GLYPHOSATES-the cause of disruption in Aquatic-Animal and Human life
Glyphosates and References
Although glyphosate is only slightly toxic to rats, GlySH may lead to severe effects, including death, in humans. PMID: 19663613
The case fatality from acute poisoning with glyphosate-containing herbicides is approximately 7.7% (in humans) More research is required to define the mechanism of toxicity, better predict the small group at risk, and find effective treatments. PMID: 20136481
Glyphosate has until recent years been considered to be a low health risk substance for humans. However, The levels of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of glyphosate occurring in human cells suggests that its mechanism of action is not limited to plant cells. PMID: 16276681
Studies on human cells showed toxicity and hormone disruption at sub agricultural levels with effects within 24 hours caused by concentrations as low as 0.5 parts per million. And DNA damage at 5 parts per million. The impact of glyphosate-based herbicides residues in food, feed or in the environment now has thus to be considered real. PMID: 19539684
Another work clearly confirms that the additives in commercial glyphosate formulations are not inert. Moreover, the proprietary mixtures available on the market could cause cell damage and even death around residual levels to be expected from agricultural use, especially in food and feed derived from formulation-treated crops. PMID: 19105591
The exposure of children to glyphosate should be avoided as recent animal studies have shown that commercial formulation of glyphosate is a potent endocrine (hormone) disruptor, causing disturbances in reproductive development when the exposure was during the puberty period. PMID: 20012598
Pregnant women are also at risk as others have found that glyphosate exposure from commercial preparations can affect human reproduction and fetal development in case of contamination. Chemical mixtures in formulations appear to be underestimated regarding their toxic or hormonal impact. PMID: 17486286
In Sweden exposure to glyphosate pesticide is considered a risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). PMID: 18623080 A study carried out by Swedish oncologists in 2001 showed that glyphosate may induce cancer of the lymphatic system. The results of the Swedish study have changed opinion about "safety" of this herbicide. Investigations concerning both its accumulation and toxic effect in animals and plants are now under way in many laboratories. PMID: 15055003
Investigation of human brains in acute lethal glyphosate poisoning show extensive bilateral damage to the brain stem and white matter. PMID: 19877558 There have also been several reports of exposure to glyphosate spraying causing secondary Parkinson’s disease, PMID: 11391760, PMID: 12894271 Which supports neurological damage to humans by glyphosate exposure.
The estimate of the dissipation rate (k) of glyphosate showed a half-life value of 4.2 days.(in water) It was observed that glyphosate produced a long term shift in water systems turning "clear" waters to "turbid", due to changes in organism populations. PMID: 20091117
Glyphosate is persistent for long periods in (and on) soils and may cause surface water pollution. PMID: 16628542 Its breakdown is dependent on bacteria in soil[F1] (not sunshine). Rotting (poisoned) vegetation will increase soil loads. Absorption of herbicides in plants delays their subsequent soil-degradation, and particularly, glyphosate persistence in soil could increase from two to six times. The modifications of herbicide degradation in soil due to interception by plants should be considered for environmental risks assessment. PMID: 19625069 Glyphosate negatively alters soil microbial composition. PMID: 19697445
It has been shown that aquatic wetland communities can be dramatically impacted by low concentrations of pesticides (from run-off) including glyphosate (both separate and combined) and these results offer important insights for the conservation of wetland species and communities. PMID: 19002502
NUsing minerals and combining them with cholesterol ( liposome) and sulphur ( any form but easiest is a garlic extract) and implementing selenium and copper-and zinc –with magnesium and calcium and manganese—may not only renew the nutrient being lost with glyphosate –but assist in reducing glyphosate build up as well—by doing this ---it can improve the immune system---relieve the immune system of the burden allowing the insides to restore and regain strength and momentum to deal with the after effects—such as die off---
NAnother method would be to increase bacteria as well---this with again minerals and nutrients combined with the foods –such as yogurt and or kefir—cheese—smooth cheese that you can mix other nutrients with—sour cream---fat for the cholesterol---to renew what was lost and to remove the left over negative bacteria inside—the idea of removing and restoring
NSTS –sodium thiolsulphate as a detoxing agent at night and during the day a increase in fermented and probiotic loaded foods and minerals---to again reduce metals—negative bacterium---glyphosate and genetic materials—out of the body---and again restoring what was taken
7 http://farmwars.info/?p=11565 page 13
Effects of pesticides on human health
Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) – 2012 [F2]
An assessment of the State of Science of Endocrine Disruptors was prepared for the United Nations Environment Program and the World Health Organization by a group of approximately 50 expert scientists.30
The authors outlined the current evidence of: 1) a high incidence, and increasing trends, of many endocrine-related disorders in humans; 2) observations of endocrine-related effects in wildlife populations; 3) identification of chemicals with endocrine disrupting properties linked to disease outcomes in laboratory studies.
“Endocrine-related disorders in humans are manifest by:
Increases in low semen quality in young men (up to 40%)
Incidence of genital malformations has increased over time
Adverse pregnancy outcomes and birth defects has increased in many countries
Neurobehavioural disorders related to thyroid dysfunction has increased
Endocrine-related cancers (breast, endometrial, ovary, prostate, testicular and thyroid cancers) have been increasing over the past 40–50 years
Earlier onset of breast development in young girls which leads to breast cancer
The prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes is increasing. The WHO estimates that 1.5 billion adults worldwide are overweight or obese and that the number with type 2 diabetes increased from 153 million to 347 million between 1980 and 2008”
Foliar application of glyphosate
Systemic movement throughout the plant
Chelation of micronutrients
Intensified drought stress
Accumulation of glyphosate in meristematic tissues (shoot, reproductive, and root tips).
Translocation of glyphosate from shoot to root and subsequent release into the rhizosphere
Glyphosate accumulates in soil
(not biodegraded - co-metabolism)
Glyphosate desorbed from soil by P
Glyphosate toxicity to:
Bacterial shikimate pathway
Mn & Fe reducing organisms
Biological control organisms
Toxicity to root tips by glyphosate or its toxic metabolites (e.g. AMPA)
Compromise of plant defense mechanisms
Soilborne plant pathogens
(Fusarium, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, etc.)
