes -- or organisms whose cells contain nuclei, which include everything from yeasts to humans. Instead of constructing these circuits with off-the-shelf parts from bacteria and porting them into eukaryotes, as most synthetic biologists do, Khalil and his collaborators have engineered these circuits using modular, functional parts from the eukaryotes [F8] themselves.--With funding from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and other sources, the research team built their synthetic genetic circuit parts from a class of proteins, known as zinc fingers, which can be programmed to bind desired DNA sequences. The modularity of the new parts enables a wide range of functions to be engineered, the construction of much larger and more complex genetic circuits than what's now possible with bacteria-based parts, and ultimately, the development of much more powerful applications.-"Our research may lead to therapeutic applications, such as the dynamic modification and control of genes and genetic networks that are important in human disease," said Khalil. Potential medical applications include stem cell therapeutics for a wide variety of injuries and diseases and in-cell devices and circuits for diagnosing early stages of cancer and other diseases. The new method may also equip groups of cells to perform higher-order computational tasks for processing signals in the environment in sensing applications."--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Boston University College of Engineering. The original item was written by Mark Dwortzan. -Journal Reference-Ahmad S. Khalil, Timothy K. Lu, Caleb J. Bashor, Cherie L. Ramirez, Nora C. Pyenson, J. Keith Joung, James J. Collins. A Synthetic Biology Framework for Programming Eukaryotic Transcription Functions. Cell, 2012; 150 (3): 647 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2012.05.045 -Boston University College of Engineering. "Upgrading synthetic biology's toolkit: New method could enable reprogramming of mammalian cells." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 August 2012. <>.


Navy researchers recruit luminescent nanoparticles to image brain function

Research biologists, chemists and theoreticians at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), are on pace to develop the next generation of functional materials that could enable the mapping of the complex neural connections in the brain. The ultimate goal is to better understand how the billions of neurons in the brain communicate with one another during normal brain function, or dysfunction, as result of injury or disease.--"There is tremendous interest in mapping all the neuron connections in the human brain," said Dr. James Delehanty, research biologist, Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering. "To do that we need new tools or materials that allow us to see how large groups of neurons communicate with one another while, at the same time, being able to focus in on a single neuron's activity. Our most recent work potentially opens the integration of voltage-sensitive nanomaterials into live cells and tissues in a variety of configurations to achieve real-time imaging capabilities not currently possible."--The basis of neuron communication is the time-dependent modulation of the strength of the electric field that is maintained across the cell's plasma membrane. This is called an action potential. Among the nanomaterials under consideration for application in neuronal action potential imaging are quantum dots (QDs) -- crystalline semiconductor nanomaterials [F9] possessing a number of advantageous photophysical attributes.-"QDs are very bright and photostable so you can look at them for long times and they allow for tissue imaging configurations [F10] that are not compatible with current materials, for example, organic dyes," Delehanty added. "Equally important, we've shown here that QD brightness tracks, with very high fidelity, the time-resolved electric field strength changes that occur when a neuron undergoes an action potential. Their nanoscale size make them ideal nanoscale voltage sensing materials for interfacing with neurons and other electrically active cells for voltage sensing."--QDs are small, bright, photo-stable materials that possess nanosecond fluorescence lifetimes. They can be localized within or on cellular plasma membranes and have low cytotoxicity when interfaced with experimental brain system[F11] s. Additionally, QDs possess two-photon action cross-section orders of magnitude larger than organic dyes or fluorescent proteins. Two-photon imaging is the preferred imaging modality for imaging deep (millimeters) into the brain and other tissues of the body.--In their most recent work, the NRL researchers showed that an electric field typical of those found in neuronal membranes results in suppression of the QD photoluminescence (PL) and, for the first time, that QD PL is able to track the action potential profile of a firing neuron with millisecond time resolution. This effect is shown to be connected with electric-field-driven QD ionization and consequent QD PL quenching, in contradiction with conventional wisdom that suppression of the QD PL is attributable to the quantum confined Stark effect -- the shifting and splitting of spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to presence of an external electric field.

  • "The inherent superior photostability properties of QDs coupled with their voltage sensitivity could prove advantageous to long-term imaging capabilities that are not currently attainable using traditional organic voltage sensitive dyes," Delehanty said. "We anticipate that continued research will facilitate the rational design and synthesis of voltage-sensitive QD probes that can be integrated in a variety of imaging configurations for the robust functional imaging and sensing of electrically active cells."--Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Naval Research Laboratory--Journal Reference-Clare E. Rowland, Kimihiro Susumu, Michael H. Stewart, Eunkeu Oh, Antti J. Mäkinen, Thomas J. O’Shaughnessy, Gary Kushto, Mason A. Wolak, Jeffrey S. Erickson, Alexander L. Efros, Alan L. Huston, James B. Delehanty. Electric Field Modulation of Semiconductor Quantum Dot Photoluminescence: Insights Into the Design of Robust Voltage-Sensitive Cellular Imaging Probes. Nano Letters, 2015; 15 (10): 6848 DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b02725 --Naval Research Laboratory. "Navy researchers recruit luminescent nanoparticles to image brain function." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 November 2015. <>.