Nutrient oxidizers (Mn, Fe, N)
Microbial nutrient sinks (K, Mg)
Reduced availability or uptake of essential nutrients (Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Ni)
Main Toxic Effects of Glyphosate
• Kills beneficial gut bacteria and allows pathogens to overgrow
• Interferes with function of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes
• Chelates important minerals
• Interferes with synthesis of aromatic amino acids and methionine
• Disrupts sulfate synthesis and sulfate transport
Some Biomarkers for Autsm
• Disrupted gut bacteria; inflammatory bowel
• Low serum sulfate
• Methionine deficiency
• Serotonin and melatonin deficiency
• Defective aromatase
• Zinc, iron and vitamin D deficiency
• Urinary p--‐cresol
• High serum nitrate and ammonia
• Impaired immune function
• Chronic low--‐grade inflammation in the brain
Glyphosates increase Aluminumin blood stream
2.3. Glyphosate—A Ubiquitous Al3+ Chelating Agent. Being a modified formof glycine with both phosphonyl and carbonyl groups, glyphosate is already known
Glyphosate and Aluminum
2.3. Glyphosate—A Ubiquitous Al3+ Chelating Agent. Being a modified form of glycine with both phosphonyl and carbonyl groups, glyphosate is already known to chelate metal cations .Moreover, Al caged by glyphosate dimers and trimmers  bears a certain resemblance to chelation complexes of Al citrate. Given its biocidal effects on gut biota [126, 127], leading to inflammatory intestinal disorders commonly to chelate metal cations  commonly treated by Al-containing antacids , Al interacting with glyphosate is likely to increase its crossing of the endogenous intestinal biofilm barrier into the blood stream [129, 130]. Such Al-induced leaking of the endogenous biofilms of the gut and blood brain barrier could increase Al accumulation in the CNS. Glyphosate impairs the bioavailability of both tryptophan and methionine , and significantly reduced plasma concentrations of these amino acids have been found in Alzheimer’s disease patients [131, 132]. Given the escalating use of glyphosate worldwide and the increasing incidence of inflammatory bowel disease  and gastroesophageal reflux disease , studies with animal models  are needed to assess the potential of glyphosate to specifically chelate and distribute Al compounds in vivo. High precision adsorption calorimetry may prove to be useful means of studying the thermodynamics of Al biosequestration, generally, and glyphosate Al chelation complexation, in vitro [136–138], specifically as suggested in Figure 2 from Guo and Friedman  which shows how Gadolinium (Gd3+) serves in biological cation sequestration. CNS delivery is known to occur, at least in part, via adsorptive transcytosis of cationized proteins and peptides . This empiric observation, therefore, begs the questions: does glyphosate promote adsorptive transcytosis of Al, and vice versa; does Al promote adsorptive transcytosis of glyphosate, across the protective biofilms of the gut and blood brain barrier?
Ongoing glyphosate accumulation
A table on the distribution of glyphosate in rats showed that seven days after a single dose was given, the highest glyphosate concentration was in bone. Lesser concentrations were in the colon, bone marrow, spleen, stomach, kidney and liver (8). Table: radioactive glyphosate per kg organ fresh weight
male dose 10 mg per kg body weight
male dose 1000 mg per kg body weight
Detoxifying Residual Glyphosate:
Some nutrients are relatively immobile in plant tissues (Ca, Mn) so that a combination of micronutrients may be more beneficial than any individual one to chelate with residual glyphosate and „detoxify‟ it in meristematic and mature tissues. Thus, foliar application of Mn could remediate for glyphosate immobilization of the nutrient; however, it may be more effective when applied in combination with the more mobile Zn to detoxify sequestered glyphosate in meristematic tissues even though Zn levels may appear sufficient[F3] . Gypsum applied [F4] in the seed row has shown some promise for detoxifying glyphosate from root exudates since Ca is a good chelator with glyphosate (one of the reasons that ammonium sulfate is recommended in spray solutions with hard water is to prevent chelation with Ca and Mg which would inhibit herbicidal activity). Although bioremediation of accumulating glyphosate in soil may be possible in the future, initial degradation products of glyphosate are toxic to both RR and non-RR plants. This is an area that needs greater effort since the application of phosphorus fertilizers can desorb immobilized glyphosate to be toxic to plants through root uptake. Micronutrient seed treatment can provide some detoxification during seed germination, and stimulate vigor and root growth to enhance recovery from later glyphosate applications.
Individual tables for 1982, 1997 and 2001. The bold figures show a trend over the years.
§ 180.364 Glyphosate; tolerances for residues in parts per million (ppm)
0.1 except wheat, oat, sorghum, barley
wheat milling fractions (excluding flour)
Forage and hay with high glyphosate levels fed to animals cause of course high glyphosate levels in their livers and kidneys.
The slightly higher accepted level in fish from 1982 onwards indicates that fish is a glyphosate sink.
A new table appeared in 1997 (15). This time there were 133 items and after having entered the era of glyphosate resistant crops some tolerance levels went up remarkably.
Remember what in 1982 was stated? Here it is again: "Maximum residue tolerances in most foods for direct consumption, whether meat, fruit or vegetable, are around 0.2 ppm, although those in grain products, normally eaten in larger quantities, are lower (0.1ppm)." But in 1997 the wheat tolerance level was raised to 5 ppm. On what grounds? Obviously to remain in step with the new glyphosate practices for glyphosate resistant crops. This tolerated ppm increase shows clearly that human health is less important to the EPA than pesticide use.
Other grain crops (except wheat, oats, grain sorghum and barley) remained at 0.1 ppm.
• Autism & Glyphosate
• Soy: Why It’s Dangerous
GM soy imports implicated in health issues
• Autism rates have increased 100 times during the past 20 years
Parkinson's disease in China has increased over 20 fold during the last 20 years
• Infertility- rates have risen sharply:
– 2012: 15.6%
– 2002: 8%
– 1972: 3%
former Vice President of the Academy of Military Science of China
Glyphosate, Roundup, Glyphosate-Tolerance GM Soybeans,
Chemical Extracted Soybean Food Oil/Soybean Powder
Cause Serious Harm to Health of American/Chinese People
Reference Information June 18, 2014
Compiled and translated by
I-wan, Chen (email@example.com)
(A British citizen living, studying and working in China for 64 years)
Advisor, Committee of Disaster History for
China Disaster Prevention Association
(Advisor Chen's blog in China has posted 1192 papers on relevant issues:
1. Twelve Health Deteriorate Trends in Both USA and China
2. Common during past ten years in both USA and China: Exposure to
glyphosate residues and n-hexane residues through environment
pollution, food and chemical extracted food oil
3. Eleven studies by Chinese scholars reveal harm to health caused by
4. Twenty-four international and Chinese and scientific studies and
epidemiology studies prove that hexane residuals and benzene
residuals cause reproduction toxicity to both female and males
Twelve Health Deteriorate Trends in Both USA and China
1)USA Infertility Reaching 15%, China Closely Following Infertility
Patients Already Exceeding 50 Million
2)Precocious puberty Rapidly Increase in both USA and China
3)USA and China’s Children Asthma Incident Rate Increase Year by
Year, Even if Air Quality is Improved
4)USA and China’s Children with Chronic Diseases Rapidly Increase:
The percentage of children with a current chronic disease rose to 25%
in 2000-2006, the percentage of kids who had ever had a chronic illness
grew to 52% in the same time in USA; In China, among children, youth
and youngsters, incident rate of high blood pressure 9%, lipid disorders -9.8%; based on survey in a number of provinces and cities, the incident rate of pre-school age children with high blood pressure has already reached 2% - 4%, and for school children already 4% - 9%!
5)USA and China’s Patients Reason Unclear Increase During Past Ten
Years: 44% of Americans in 2005 had at least one chronic medical
condition; Chinese residents with chronic disease is already 20%, the
total number of determined diagnosed chronic patients reach 260
million. During past ten years, there are 10 million chronic disease
patents newly diagnosed each year.
6) 8.3% Americans Have Diabetes, 9.7% Chinese Have Diabetes
Exceeding USA, the Risk is Very High for China!
7)About one in every 33 babies (about 3%) is born with a birth defect,
including approx 1% diagnosed with congenital heart defects in USA;
the incidence of newborns with defects in China at present is about
5.6%, the incidence of newborns with defects shows a trend of increase, increased from 877,000 in 1996 to 1.499 million in 2010, increase rate 70.9%, with congenital heart disease becomes the number one defect!
8) In USA, 78% increase of autism during 2007 - 2010, In China, autism rate in various areas has reached 1.5%, increased 10 times over 20 years, environmental, chemical, biological factors pointed as the culprit!
9) Studies indicate possible links between Alzheimer’s disease and
Parkinson's disease, indicate 10% increase of annual incidence of
Alzheimer’s disease from 2000 to 2010 in USA; During the past 20 years
(1998 - 2008), the average ages of Alzheimer’s disease patients has
advanced from 65 years to 55 years; [F6] In the USA, 50,000-60,000 new
cases of Parkinson disease are diagnosed each year; Based on most
conservative estimations, the incidence of Parkinson disease during
recent 20 years in China has at least increased over 20 times!
10) 1988-2004 USA incidence of primary liver cancer rapidly rose 90%,
China’s liver cancer patients accounts for 54.26% of World’s total
11) Children cancer increasing, especially leukemias, dramatically
increased in USA and China.
12) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases rapidly increased 65 percent increase from 2000 to 2009, and increased 12 times in Shanghai from 2003 to 2013!
1)USA Infertility Reaching 15%, China Closely Following Infertility
Patients Already Exceeding 50 Million
USA infertility continue increases: 1995 10%; 2002 12%; 2009 15%
. 1995: According to National Survey of Family Growth, CDC 1995, approximately
6.1 million women and their partners in the U.S. are affected by infertility, i.e., 10% of the total reproductive-age population. 
. 2002: Infertility affects about 7.3 million women and their partners in the U.S. -- about 12% of the reproductive-age population (Source: National Survey of Family Growth, CDC 2002). 
. 2009: Based on reported cases alone, almost 15 percent of adult Americans
experience infertility.Despite medical advances in the treatment of infertility over
the last two decades, that rate has not declined. In fact, most experts believe it has risen. Meanwhile, as the population of the United States has grown since 1970, the number of infertile couples has more than doubled. At present, an estimated 9 million individuals are affected by infertility. 
China:In China, the rate of infertile couples has reached 1/8, the number of infertile patients has exceeded 50 million! . Wu Jing-chun, Executive Committee Member of China Women Federation, former Deputy Director of China Birth Planning Commission, on the “Sino-U.S. Infertile Academic Forum” held in Dec., 2011 stated, due to various factors and work pressure, the ratio of infertile couples have reached 1/8, infertile patients have exceeded 50 million in China, and are gradually increasing. She said, a birth crises is approaching.  . Prof. Chen Qiu-bo, honorary director, Hangzhou Guangren Infertility Research Institute, in March 2012 pointed out: Statistics show, the infertility incidence among appropriate age couples is sharply increasing, the average incidence in the country is 12.5%-15%, meaning, one infertility among each 8 couples. 
 Brady E. Hamilton, Paul D. Sutton, Recent Trends in Births and Fertility Rates Through June 2011 http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/births_june_2011/births_june_2011.htm
 women-health-info, Infertility statistics http://www.women-health-info.com/331-Infertility-general.html
 American Society for Reproductive Medicine: Quick Facts About Infertility http://www.asrm.org/detail.aspx?id=2322
 A. Toth, Chapter 1 New Hope for Reproductive Health,Infertility Solution Book, 2009 http://www.fertilitysolution.com/Fertility-Solution-Book/Chapter-1-New-Hope-for-Reproductive-Health.html
 China News Website, 2011-12-26, Executive Committee Member of China Women Federation: Infertile patients have exceeded 50 million in China: http://www.chinanews.com/jk/2011/12-26/3560743.shtml
 Zhejiang Online Health website, 2012 China Xihu Infertility Diagnosis & Treatment Senior Forum is held in Hangzhou, 2012-03-20 http://health.zjol.com.cn/05zjhealth/system/2012/03/20/018338078.shtml
2)Precocious puberty Rapidly Increase in both USA and China
About 15 percent of American girls now begin puberty by age 7, according to a study of 1,239 girls published last year in the journal Pediatrics. One in 10 white girls begin developing breasts by that age - twice the rate seen in a 1997 study. Among black girls, 23 percent hit puberty by age 7. 
China: . The age of children in Guangzhou entering puberty has from average 13 years old advanced to 11 years; Based on study of a few thousand children in Guangdong province, the rate of "early puberty" has increased from 0.5% in 1994 increased to 1.3% in 2004, the average rate of "early puberty" in China is 1%.  . Early puberty rate survey of 23 thousand children in Zhejiang coast area reveals: 84 children were identified early puberty, 9 boys and 75 girls, indicating rate of early puberty 0.38%, and girls with early puberty is 7.3 times of boys. . The survey also revealed that the rate of early puberty is 0.45% in cities and towns, higher than 0.32% in rural areas; 0.50% in economic developed areas, and 0.32% in undeveloped areas; 0.52% in areas close to highways and industrial polluted areas, and 0.28% in less polluted areas.
 Jennifer Ashton, Puberty starting earlier for many girls: study, CBS News, April 12, 2011 http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-500172_162-20053084.html
 Puberty of children in Guangzhou have advanced two years, rate of "early puberty" is also rather high, Information Times, 2004-09-12 http://news.163.com/40912/2/1021BNN80001122B.html
 Jin Li-peng, Early puberty rate survey announced for children in Zhejiang coast area, girl with early puberty 7.3 times of boys, Hangzhou network - Municipality Express, 2005-05-30 http://www.zjol.com.cn/05zjnews/system/2005/05/30/006122163.shtml
3)USA and China’s Children Asthma Incident Rate Increase Year by Year, Even if Air Quality is Improved
USA & China Studies: Asthma
. CHICAGO (Reuters) - About 25 million Americans, or 1 in 12 people, have asthma, a figure that is rising despite efforts to control key asthma triggers such as indoor smoking, U.S. government researchers said on Tuesday. . According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an additional 4.3 million people were diagnosed with asthma from 2001 to 2009. The life-long disease causes wheezing, tightness in the chest, coughing and shortness of breath.
. "Despite the fact that outdoor air quality has improved, we've reduced two common asthma triggers - secondhand smoke and smoking in general -- asthma is increasing," Paul Garbe, chief of the CDC's Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Branch, said in a statement. . Asthma diagnoses increased among all demographic groups between 2001 and 2009, but children were hit hardest, with asthma affecting 9.6 percent of children, compared with 7.7 percent of U.S. adults.
It is learn that there is close to 300 million asthma patients, China has close to 30 million asthma patients, incident rate is between 1% to 4%, children below 16 years old have an even higher incident rate.  The national average level is 1.84%.  According to the national epidemiology investigation on children, the asthma incident rate has increased 60% during the past 10 years.  Beijing: In Beijing, the children asthma incident rate among 0-14 year age group has already exceeded 2%, meaning each middle school, primary school class on average has one asthma child. 
Nanjing: The Nanjing Children Hospital every ten years carries out sample survey on incidents of children asthma. Zhao De-yu told the journalist: “According to our investigation, in 2000 the incident of children asthma in the 0 – 14 age group was about 2.3%, by 2010 has exceeded 3%.” Zhao is Director, Internal Medicine, Nanjing Children Hospital, as well as vice director of pediatric specialist, Pediatric Sub-division, Nanjing medical association.  Zhao De-yu reported, the incident of asthma increases year by year. In 1990, the asthma incident in Nanjing was 1.4%, but by 2000 has almost doubled, reaching 2.3%. “Our Asthma outpatient service earlier received about 40 – 60 patients each morning. Since the past 1 – 2 years, each weekend morning could reach 200 patients.”