Study provides strongest evidence yet of a link between breakfast quality and educational outcomes

New study of 5,000 9- to 11-year-olds demonstrates significant positive associations between breakfast consumption, educational outcomes--A direct and positive link between pupils' breakfast quality and consumption, and their educational attainment, has for the first time been demonstrated in a ground-breaking new study carried out by public health experts at Cardiff University.-- The study of 5000 9-11 year-olds from more than 100 primary schools sought to examine the link between breakfast consumption and quality and subsequent attainment in Key Stage 2 Teacher Assessments 6-18 months later. The study -- thought to be the largest to date looking at longitudinal effects on standardised school performance -- found that children who ate breakfast, and who ate a better quality breakfast, achieved higher academic outcomes.--The research found that the odds of achieving an above average educational performance were up to twice as high for pupils who ate breakfast, compared with those who did not.--Eating unhealthy items like sweets and crisps for breakfast, which was reported by 1 in 5 children, had no positive impact on educational attainment.--Pupils were asked to list all food and drink consumed over a period of just over 24 hours (including two breakfasts), noting what they consumed at specific times throughout the previous day and for breakfast on the day of reporting.-Alongside number of healthy breakfast items consumed for breakfast, other dietary behaviours -- including number of sweets and crisps and fruit and vegetable portions consumed throughout the rest of the day -- were all significantly and positively associated with educational performance.-Social scientists say the research, published in the Public Health Nutrition journal, offers the strongest evidence yet of a meaningful link between dietary behaviours and concrete measures of academic attainment.- Hannah Littlecott from Cardiff University's Centre for the Development and Evaluation of Complex Interventions for Public Health Improvement (DECIPher), lead author of the study, said: "While breakfast consumption has been consistently associated with general health outcomes and acute measures of concentration and cognitive function, evidence regarding links to concrete educational outcomes has until now been unclear.-"This study therefore offers the strongest evidence yet of links between aspects of what pupils eat and how well they do at school, which has significant implications for education and public health policy -- pertinent in light of rumours that free school meals may be scrapped following George Osborne's November spending review. - For schools, dedicating time and resource towards improving child health can be seen as an unwelcome diversion from their core business of educating pupils, in part due to pressures that place the focus on solely driving up educational attainment.--"But this resistance to delivery of health improvement interventions overlooks the clear synergy between health and education. Clearly, embedding health improvements into the core business of the school might also deliver educational improvements as well."--Professor Chris Bonell, Professor of Sociology and Social Policy at the University College London Institute of Education, welcomed the study's findings. He said: "This study adds to a growing body of international evidence indicating that investing resources in effective interventions to improve young people's health is also likely to improve their educational performance. This further emphasises the need for schools to focus on the health and education of their pupils as complementary, rather than as competing priorities. Many schools throughout the UK now offer their pupils a breakfast. Ensuring that those young people most in need benefit from these schemes may represent an important mechanism for boosting the educational performance of young people throughout the UK."- Dr Graham Moore, who also co-authored the report, added: "Most primary schools in Wales are now able to offer a free school breakfast, funded by Welsh Government. Our earlier papers from the trial of this scheme showed that it was effective in improving the quality of children's breakfasts, although there is less clear evidence of its role in reducing breakfast skipping.--"Linking our data to real world educational performance data has allowed us to provide robust evidence of a link between eating breakfast and doing well at school. There is therefore good reason to believe that where schools are able to find ways of encouraging those young people who don't eat breakfast at home to eat a school breakfast, they will reap significant educational benefits."-Dr Julie Bishop, Director of Health Improvement at Public Health Wales also welcomed the findings. She said: "Public Health Wales welcomes this important work. It increases our understanding of the link between health, in this case what we eat, and educational outcomes. We need to understand more about how eating breakfast helps to improve educational outcomes but this work will certainly support the case for schools to consider measures to improve diet for children -- to benefit not just their immediate health but also their achievement."-- Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Cardiff University.Journal Reference-Hannah J Littlecott, Graham F Moore, Laurence Moore, Ronan A Lyons, Simon Murphy. Association between breakfast consumption and educational outcomes in 9–11-year-old children. Public Health Nutrition, 2015; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S1368980015002669 --Cardiff University. "Study provides strongest evidence yet of a link between breakfast quality and educational outcomes: New study of 5,000 9- to 11-year-olds demonstrates significant positive associations between breakfast consumption, educational outcomes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 November 2015. <>.