Jinan: The journalist learnt at a number of hospitals during activities seeing patients on volunteer basis, due to environment and other factors, the incidents of children asthma has significantly increased compared with 10 years ago.  On the “World Asthma Day” (2011-05-04) during activities seeing patients on volunteer basis, the Shandong Provincial Hospital and the Shangdong University Qilu Children’s Hospital examined 164 children, and 46 of them were diagnosed with asthma.
Xiamen: According to the national epidemiology investigation on children in 2000, children’s asthma incident rate in Xiamen is 3.96%, much higher than the national average level of 1.84%. 
 Health News, U.S. Asthma Rates Rising but Reasons Unclear: CDC, 2011-05-16 - http://www.healthnews.com/en/news/US-Asthma-Rates-Rising-but-Reasons-UnclearCDC/1QYyd9qej3SegShH3yNK4F/
 Qianlong website, 2011-5-02, Asthma Rate in Beijing exceeds 2% http://news.cntv.cn/20110502/103535.shtml
 People's website, 2012-03-14, Asthma Rate in Nanjing 2%, specialists suggestion identify the allergen to prevent http://js.people.com.cn/html/2012/03/14/89516.html
 Jinnan Times, 2011-05-04, Prevalence of asthma clearly increases in Jinnan http://news.163.com/11/0504/04/736CG7TT00014AED.html
 Southeast Website, 2011-05-01, Xiamen Children Asthma Incident Rate Much Highter Than National Level, Caused by Room Dust and Acarids http://news.66163.com/2011-05-01/513214.shtml
4)USA and China’s Children with Chronic Diseases Rapidly Increase:
The percentage of children with a current chronic disease rose to 25%
in 2000-2006, the percentage of kids who had ever had a chronic illness
grew to 52% in the same time in USA; In China, among children, youth
and youngsters, incident rate of high blood pressure 9%, lipid disorders
9.8%; based on survey in a number of provinces and cities, the incident
rate of pre-school age children with high blood pressure has already
reached 2% - 4%, and for school children already 4% - 9%!
. A follow-up study of 5,001 children from 1988 to 2006 and followed each child for six years, published by Journal of the American Medical Association in Feb. 2010 shows: More than half of children ages 8 to 14 have had a long-term health problem at some point, such as obesity, asthma, a learning disability or other ailment.  Though the percentage of children with a current chronic disease rose to 25% in 2000-2006, the percentage of kids who had ever had a chronic illness grew to 52% in the same time. [1-2] . Much of the increase in chronic diseases was a result of obesity, says author Jeanne Van Cleave of the MassGeneral Hospital for Children in Boston. . In another study published in Academic Pediatrics, an estimated 43% of US children (32 million) currently have at least 1 of 20 chronic health conditions assessed, increasing to 54.1% when overweight, obesity, or being at risk for developmental delays are included. This tells us matters are much worse now–perhaps 50% are now chronically ill not counting obesity.  . Furthermore, as this study is based on latest data 2007 data, 4 years old data, thus the situation in 2012 should be even worst!
. The study published by the June 2011 issue of Academic Pediatrics also said,
developmental disability is on the rise in the U.S. Between 1997 and 2008, the number of school-age children diagnosed with autism, ADHD, or another developmental disability rose by about 17 percent. It also said roughly 15 percent of kids – nearly 10 million – have such a disability.[2-3] . These rates will continue to increase, in view of one of the authors, since nothing is really changing in terms of the amount of unhealthy, industrially processed foods families and children eat, the poor USDA dietary guidelines being promoted as healthy, the very high rate of vaccinations and their damages inflicted, a continuing flow of pharmaceuticals, and of course, other environmental and lifestyle factors[F8] . So in five years we may be looking at 60-70% of American children being chronically ill and even more obesity and infertility. . A further study published by the Archives of Psychiatry in March and it found that the U.S. has the highest in the world lifetime rate of bipolar disorder at 4.4%, and India the lowest, with 0.1%, as reported by CNN. In other words, the U.S. has 44 times more bipolars (manic-depressives) than India. Bipolar disorder is characterized by cycles of depression and mania, a euphoric, high-energy state that can result in heightened levels of creativity or output as well as erratic or risky behavior. People with bipolar disorder are at high risk of substance abuse and suicide, and treatment includes psychiatric care and medication. 
. Boys had a higher prevalence overall and for a number of select disabilities compared with girls. Hispanic children had the lowest prevalence for a number of disabilities compared with non-Hispanic white and black children[F9] . Low income and public health insurance were associated with a higher prevalence of many disabilities. Prevalence of any developmental disability increased from 12.84% to 15.04% over 12 years., i.e. a 17% increase. Autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and other developmental delays increased, whereas hearing loss showed a significant decline. These trends were found in all of the sociodemographic subgroups, except for autism in non-Hispanic black children. [4-5] . "We don't know for sure why the increase happened," study author Sheree Boulet of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told Reuters.  . But Philip Landrigan of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, told USA Today that improvements in diagnosis can't fully explain the increase. Research suggests that environmental chemicals - including pesticides and the phthalates found in soft plastics - can affect kids' mental development, he said. 
. The result of the recently announced “2010 China’s Urban Health Survey” indicates,. Sanitation specialists chronic disease incidents in China appear with a trend towards younger ages suggest, should enhance guidance and interference to individual lifestyle. Mortality caused by chronic diseases accounts to 80% in China. As social pressure increases, medium-age and young people with chronic disease begins to increase, with a trend of which incident rates gradually increase year by year. Specialists consider, compared with infectious disease, the latent period of chronic disease is rather long, thus should give emphasis on prevention.  . China carries out national resident nutrition and health condition survey every 10 years. According to the recent survey, obesity and overweight already become an outstanding health problem among urban children, youth and youngsters. The result of the 2005 national student corporeity and health survey also indicated, the obesity rate and overweight rate of urban boys 7 – 22 years age has already reached 13.25% and 11.39%, 1.4% and 2.7% respectively higher than 2000.  . Yang Xiao-guang, researcher, China CDC, considers, it is estimated that the incidents of overweight and associated chronic diseases shall increase substantially during the next 10 – 20 years. If powerful interference actions are not adopted, the ratio of residents with normal body weight shall reduce from 70% at present to 1/3.  . In China, within every 10 diabetes patient, one of them is a youth or youngster, with type 2 diabetes increasing most rapidly. Estimated accordingly, China already has close to 10 million youth and youngsters with diabetes. With Beijing as example, within the 6 – 18 year age group of urban and rural children and youngsters, the incident rate of diabetes is 0.57%; the incident rate of impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
i.e. pre-diabetes, has already reached 1.35%. Since the 80s of the past century, the incident rate of diabetes in China almost doubles every 10 years.  The Beijing Health Bureau organized a number of hospitals to carry out an overall survey of overweight, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and lipid disorders among age group below 18 years. The result shows: Among children, youth and youngsters, incident rate of high blood pressure 9%, lipid disorders 9.8%. This means, within every 100 children there is about 9 children with high blood pressure, and about 10 children with dyslipidemia. And among children with diabetes, those with type 2 diabetes already accounted to 43%, compared with less than 5% 10 years ago. Specialist analysis, the overweight is the key for causing the increasing trend of these diseases. In Beijing, the rate of overweight among children, youth and youngsters, is already close to 10%, meaning a 47% increase since 2000.  . Prof. Wang Wen, National Cardiovascular Center, Fuwai Hospital of China Academy of Medical Science, points out, based on survey in a number of provinces and cities, the incident rate of pre-school age children with high blood pressure has already reached 2% - 4%, and for school children already 4% - 9%, in which overweight children are majority. In USA and Japan, the incident rate for children respectively is 14.1% and 13.3%. High blood pressure is quietly stealing Children’s health. 
 Liz Szabo, More children have chronic diseases; study cites obesity, USA Today,2010-02-17 http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2010-02-17-chronic17_st_N.htm
 Augie, Alarming New Studies: 50% of U.S. Children Have Chronic
Disease/Disorders, 21% Developmentally Disabled, Journal Living Food, 2011-5-26 http://journal.livingfood.us/2011/05/26/alarming-new-studies-50-of-u-s-children-have-chronic-illnesses-21-developmentally-disabled/
 Christina D. Bethell at el., A National and State Profile of Leading Health Problems and Health Care Quality for US Children: Key Insurance Disparities and Across-State Variations, Academic Pediatrics, 2011 May-Jun;11(3 Suppl):S22-33. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21570014
 David W Freeman, Developmental disability on rise in U.S. kids: Why?, CBS, 2011-05-23 http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-504763_162-20065315-10391704.html
 Coleen A. Boyle at al., Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Children, Pediatrics 2012; 129:3 e629-e635 http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2011/05/19/peds.2010-2989.abstract
 China radio website, 2011-10-20, Prevalence of chronic disease appear with trend of lower age http://www.chinanews.com/jk/2011/10-20/3403689.shtml
 Jiaxing online health frequency, 2011-01-06, Obesity disturbs Chinese, chronic disease caused increases http://www.cnjxol.com/health/news/content/2011-01/06/content_1573035.htm
 People's website, 2010-06-01, China ranks the No.1 nation in diabetes, children's diabetes doubled in ten years http://news.xinhuanet.com/health/2010-06/01/c_12164803.htm
 Beijing TV website, 2008-04-06, children chronic disease, prevalence increasing http://www.btv.org/btvweb/07btv1/2008-04/06/content_295166.htm
 Life Times, 2011-06-13, Obesity children take care of high blood pressure, maintaining one hour exercise each date is helpful for prevention http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2011-06-13/074322630082.shtml
5)USA and China’s Patients Reason Unclear Increase During Past Ten Years: 44% of Americans in 2005 had at least one chronic medical condition; Chinese residents with chronic disease is already 20%, the total number of determined diagnosed chronic patients reach 260 million. During past ten years, there are 10 million chronic disease patents newly diagnosed each year.
Based on government survey data, 44 percent of Americans in 2005 had at least one chronic medical condition, which could include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, cancer, arthritis, heart failure and others. That compares to 41 percent in 1996. The percentage of Americans with three or more chronic illnesses rose even more sharply, from 7 percent in 1996 to 13 percent in 2005. 
At the same time our nation’s economy enjoys rapid development, we are also encountered by the heavy burden of chronic diseases, of which incidences is quickly increasing, and appearing among younger people. “During past ten years, the number of diagnosed chronic disease patients has increased 14.3%, which include diabetes increasing over three times, high blood pressure increasing over 1.5 times, cerebrovascular disease increasing one time, coronary heat disease increasing 63%, cancer increasing 60%.” Result of the 4th National Sanitation Service General Survey show, the percentage of Chinese residents with chronic disease is already 20%, the total number of determined diagnosed chronic patients reach 260 million. During past ten years, there are 10 million chronic disease patents newly diagnosed each year. Chronic diseases account for the cause of 85% mortality, and 69% of the medical care financial burden. Chronic diseases bring substantial burden to family life, sanitation service system and public fiancé, especially have serious effect on the low income population[F10] , According to statistic, the percentage of chronic disease medical treatment cost within the total sanitation expenditures has already from 47.4% in 1990 increased to 70% in 2008, amounting to about RMB850 billion (approx. USD133 billion),have already become a serious public sanitation problem and social problem. The WHO estimates, China’s direct medical costs for chronic diseases by 2015 wilport “China Chronic Disease Report and New Developments in International Chronic Disease Prevention and Control” by Wang Shi-yong, Senior health specialist, World Bank China Office, revealed: Shi Xiao-ming, Chief, Chronic Disease Community Section, CDC, revealed: At present China has 305 million obese, 120 million overweight, 236 million high blood pressure, 32.92 million high cholesterin and 96.81 million diabetes patients. . China’s middle and old age people have on average 3.1 types of diseases. . In April, 2011, the Ministry of Health issued The China Chronic Disease Report. The Report shows that the health of Chinese residents is facing serious challenge by chronic diseases. The first 4th causes of deaths are cerebrovascular disease, cancer, respiratory system disease and heart disease, all chronic disease.  . Chronic disease is one of the greatest challenges to health of mankind. At the same time our nation’s economy enjoys rapid development, we are also encountered by the heavy burden of chronic diseases, of which incidences is quickly increasing, and appearing among younger people. The number of already diagnosed chronic patients exceeds 260 million. Chronic diseases account for the cause of 85% mortality, and 69% of the medical care financial burden. Chronic diseases bring substantial burden to family life, sanitation service system and public fiancé, especially have serious
effect on the low income population, have already become a serious public sanitation problem and social problem.  . Li Lian-da, Academician, China Academy of Engineering, revealed: “During past ten years, the number of diagnosed chronic disease patients has increased 14.3%, which
include diabetes increasing over three times, high blood pressure increasing over 1.5 times, cerebrovascular disease increasing one time, coronary heat disease increasing 63%, cancer increasing 60%.”  . Result of the 4th National Sanitation Service General Survey show, the percentage of Chinese residents with chronic disease is already 20%, the total number of determined diagnosed chronic patients reach 260 million. During past ten years, there are 10 million chronic disease patents newly diagnosed each year. Chronic disease already account as the cause of over 80% mortality. . “In our nation, chronic disease already forms a major threat to public health.” Kong Ling-zhi, Deputy Director, China CDC, says. According to statistic, the percentage of chronic disease medical treatment cost within the total sanitation expenditures has already from 47.4% in 1990 increased to 70% in 2008, amounting to about RMB850 billion (approx. USD133 billion). . The WHO estimates, China’s direct medical costs for chronic diseases by 2015 will exceed USD500 billion.
 Source: Reuters 2009-01-06 More Americans getting multiple chronic illnesses http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/01/06/us-usa-chronic-idUSTRE5050S920090106
 Chongqing Evening News, 2011-12-07, Ministry of Health Minister Stated That Mortality Rate of Chronic Disease is Above 85% http://news.qq.com/a/20111207/001112.htm
 China News Website, 2012-01-05, China’s Chronic Disease Patients Exceed 260 million, incidences increasing, with trend towards younger people http://news.qq.com/a/20120105/001110.htm
 Hebei Medicines, 2009-01-05, China’s Chronic Disease Incidents Increased 14% During Past Ten Years. http://news.9939.com/jbyw/2009/0105/279107.shtml
 Xinhua Website, 2011-03-24, WHO: Five Years Later China’s Medical Costs for Chronic Diseases will Exceed USD500 Billion. http://news.qq.com/a/20110324/001210.htm
6) 8.3% Americans Have Diabetes, 9.7% Chinese Have Diabetes Exceeding USA, the Risk is Very High for the “East Asian Weakling” Nightmare to Arrive Again for China!