 [F1]This is true in almost anything if you are going to change then whatever abundance you have that is making you comfortable will keep you stuck in that rut~ it never fails when there is a  change for something perceived as negative then you will see the changes but as long as there is room not to change then nothing happens

 [F2]Binding agents to the nanometals so when they are activated they can use this as a base of self replication and assembly to do what ever the frequency or the program instructs

 [F3]self-assembled gel.

 [F4]Incredible programming a nano gel and nano clusters to “ Behave” and “Function” this is basically a program and a directive

 [F5]This is basically creating a interaction between components that would not normally occur ~ and what this can also lead to is an adapting or incorporating of  other agents including biological to potentially create things that would not normally be ~ an example attaching a bacterium with a Viral~ under the norm they are antagonistic but in this situation this would be made normal where 2 antagonist  which would normally conflict are now in concert or working together~ a bio agent that would have a dual attack on a host which would be totally incapable of recognizing this and could be overwhelmed

 [F6]Interesting a ligand would be able to attract a nanoparticle if it were charged and given a directive

 [F7]This is worded in such a way to mislead anyone who reads this and gives a false sense of safe ~ when you are dealing with any nano component when it come to any metal they are all dangerious due to there size and density and there  volume of penetration~ so none of these metals are safe in nano and in fact some disable key elements to the body such as titanium can cause testicular cancer due to the fact on how it penetrates the sack bypassing the blood barrier of the sack and attaching itself to the seminal fluids

 [F8]an organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct nucleus. Eukaryotes include all living organisms other than the eubacteria and archaea

 [F9]See information on Quantum Dots On Main Page on

 [F10]We have those in us now and are being use or utilized as a monitoring program

 [F11]Maybe I am off the mark here but this is assuming brains and cells are a non entity or a automaton or something that is just a machine~ when reading this everyone should be alarmed and angry here ~ this is  putting into the brain a cluster of  crystalline material that will be able to integrate with the body on a cellular level and smaller where it can read the current flow from the cells and ow cytotoxicity doe not equate to safe –it just means it is dangerious but could be worse





Show of the Month November 28 2015

Quantum Entanglement

New catalyst improves efficiency of drug, pesticide production

Tiny robots inspired by pine cones

Kenya Doctors Find Anti-fertility Agent in UN Vaccines- Vaccine carrying anti fertility

Electric fields remove nanoparticles from blood with ease

List of Essential Oils and some Applications



Quantum Entanglement

A newly published study from the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory demonstrates how macroscopic entanglement can be generated at room temperature and in a small magnetic field.--Entanglement is one of the strangest phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics, the theory that underlies most of modern physics: It says that two particles can be so inextricably connected that the state of one particle can instantly influence the state of the other—no matter how far apart they are[F1] .--A century ago, entanglement was at the center of intense theoretical debate, leaving scientists like Albert Einstein baffled. Today, entanglement is accepted as a fact of nature and is actively being explored as a resource for future technologies including quantum computers, quantum[F2]  communication networks and high-precision quantum sensors.-- Entanglement is also one of nature’s most elusive phenomena. Producing entanglement between particles requires that they start out in a highly ordered state, which is disfavored by thermodynamics, the process that governs the interactions between heat and other forms of energy. This poses a particularly formidable challenge when trying to realize entanglement at the macroscopic scale, among huge numbers of particles.[F3] “The macroscopic world that we are used to seems very tidy, but it is completely disordered at the atomic scale. The laws of thermodynamics generally prevent us from observing quantum phenomena in macroscopic objects,” said Paul Klimov, a graduate student in the Institute for Molecular Engineering and lead author of new research on quantum entanglement. The institute is a partnership between UChicago and Argonne National Laboratory.---Previously, scientists have overcome the thermodynamic barrier and achieved macroscopic entanglement in solids and liquids by going to ultra-low temperatures (-270 degrees Celsius) and applying huge magnetic fields (1,000 times larger than that of a typical refrigerator magnet) or using chemical reactions. In the November 20 issue of Science Advances, Klimov and other researchers in Prof. David Awschalom’s group at the Institute for Molecular Engineering have demonstrated that macroscopic entanglement can be generated at room temperature and in a small magnetic field.[F4] --The researchers used infrared laser light to order (preferentially align) the magnetic states of thousands of electrons and nuclei and then electromagnetic pulses, similar to those used for conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to entangle them. This procedure caused pairs of electrons and nuclei in a macroscopic 40 micrometer-cubed volume (the volume of a red blood cell) of the semiconductor SiC to become entangled.--“We know that the spin states of atomic nuclei associated with semiconductor defects have excellent quantum properties at room temperature,” said Awschalom, the Liew Family Professor in Molecular Engineering and a senior scientist at Argonne. “They are coherent, long-lived and controllable with photonics and electronics. Given these quantum ‘pieces,’ creating entangled quantum states seemed like an attainable goal.”

In addition to being of fundamental physical interest, “the ability to produce robust entangled states in an electronic-grade semiconductor at ambient conditions [F5] has important implications on future quantum devices,” Awschalom said.--In the short term, the techniques used here in combination with sophisticated devices enabled by advanced SiC device-fabrication protocols could enable quantum sensors that use entanglement as a resource for beating the sensitivity limit of traditional (non-quantum) sensors. Given that the entanglement works at ambient conditions and that SiC is bio-friendly, biological sensing inside a living organism is one particularly exciting application.[F6] --“We are excited about entanglement-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging probes, which could have important biomedical applications,” said Abram Falk of IBM’s Thomas J. Watson Research Center and a co-author of the research findings.--In the long term, it might even be possible to go from entangled states on the same SiC chip to entangled states across distant SiC chips. Such efforts could be facilitated by physical phenomena that allow macroscopic quantum states, as opposed to single quantum states (in single atoms), to interact very strongly with one another, which is important for producing entanglement with a high success rate.[F7]  Such long-distance entangled states have been proposed for synchronizing global positioning satellites and for communicating information in a manner that is fundamentally secured from eavesdroppers by the laws of physics.--Publication: Paul V. Klimov, et al., “Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble,” Science Advances, 20 Nov 2015: Vol. 1, no. 10, e1501015; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501015--Source: Steve Koppes, University of Chicago


New catalyst improves efficiency of drug, pesticide production

Scientists at the Universitat Politècnica de València (Polytechnic University of Valencia, UPV) and the University of Bucharest have developed a new catalyst material, graphene containing oriented metal nanoparticles, for organic reactions in the manufacture of drugs and pesticides. Aside from the material itself, the work's main contribution lies in the single-step process by which it is obtained.--"Joining these two components [the graphene and the metal nanoparticles] while simultaneously getting the nanoparticles to orient themselves correctly is a big step, and has a direct impact on the efficiency and functionality of the resulting material as a catalyst. Compared to the soluble metal compounds currently in use, this new catalyst is between a hundred thousand and a million times more active," explains Hermenegildo García, researcher at the Instituto de Tecnología Química (Chemical Technology Institute), a joint research centre run by UPV and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (Science National Research Council, CSIC).--To understand the importance of the properties of this new material, Hermenegildo García offers an analogy for the single-step production process they have developed: it is like "being able to lay the streets and the buildings of a city in the correct layout all at the same time. The new material is conducive to the coupling reactions that give us the drug and pesticide compounds, allowing bonds to be made easily and efficiently." The reason for this lies in the optimal arrangement of the nano-sized particles.[F1] --The process for obtaining the graphene film with oriented nanoparticles begins with the purification of the raw material: seaweeds and shrimp shells. The natural biopolymers are then impregnated with metal ions and arranged like a film on a quartz surface, and the system is heated to high temperatures of around 1200 degrees. Under these conditions, the biopolymers are turned into graphene, while the metals generate the nanoparticles that are deposited on the graphene film.--[F2] "Continuing with the analogy from before, the graphene would be the streets, which are laid first, and then the metal nanoparticles or buildings are arranged on top of them in a process which encourages their optimal orientation. This is what makes the resulting material more efficient," concludes García. The full results can be found in the international team's recent paper published in Nature Communications.-Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Asociación RUVID. Journal Reference-Ana Primo, Ivan Esteve-Adell, Juan F. Blandez, Amarajothi Dhakshinamoorthy, Mercedes Álvaro, Natalia Candu, Simona M. Coman, Vasile I. Parvulescu, Hermenegildo García. High catalytic activity of oriented 2.0.0 copper(I) oxide grown on graphene film. Nature Communications, 2015; 8561 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9561