USA: . Total prevalence of diabetes . Total: 25.8 million children and adults in the United States—8.3% of the population—have diabetes. . Diagnosed: 18.8 million people; Undiagnosed: 7.0 million people; Prediabetes: 79 million people* . New Cases: 1.9 million new cases of diabetes are diagnosed in people aged 20 years and older in 2010. . Under 20 years of age . 215,000, or 0.26% of all people in this age group have diabetes . About 1 in every 400 children and adolescents has diabetes . Age 20 years or older: 25.6 million, or 11.3% of all people in this age group have diabetes . Age 65 years or older: 10.9 million, or 26.9% of all people in this age group have diabetes . Men: 13.0 million, or 11.8% of all men aged 20 years or older have diabetes . Women: 12.6 million, or 10.8% of all women aged 20 years or older have diabetes . Race and ethnic differences in prevalence of diagnosed diabetes . After adjusting for population age differences, 2007-2009 national survey data for people diagnosed with diabetes, aged 20 years or older include the following prevalence by race/ethnicity: 7.1% of non-Hispanic whites; 8.4% of Asian Americans; 12.6% of non-Hispanic blacks; 11.8% of Hispanics -. Among Hispanics rates were: 7.6% for Cubans; 13.3% for Mexican Americans; 13.8% for Puerto Ricans
In China, the rate of diabetes has increased ten fold during past 10 years, reached 9.7% at present, with about 150 million categorized under high risk of the illness!  On 2011-11-24, Ji Li-nong, Director Committee Member of the Diabetes Sub-society of the China Medicine Society, at the No.15th national academic conference of the Diabetes Sub-society of the China Medicine Society (CDS2011) present the specialty speech. Ji Li-nong reported that China’s diabetes patient rate has doubled within the last decade, reached now 9.7%, making China the largest diabetes patient nation of the world, higher than the global average diabetes rate of 6.4%. At the same time, the diabetes high risk population is also expanding, about 150 million people at present. Shanghai’s survey indicates: Diabetes patients in Shanghai during 2002 – 2009 rapidly increased 60%. [F11]
Xu Wanghong at el., Public Health College of Fudan University, jointly with Shanghai CDC, developed surveys of two groups of population which indicated, during 2002 – 2009, there was rapid increase in diabetes patients in Shanghai, diagnosed diabetes patients rose 45%, undiagnosed diabetes patients rose 13%. 
China becomes world's largest diabetes nation  . China now has more people with diabetes than any other country, a new report shows, making it clear that the nation's soaring economic growth is taking a toll on public health. . According to the report, more than 92 million adults in China have diabetes, and nearly 150 million more are well on their way to developing it. The disease is more common in people with large waistlines and in those who live in cities, the report indicates.
The Federation projected last year that some 435 million people would have diabetes by 2030. "With this new study, we're going to have to rerun our estimate," Whiting told Reuters Health. . The report, published Thursday in the New England Journal of Medicine, is based on a nationally representative sample of more than 46,000 people who were tested for diabetes.  . Based on their findings, the researchers calculate that about 50 million men and 42 million women have diabetes, or almost 1 in 10 adults. And in most cases, the
disease is undiagnosed. . The prevalence is twice as high as estimates suggested by previous studies, which did not use World Health Organization-recommended tests to diagnose diabetes, and is similar to US numbers. It would place China far ahead of India, whose estimated 50 million diabetics lands it a dubious second place in terms of the total number of people with diabetes. . "These data really show diabetes has become a major epidemic in China," Dr. Jiang He, of Tulane University in New Orleans, told Reuters Health. . He, who worked on the new study with colleagues in China, noted that diabetes is a risk factor for heart disease, which is now the biggest killer in the country. "We basically need to make diabetes one of the top priorities for public health in China," he said.
 1. CDC:Data from the 2011 National Diabetes Fact Sheet (released Jan. 26, 2011) http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/
 Xinhua News Agency, 2011-11-26, Title: China’s diabetes patient rate has reached 9.7% http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2011-11/26/content_2003793.htm
 Chinese Diabetes Society, China Medical Society, 2012-03-19, Shanghai CDC population survey indicates diabetes patients within 8 years increase 60% in Shanghai http://cdschina.org/news_show.jsp?id=1213.html
 Reuters,March 25,China becomes world's new diabetes capital http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/03/24/us-china-diabetes-idUSTRE62N66220100324
 Wenying Yang at el. for the China National Diabetes and Metabolic Disorders Study Group,Prevalence of Diabetes among Men and Women in China, N Engl J Med 2010; 362:1090-1101March 25, 2010 http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0908292
7)About one in every 33 babies (about 3%) is born with a birth defect, including approx 1% diagnosed with congenital heart defects in USA; the incidence of newborns with defects in China at present is about 5.6%, the incidence of newborns with defects shows a trend of increase, increased from 877,000 in 1996 to 1.499 million in 2010, increase rate 70.9%, with congenital heart disease becomes the number one defect!
. In the United States, about one in every 33 babies (about 3%) is born with a birth defect. Birth defects are one of the leading causes of infant deaths, accounting for more than 20% of all infant deaths. 
. Congenital heart defects are diagnosed in approximately 1% of births in the United States and account for the largest proportion of infant mortality attributable to birth defects.  . Congenital heart defects affect approximately 1% of live births, of which 25% are estimated to be critical and require surgery or catheterization within the first year of life.
. In Michigan, the prevalence of CHDs reported by 1 year of age for whites increased slightly from about 99 cases per 10,000 live births in 1992 to about 135 cases per 10,000 live births in 2006, i.e. an increase of 36.36%. 
. Congenital heart defects (CHDs) account for 24% of infant deaths due to birth
defects. In the United States, about 4,800 (or 11.6 per 10,000) babies born every year have one of seven critical congenital heart defects (CCHDs. 
. In 2003, congenital cardiovascular defects contributed only 0.5 percent of CVD
deaths; however, they remain a leading cause of death in infants and children.
Among children ages 5–11, data from the Bogalusa Heart Study have shown that
27.1 percent now have one or more risk factors for heart disease and that an
additional 6.9 percent have two or more risk factors. Taken together, these
epidemiological findings are great cause for alarm. 
. In the United States, hospital costs for people with a heart defect were about $1.4 billion in one year. Families and the government share the burden of these costs, which means that all taxpayers are affected. Other costs due to lost wages or work limitations can affect families and businesses as well.
. CDC: The cause of most congenital heart defects is unknown. 
. It is estimated that the incidence of newborns with defects in China at present is
about 5.6%, the number of newborns each year is about 900,000, which includes
about 25,000 newborns with clinical apparent defects at born. 
. During recent years, the incidence of newborns with defects shows a trend of increase, increased from 877,000 in 1996 to 1.499 million in 2010, increase rate 70.9%. In 2010, the first 5 types of defects of newborns identified by hospital examination are congenital heart disease, many fingers (toe), total cleft lip, congenital hydrocephalus and a neural tube defects. The defects account for 49.1% of all defects of newborns, in which congenital heart disease becomes the number one defect.  . The sequence of birth defects in the national infant deaths, ranked No.4 in 2000, which advanced to No.2 in 2011, reaching 19.1%.  . In 2011, congenital heart defects account to 26.7% of all the newborns found with defects during monitoring.  . During 2000 – 2011, the incidence of perinatal congenital heart disease is on the rise. In 2011, the average incidence of newborn congenital heart defects is 3.56 times of 2000, 4.41 times in urban areas, and 2.97 times in rural areas.  . The national prevalence of perinatal birth defects decreased to 145.64 nd 145.06 per 10,000 in 2012 and 2013 respectively, compared with 153.23 in 2011, meaning at least 16,000 fewer children with birth defects in the past two years, said Zhang Shikun, director of the commission's maternal and child health service bureau, at a press conference. 