Tiny robots inspired by pine cones

Most efforts to develop bio-inspired robots center on mimicking the motions of animals: but plants move too -- even if most of their motions are so slow they can't be detected by the naked eye.--The mechanism involved in plant movement is much simpler than that of animals using muscles. To generate motion, plants and some seeds -- such as mimosa leaves, Venus flytraps and pine cones -- simply harness the supply or deprival of water from plant tissues.--The future of bio-inspired engineering or robotics will greatly benefit from lessons learned from plants, according to a group of Seoul National University researchers. During the American Physical Society's 68th Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, Nov. 22-24, 2015, in Boston, they will share details about how studying plants enabled them to create tiny robots powered exclusively by changes in humidity. The pure simplicity of the manner by which pine cones and seeds respond to changes in environmental humidity with motion is at the heart of the group's work.--"Some seeds consist of a head that contains all its genetic information, along with a long appendage called an 'awn' that is responsible for locomotion -- just like an animal's sperm," explained Ho-Young Kim, a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at Seoul National University. "Awns are composed of two tissue layers: one that swells with humidity (active), and another that's insensitive to humidity change (inactive)."--If environmental humidity increases, the bilayer bends from changes in length-wise swelling. Periodic humidity changes cause the bilayer to bend and unbend repeatedly -- meaning that changes in environmental humidity can be converted to mechanical work.--[F1]  "We mimicked the bilayer structure to make an actuator that can generate motions by using environmental humidity change," Kim said. "Plants move slowly -- one cycle of bending and unbending can take an entire day. To increase the response speed of the bilayer, we had to develop a novel way to fabricate the active layer. Its response speed increases with the surface-area-to-volume ratio of the layer because humidity can be absorbed more rapidly, so we deposited active nanoscale fibers onto an inactive layer."--While a key step in creating a robot, repeated bending and unbending produces no net locomotion. "This cyclic motion must be converted into directional motion to create a robot that moves," he said. "So we attached legs to our actuator, which allows only one-directional locomotion.[F2]  We call the legs 'ratchets' and combined them with an actuator to build our bio-inspired robot."--The group's work is significant because it opens the door for tiny robots capable of locomotion based solely upon changes in environmental humidity -- no electrical power supplies are involved[F3] . Just imagine: robots functioning in the field where no electricity is available because they operate based on changes in humidity levels in the same manner as seeds.--Sounds too easy, right? "Making a bilayer for the robots isn't difficult, but making a fast one requires technical expertise," said Kim. The group has also developed a mathematical model to find the optimum design for the robot to achieve the fastest speed for any given robot size.--One of the reasons why the group envisions a bright future for humidity-change-powered microrobots is because humidity changes are all around us.--"Generally, it tends to be drier during the day and more humid at night -- the periodic humidity change cycle that enables seeds to bury themselves in the ground," said Kim. "Humidity changes occur even when we breathe, because humid air is exhaled."[F4] Importantly for the group's future plans, human skin is more humid than the atmosphere. "This is the main humidity gradient that we want to tap into," he pointed out. The team is exploring the possibility of placing a tiny robot directly on human skin -- one that bends because it's humid near skin.--"The concept is that by bending, some part of the robot will move away from the skin to encounter dry atmospheric air. When it dries, the robot will return to an upright position near the skin,"[F5]  he said. Then the cycle begins again, and the robot continues to move based on changes in the skin's humidity.--Moving forward, the group's goal is to develop these futuristic-sounding medical robots capable of functioning on human skin. Thanks to bio-inspiration from plants, "such a robot could do jobs like disinfecting wounds, removing skin wrinkles, and nourishing skin tissues," Kim added.[F6] --Presentation #A25.9, "Moisture-driven actuators inspired by motility of plants," is authored by Beomjune Shin, Minhee Lee and Ho-Young Kim. It will be at 9:44 a.m. on Sunday, Nov. 22, 2015 in Room 304 of the Hynes Convention Center in Boston. ABSTRACT: Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics. -American Physical Society's Division of Fluid Dynamics. "Tiny robots inspired by pine cones." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 November 2015. <>.


Kenya Doctors Find Anti-fertility Agent in UN Vaccines- Vaccine carrying anti fertility

The Kenya Catholic Doctors Association had six tetanus vaccinations from around Kenya tested, and 100% of them tested positive for the HCG antigen.

The Kenya Catholic Doctors Association is charging UNICEF and WHO with sterilizing millions of girls and women under cover of an anti-tetanus vaccination program sponsored by the Kenyan government.--While the government claims the tetanus vaccine is perfectly safe, the Kenya Catholic Doctors Association disagrees.-According to LifeSiteNews, a Catholic organization, the Association had six different samples of the vaccine from various locations around Kenya tested in an independent laboratory in South Africa.--What they found is disturbing: All six samples tested positive for the HCG antigen which is commonly used in anti-fertility vaccines.  The HCG antigen was found in tetanus vaccines targeted to young girls and women of childbearing age.--Said Dr. Ngare, a spokesman for the Kenya Catholic Doctors Association:

“This proved right our worst fears; that this WHO campaign is not about eradicating neonatal tetanus but a well-coordinated forceful population control mass sterilization exercise using a proven fertility regulating vaccine.  This evidence was presented to the Ministry of Health before the third round of immunization but was ignored.”-Dr. Ngare listed a number of concerns to do with the mass tetanus vaccination program in Kenya that caused Catholic doctors to become suspicious-Dr. Ngare told LifeSiteNews that several things alerted doctors in the Church’s far-flung medical system of 54 hospitals, 83 health centres, and 17 medical and nursing schools to the possibility the anti-tetanus campaign was secretly an anti-fertility campaign.-Why, they ask does it involve an unprecedented five shots (or “jabs” as they are known, in Kenya) over more than two years and why is it applied only to women of childbearing years, and why is it being conducted without the usual fanfare of government publicity?--“Usually we give a series three shots over two to three years, we give it anyone who comes into the clinic with an open wound, men, women or children.” said Dr. Ngare.