 CDC, Birth Defects Data & Statistics http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/birthdefects/data.html
 Racial Differences by Gestational Age in Neonatal Deaths Attributable to Congenital Heart Defects—United States, 2003-2006, CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report JAMA. 2010;304(18):2006-2008. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/304/18/2006.full
 CDC: Key Findings: Estimating the impact of newborn screening for critical congenital heart defects in the United States http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/heartdefects/features/keyfindings-screening-impact-cchd.html
 Michigan Department of Community Health Bureau of Epidemiology, Birth Defects Prevalence and Mortality in Michigan, 1992-2006, 2011 Annual Report http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mdch/Birth_Defect_Annual_Report_352411_7.pdf
 CDC:Screening for Critical Congenital Heart Defects http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/pediatricgenetics/cchdscreening.Html
 George A. Mensah, David W. Brown, An Overview Of Cardiovascular Disease Burden In The United States, Health Aff January 2007 vol. 26 no. 1 38-48 http://content.healthaffairs.org/content/26/1/38.full
 CDC: Five Facts about Congenital Heart Defects http://www.cdc.gov/Features/HeartDefects/
 “China Newborn Defect Prevention And Treatment Report (2012)”signed on Sept. 13 2012 http://www.moh.gov.cn/publicfiles///business/cmsresources/mohjcg/cmsrsdocument/doc16048.pdf
 Jinghua Times, 2011-09-22, Title: Our nation’s newborn with defects has increased 70.9%, is related to elimination of compulsive health check before marriage. http://health.people.com.cn/GB/15721842.html
 Xinhua, China sees drop in birth defect rate, 2014-5-29 http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/862910.shtml
8) In USA, 78% increase of autism during 2007 - 2010, In China, autism rate in various areas has reached 1.5%, increased 10 times over 20 years, environmental, chemical, biological factors pointed as the culprit!
. CDC estimates (2010) 1 in 88 children (11.3 per 1,000) has been identified with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).  . This marks a 23% increase since our last report in 2009. And, a 78% increase since our first report in 2007. Some of the increase is due to the way children are identified, diagnosed and served in their local communities, although exactly how much is due to these factors in unknown.  . ASDs are almost 5 times more common among boys (1 in 54) than among girls (1 in 252). [F12]  . The largest increases over time were among Hispanic children (110%) and black children (91%).  . California autism prevalence more than tripled from 1987 to 1998  . The California scientists “were at a loss to explain the reasons for what they called an epidemic of autism” in 2002 
. “The causes of autism to be more environmentally influenced than previously thought” – Findings by Canadian Scientists in 2012  . Published in the January 2009 issue of the journal Epidemiology, results from the study also suggest that research should shift from genetics to the host of chemicals and infectious microbes in the environment that are likely at the root of changes in the neurodevelopment of California's children.  . "It's time to start looking for the environmental culprits responsible for the remarkable increase in the rate of autism in California," said UC Davis M.I.N.D. Institute researcher Irva Hertz-Picciotto, a professor of environmental and occupational health and epidemiology and an internationally respected autism researcher.  . The incidence of autism by age six in California has increased from fewer than nine in 10,000 for children born in 1990 to more than 44 in 10,000 for children born in 2000. 
. In China, there are now over 1 million children with autism, which is rapidly increasing, the autism rate in various areas has reached 1.5%, increased 10 times over 20 years! [6-7] . Changchun: Autism prevalence rate 1.5% for children age 2 – 6 years  . Harbin: Autism prevalence rate apparent increase trend, 2.27% for children age 2 – 6 years.  . Shenzhen:Autism prevalence rate 1.32% for children, five folds of the national average rate 0.025%. . Nanjing: Autism rate of children have increased to 10 times within 20 years. “Specialists indicate, the fundamental reason causing autism is still not so clear at present, and there is not special effective drugs, early education is the main means of interference.”
. Shenyang: Children with autism have increased at the rate of 300 – 400 each year, indicating a trend of rapidly increasing!  . Shanghai: Shanghai has over 8,000 autism patients, Children autism rate has reached 0.6% 
 CDC:New Data on Autism Spectrum Disorders, 2010 http://www.cdc.gov/Features/CountingAutism/
 SANDRA BLAKESLEE, INCREASE IN AUTISM BAFFLES SCIENTIST, New York Times, 2002-10-18 http://www.nytimes.com/2002/10/18/us/increase-in-autism-baffles-scientists.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm
 Thomas Insel, Autism Prevalence: More Affected or More Detected?, The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), March 29, 2012 http://www.nimh.nih.gov/about/director/2012/autism-prevalence-more-affected-or-more-detected.shtml
 Kim, Causes of Autism: Environmental Versus Genetic Factors, International Center for Autism Research & Education, 2012-01-19 http://www.icare4autism.org/news/2012/01/causes-of-autism-environmental-versus-genetic-factors/
 Science Daily, California’s Autism Increase Not Due To Better Counting, Diagnosis, 2009-01-08 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/01/090108095429.htm
 Science Daily, Don’t let autism take away their joyful childhood, 2009-08-11 http://www.stdaily.com/kjrb/content/2009-08/11/content_92182.htm
 Li Jing, Investigation report about autism children (sections), Beijing Autism Recovery Association, 2009-6-17 http://www.guduzheng.net/2009/6/20908.html
 China Jilin Website, Changchun autism children prevalence show increase trend, 2011-02-18 http://www.chinajilin.com.cn/content/2011-02/18/content_2184003.htm
 Harbin News Website, Harbin children autism rate increasing, ratio of autism between boys and girls is 7:1, 2011-04-02 http://www.jk396.com/xexl/2/942.html
 Nanfang City Daily, Shenzhen children autism prevalence rate is five fold of national level, 2007-12-21 http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2007-12-21/012913116221s.shtml
 China Chinese Medicine Newpaper, Nanjing children’s autism rate increasing, increased 10 times within 20 years, 2008-04-18 http://www.chinanews.com/jk/ysbb/news/2008/04-18/1224952.shtml
 Shenyang Daily, Trend of rapidly increasing focuses on today’s “Children’s autism”, 2005-10-20 http://news.sina.com.cn/c/2005-10-20/10107218716s.shtml
 (Shanghai) Xinmin Weekly, Autism becomes the No.1 children illness, survey said autism rate has reached 0.6%, 2010-08-25 http://news.sina.com.cn/h/sd/2010-08-25/112020972095.shtml
9) Studies indicate possible links between Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson's disease, indicate 10% increase of annual incidence of Alzheimer’s disease from 2000 to 2010 in USA; During the past 20 years (1998 - 2008), the average ages of Alzheimer’s disease patients has advanced from 65 years to 55 years; In the USA, 50,000-60,000 new cases of Parkinson disease are diagnosed each year; Based on most conservative estimations, the incidence of Parkinson disease during recent 20 years in China has at least increased over 20 times!
USA & China Studies on Brain Disorders
. Studies Investigate Links Between Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease
. Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are common
neurodegenerative diseases associated with aging. People can develop both PD and AD, leading researchers to consider whether there are links between the two
diseases. Two new studies have found that the two diseases do not appear to share genetic characteristics but may be linked by proteins. 