But it is the five vaccination regime that is most alarming.  “The only time tetanus vaccine has been given in five doses is when it is used as a carrier in fertility regulating vaccines laced with the pregnancy hormone, Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) developed by WHO in 1992.” (Source.)--It is important to note that there is no financial incentive for the Kenyan government to participate in the vaccination programs, for UNICEF and WHO distribute the vaccines for free.--“When funds from the UN are not enough to purchase yearly allotments of vaccines, an organization started and funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, GAVI, provides extra funding for many of these vaccination programs in poor countries,” reports HealthImpactNews. --When disasters happen in poorer countries, UNICEF is one of the first relief organizations to begin mass vaccination programs.--Interestingly, there was no tetanus outbreak in Kenya – yet.  The only perceived “threat” of tetanus was due to local flood conditions.--Like flu shot vaccines, there is a lot of debate on the necessity and safety of vaccinations. -The findings by the Kenyan doctors, however, is certainly worth considering.


Electric fields remove nanoparticles from blood with ease

November 23, 2015 in Nanotechnology / Bio & Medicine


An artist's representation of the nanoparticle removal chip developed by researchers in Professor Michael Heller's lab at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering. An oscillating electric field (purple arcs) separates drug-delivery nanoparticles (yellow spheres) from blood (red spheres) and pulls them towards rings surrounding the chip's electrodes. The image is featured as the inside cover of the Oct. 14 issue of the journal

Engineers at the University of California, San Diego developed a new technology that uses an oscillating electric field to easily and quickly isolate drug-delivery nanoparticles from blood. The technology could serve as a general tool to separate and recover nanoparticles from other complex fluids for medical, environmental, and industrial applications. --Nanoparticles, which are generally one thousand times smaller than the width of a human hair, are difficult to separate from plasma, the liquid component of blood, due to their small size and low density. Traditional methods to remove nanoparticles from plasma samples typically involve diluting the plasma, adding a high concentration sugar solution to the plasma and spinning it in a centrifuge, or attaching a targeting agent to the surface of the nanoparticles[F1] . These methods either alter the normal behavior of the nanoparticles or cannot be applied to some of the most common nanoparticle types.--"This is the first example of isolating a wide range of nanoparticles out of plasma with a minimum amount of manipulation," said Stuart Ibsen, a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of NanoEngineering at UC San Diego and first author of the study published October in the journal Small. "We've designed a very versatile technique that can be used to recover nanoparticles in a lot of different processes."

This new nanoparticle separation technology will enable researchers—particularly those who design and study drug-delivery nanoparticles for disease therapies—to better monitor what happens to nanoparticles circulating in a patient's bloodstream[F2] . One of the questions that researchers face is how blood proteins bind to the surfaces of drug-delivery nanoparticles and make them less effective. Researchers could also use this technology in the clinic to determine if the blood chemistry of a particular patient is compatible with the surfaces of certain drug-delivery nanoparticles.-"We were interested in a fast and easy way to take these nanoparticles out of plasma so we could find out what's going on at their surfaces and redesign them to work more effectively in blood," said Michael Heller, a nanoengineering professor at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and senior author of the study.--Nanoparticle removal chip

 next to a dime for comparison. Credit: Jacobs School of Engineering/UC San Diego  

The device used to isolate the drug-delivery nanoparticles was a dime-sized electric chip manufactured by La Jolla-based Biological Dynamics, which licensed the original technology from UC San Diego. The chip contains hundreds of tiny electrodes that generate a rapidly oscillating electric field that selectively pulls the nanoparticles out of a plasma sample. Researchers inserted a drop of plasma spiked with nanoparticles into the electric chip and demonstrated nanoparticle recovery within 7 minutes[F3] . The technology worked on different types of drug-delivery nanoparticles that are typically studied in various labs.

The breakthrough in the technology relies on designing a chip that can work in the high salt concentration of blood plasma. The chip's ability to pull the nanoparticles out of plasma is based on differences in the material properties between the nanoparticles and plasma components. When the chip's electrodes apply an oscillating electric field, the positive and negative charges inside the nanoparticles reorient themselves at a different speed than the charges in the surrounding plasma. This momentary imbalance in the charges creates an attractive force between the nanoparticles and the electrodes. As the electric field oscillates, the nanoparticles are continually pulled towards the electrodes, leaving the rest of the plasma behind. Also, the electric field is designed to oscillate at just the right frequency: 15,000 times per second.

"It's amazing that this method works without any modifications to the plasma samples or to the nanoparticles," said Ibsen.

Experimental setup of the chip. Credit: Jacobs School of Engineering/UC San Diego

More information: "Recovery of Drug Delivery Nanoparticles from Human Plasma Using an Electrokinetic Platform Technology," by Stuart Ibsen, Avery Sonnenberg, Carolyn Schutt, Rajesh Mukthavaram, Yasan Yeh, Inanc Ortac, Sareh Manouchehri, Santosh Kesari, Sadik Esener, and Michael J. Heller. The paper was published in the Oct. 14, 2015 issue of the journal Small. ----------Provided by University of California - San Diego


List of Essential Oils and some Applications

Essential oils are volatile and liquid aroma compounds from natural sources, usually plants. Essential oils are not oils in a strict sense, but often share with oils a poor solubility in water. Essential oils often have an odor and are therefore used in food flavoring and perfumery. Essential oils are usually prepared by fragrance extraction techniques (such as distillation, pressing, or maceration). Essential oils are distinguished from aroma oils (essential oils and aroma compounds in an oily solvent), infusions in a vegetable oil, absolutes, and concretes. Typically, essential oils are highly complex mixtures of often hundreds of individual aroma compounds.



Many essential biological chemicals are chelates. Chelates play important roles in oxygen transport and in photosynthesis. Furthermore, many biological catalysts (enzymes) are chelates. In addition to their significance in living organisms, chelates are also economically important, both as products in themselves and as agents in the production of other chemicals.

A chelate is a chemical compound composed of a metal ion and a chelating agent. A chelating agent is a substance whose molecules can form several bonds to a single metal ion. In other words, a chelating agent is a multidentate ligand. An example of a simple chelating agent is ethylenediamine.


A single molecule of ethylenediamine can form two bonds to a transition-metal ion such as nickel(II), Ni2+. The bonds form between the metal ion and the nitrogen atoms of ethylenediamine. The nickel(II) ion can form six such bonds, so a maximum of three ethylenediamine molecules can be attached to one Ni2+ ion.



chelate with one
ethylenediamine ligand


chelate with two
ethylenediamine ligands


chelate with three
ethylenediamine ligands

In the two structures on the left, the bonding capacity of the Ni2+ ion is completed by water molecules. Each water molecule forms only one bond to Ni2+, so water is not a chelating agent. Because the chelating agent is attached to the metal ion by several bonds, chelates tend to be more stable than complexes formed with monodentate ligands such as water.

Porphine is a chelating agent similar to ethylenediamine in that it forms bonds to a metal ion through nitrogen atoms. Each of the four nitrogen atoms in the center of the molecule can form a bond to a metal ion. Porphine is the simplest of a group of chelating agents called porphyrins. Porphyrins have a structure derived from porphine by replacing some of the hydrogen atoms around the outside with other groups of atoms.







One important porphyrin chelate is heme, the central component of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen through the blood from the lungs to the tissues. Heme contains a porphyrin chelating agent bonded to an iron(II) ion. Iron, like nickel, can form six bonds. Four of these bonds tie it to the porphyrin. One of iron's two remaining bonds holds an oxygen molecule as it is transported through the blood. Chlorophyll is another porphyrin chelate. In chlorophyll, the metal at the center of the chelate is a magnesium ion. Chlorophyll, which is responsible for the green color of plant leaves, absorbs the light energy that is converted to chemical energy in the process of photosynthesis.

Another biologically significant chelate is vitamin B-12. It is the only vitamin that contains a metal, a cobalt(II) ion bonded to a porphyrin-like chelating agent. As far as is known, it is required in the diet of all higher animals. It is not synthesized by either higher plants or animals, but only by certain bacteria and molds. These are the sources of the B-12 found in animal products. Because vitamin B-12 is not found in higher plants, vegetarians must take care to include in their diets foods or supplements that contain the vitamin.

A chelating agent of particular economic significance is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).


ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)

EDTA is a versatile chelating agent. It can form four or six bonds with a metal ion, and it forms chelates with both transition-metal ions and main-group ions. EDTA is frequently used in soaps and detergents, because it forms a complexes with calcium and magnesium ions. These ions are in hard water and interfere with the cleaning action of soaps and detergents. The EDTA binds to them, sequestering them and preventing their interference. In the calcium complex, [Ca(EDTA)]2–, EDTA is a tetradentate ligand, and chelation involves the two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms in separate carboxyl (-COO) groups. EDTA is also used extensively as a stabilizing agent in the food industry. Food spoilage is often promoted by naturally-occurring enzymes that contain transition-metal ions. These enzymes catalyze the chemical reactions that occur during spoilage. EDTA deactivates these enzymes by removing the metal ions from them and forming stable chelates with them. It promotes color retention in dried bananas, beans, chick peas, canned clams, pecan pie filling, frozen potatoes, and canned shrimp. It improves flavor retention in canned carbonated beverages, salad dressings, mayonnaise, margarine, and sauces. It inhibits rancidity in salad dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, and sandwich spreads. EDTA salts are used in foods at levels ranging from 33 to 800 ppm.

In other applications, EDTA dissolves the CaCO3 scale deposited from hard water without the use of corrosive acid. EDTA is used in the separation of the rare earth elements from each other. The rare earth elements have very similar chemical properties, but the stability of their EDTA complexes varies slightly. This slight variation allows EDTA to effectively separate rare-earth ions. EDTA is used as an anticoagulant for stored blood in blood banks; it prevents coagulation by sequestering the calcium ions required for clotting. As an antidote for lead poisoning, calcium disodium EDTA exchanges its chelated calcium for lead, and the resulting lead chelate is rapidly excreted in the urine. The calcium salt of EDTA, administered intravenously, is also used in the treatment of acute cadmium and iron poisoning.


Dimercaprol (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is an effective chelating agent for heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, antimony, and gold. These heavy metals form particularly strong bonds to the sulfur atoms in dimercaprol.


Dimercaprol was originally employed to treat the toxic effects of an arsenic-containing mustard gas called Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine], which was used in World War I. The chelated metal cannot enter living cells and is rapidly excreted from the body. Since dimercaprol is water insoluble, it is dissolved in an oil base (often peanut oil) and injected intramuscularly.--Chelator Di mercaprol ( British antiLewisite ; BAL ) Used in acute arsenic poisoning acute mercury poisoning lead poisoning (in addition to EDTA)


(DMSA) mercury poisoning

Di mercapto -propane sulfonate severe acute arsenic poisoning

(DMPS) severe acute mercury poisoning Mainly in: copper toxicity Occasionally adjunctive therapy in-- DMPS (2,3-di mercapto propane sulfonic acid),

Penicillamine gold toxicity arsenic poisoning lead poisoning rheumatoid arthritis

Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (calcium disodium lead poisoning versante) (CaNa2-EDTA) acute iron poisoning Deferoxamine and Deferasirox iron overload EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)

Deferoxamine and Deferasirox iron overload 2 ­1 - Medically diagnosed heavy metal poisoning Some common chelating agents are

TTFD (thiamine tetra hydro furfuryl disulfide),

Phosphonates are also well-known chelating agents- divalent (Cu2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+) and trivalent (Cr3+, Fe3+, Al3+) metals ion


These elements bind to heavy metals in the body and prevent them from binding to other agents. They are then excreted from the body. The chelating process also removes vital nutrients such as vitamins C and E, therefore these must be supplemented




 [F1]Appears thata sugar molecule of some kind would attract the nano to them

 [F2]INTERESTING  where they are and would  mean access throughout the bodu

 [F3]Pay attention here this would require for the blood to be put on and then a device applied ~ what is required to cause the nano to become inert is to put them in a field and then to have the field shut down and then a saline acid solution to further assist in the removal of the nano that has become inert






 [F1]Sometimes people feel like something is crawling inside of there skins~ with a quantum dot or a nanoprobe or nano components you can see how a technology like this could simulate a “crawling or movement” within the skin by utilizing the nanocrystal technology utilizing either the  fluids to be removed or reduced to create a stronger electrical field ( one report indicates a 0.35nm space can produce 43 X’s more power due to the increased conductivity as a result of the  quantum effect of the range between the cluster of nano crystals~ this would create the energy as well as the environments to replicate the movement effect

 [F2]Some will actually see thin when they pull out of there skin with an amplified lens a bilayering of nanocrystaline ( basically a cellulose) that will appear to have some kind of attachment to it ~ would indicate the rachet effect they are referring to

 [F3]Again this would work in a bio environment and would as well “crawl or move “ throughout the body

 [F4]Air intake could be a real way to get these “bilayer nanobots” into a human being or any form of  life on the planet`~ this tech could be ingested especially if it is used in the food supply to monitoer the condensation and moisture of soil and plant and on nanoscale this would very easily wind up in the blood or other areas where fluids in the body would be in high concentration such as muscle~ cells ~ organs ~ tear ducts

 [F5]With the barium and aluminum and titanium dioxide and nano silver they are spraying this would allow this tech to cluster and attach itself with other nanoparticles and could possible change due to the entanglement effect~ and the quantum effect on this due to the mix and volume could potentially cause skin lesions or mutations that could lead to tumours or cancers

 [F6]More like the opposite~ causing mutations~ accelerated aging~ and permanent skin damage



 [F1]They cluster and take up a lot of space in a small aera so anything you take with it becomes part of it’s matrix and can then be transported more readily because of the concentrations and condensing

 [F2]Grapheme is 200 times stronger then diamond




 [F1]This would apply to different fields or even pulsers that would eminate or put out some kind of energy that could affect nano particles

 [F2]In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction—Quantization- An assumption that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called "bundles" or "energy elements",

 [F3]NANO integrating with different sizes shapes and charges would create this complexity due to the size and concentration especially if concentrated in a location or area

 [F4]Meaning if you are using some kind of field that could actually affect something on a thermodynamic level ~ you could affect the interactivity or cause a reaction

 [F5]Ambient temperature is a term which refers to the temperature in a room, or the temperature which surrounds an object

 [F6]Lets call it spyware on biology or even a means to tag someone with this and by applying a magnetic pulse one then could activate the materials to locate or isolate a location of someone

 [F7]Clustering and Aggagating into a concentrated environment which when activated could induce a change in the environment temperate zone causing a differentiating signal respose