. In the genetics study, published in the August 5 online edition of JAMA Neurology, researchers analyzed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of PD and AD to look for genetic variants shared by both diseases. The study was led by author Valentina Moskvina, Ph.D., of the Cardiff University School of Medicine in Wales, in collaboration with an international team that included researchers from the National Institutes of Health. The team reviewed GWA studies of thousands of people with D and PD, to see if any genetic variants increased the risk of both diseases.  . The second study, published in the July 3 online edition of Cell by a team from the University of Pennsylvania led by Virginia Lee, Ph.D., investigated proteins found in AD and PD. Most neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of abnormal forms of certain proteins – for example, tau and amyloid in AD and alpha-synuclein in PD. Studies have shown some overlap in the pathology of AD and PD: more than 50 percent of people with AD show alpha-synuclein deposits and people with PD commonly have tau deposits. To better understand any relationship, researchers conducted experiments with alpha-synuclein involving mice and cell cultures.
USA: Alzheimer’s disease
.Alzheimer’s disease is the most common type of dementia. “Dementia” is an
umbrella term describing a variety of diseases and conditions that develop when nerve cells in the brain (called neurons) die or no longer function normally. The death or malfunction of neurons causes changes in one’s memory, behavior and ability to think clearly. In Alzheimer’s disease, these brain changes eventually impair an individual’s ability to carry out such basic bodily functions as walking and swallowing. Alzheimer’s disease is ultimately fatal.  . An estimated 5.2 million Americans of all ages have Alzheimer’s disease in 2013. This includes an estimated 5 million people age 65 and older , and approximately 200,000 individuals under age 65 who have younger-onset Alzheimer’s.   . In 2000, there were an estimated 411,000 new cases of Alzheimer’s disease. For 2010, that number was estimated to be 454,000 (a 10 percent increase);  . By 2025, the number of people age 65 and older with Alzheimer’s disease is estimated to reach 7.1 million — a 40 percent increase from the 5 million age 65 and older currently affected. 
USA: Parkinson's disease
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic and progressive movement disorder, meaning that symptoms continue and worsen over time. Parkinson’s involves the malfunction and death of vital nerve cells in the brain, called neurons. Parkinson's primarily affects neurons in the an area of the brain called the substantia nigra. Some of these dying neurons produce dopamine, a chemical that sends messages to the part of the brain that controls movement and coordination. As PD progresses, the amount of dopamine produced in the brain decreases, leaving a person unable to control movement normally. 
. Parkinson's disease is the 14th leading cause of death in the United States, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's annual analysis of mortality data. The CDC also released data this week showing there was a 4.6% increase in deaths attributable to Parkinson's disease in 2010 (the most recent year for which they have data).   . Between 500,000 and 1.5 million Americans live with Parkinson's, a disease for which there is no cure or treatment to stop the progression.  . Incidence of Parkinson’s increases with age, but an estimated four percent of people with PD are diagnosed before the age of 50. 
In the United States, 50,000-60,000 new cases of PD are diagnosed each year,
adding to the one million people who currently have PD. 
China: Alzheimer disease
According to a meta-analysis of 89 studies published June 7 in a China-themed issue of the Lancet, the number of people with dementia in the world’s most populated country soared from 3.7 million in 1990 to 9.2 million in 2010. The figures eclipse those from the World Alzheimer Report 2012, which estimated 5.4 million dementia cases in China in 2010. Moreover, a report on global disease burden in the special Lancet issue found that the number of deaths in China due to Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias doubled between 1990 and 2010, while mortality rates, especially among women, fell steeply during the same period. With continuing growth of China’s aging population, these findings suggest the nation is heading for a bigger dementia burden than anticipated.   . The dementia study was led by senior investigators Wei Wang of Capital Medical University in Beijing, and Harry Campbell and Igor Rudan at the University of Edinburgh Medical School in the U.K. Christopher Murray of the University of Washington in Seattle led the analysis of China health trends with collaborators from China and Australia.   . A epidemiology survey report on Alzheimer’s disease in Shanghai issued by public health departments show, prevalence of old aged older than 65 years old is 6%, above 80 years old exceeds 30%, prevalence of old aged above 65 years old increases at a rate of 1.4% per annum.  . Survey data in Tianjin, Shanghai, Guangzhou and other large cities show: During the past 20 years (1998 - 2008), the average ages of Alzheimer’s disease patients has advanced from 65 years to 55 years, i.e. "younger" 10 years. 
China- Parkinson disease
. During education activities in Shanghai on the "World Parkinson Day", Prof. Jiang Yu-ping, secretary, neurology committee of China Medical Society stated, the incidence of Parkinson disease during recent 20 years has at least increased over 20 times, such increase might be associated with environment and food factors.  . Prof. Jiang said, based on the statistics of 1986, the incidence of Parkinson disease in China is about 0.047%, and according to Shanghai statistics of 2000, the incidence of Parkinson disease has reached 1.14%. However, national-wide statistics indicate incidence of Parkinson disease has reached about 2%. Based on most conservative estimations, the incidence of Parkinson disease during recent 20 years has at least increased over 20 times.  . Date provided by the Shanghai Municipality Health Education Institute claims, Epidemiological statistics show that China at present (2007) has about 1.7 million Parkinson disease patients[F13] .  . "Parkinson's disease is a kind of neurological system diseases, with higher incidence in older age. However, there is a trend of Parkinson disease developing in younger age patients. Before the diagnosed age was more over 70 years old, quite a number of Parkinson disease patients begin to appear in the 30 - 50 age group, it has become the 3rd killer of middle to older age people. 
 Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Studies Investigate Links Between Parkinson’s Disease and Alzheimer’s Disease Oct 29 2013 http://www.pdf.org/en/science_news/release/pr_1379607636
 Moskvina V, Harold, D, Russo G, et al. (2013) Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies of Alzheimer Disease and of Parkinson Disease to Determine If These 2 Diseases Share a Common Genetic Risk. JAMA NeurolDOI: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.448http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.448
 Lee, V MY, Guo JL, Daniels JP, et al. (2013) Distinct Alpha-Synuclein Strains Differentially Promote Tau Inclusions in Neurons. Cell 154, 103-117. DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.057 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.05.057
 Alzheimer Association, 2013 Alzheimer’s Disease Acts And Figures http://www.alz.org/downloads/facts_figures_2013.pdf
 Hebert LE, Weuve J, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Alzheimer’s disease in the United States (2010-2050) estimated using the 2010 Census. Neurology. Published online before print, Feb. 6, 2013.w www.neurology.org/content/early/2013/02/06/WNL.0b013e31828726f5.abstract.
 Alzheimer’s Association. Early-onset dementia: A national challenge, a future crisis  Hebert LE, Beckett LA, Scherr PA, Evans DA. Annual incidence of Alzheimer disease in the United States projected to the years 2000 through 2050. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 2001;15(4):169–73. 109. Corrada MM, Brookm
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 Parkinson’s Action Network, CDC Lists Parkinson's as the 14th Leading Cause of Death in America http://www.parkinsonsaction.org/news/cdc-lists-parkinsons-14th-leading-cause-death-america
 CDC: QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Parkinson Disease --- United States, 1973--2003†, February 17, 2006 HTTP://WWW.CDC.GOV/MMWR/PREVIEW/MMWRHTML/MM5506A7.HTM
 Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Statistics on Parkinson's, http://www.pdf.org/en/parkinson_statistics
 National Parkinson Foundation, Parkinson's Disease Overview http://www.parkinson.org/parkinson-s-disease.aspx
 Biomedical Research Forum--ALZFORUM, Prevalence of Dementia, AD, in China Eclipses Predictions, 14 Jun 2013 http://www.alzforum.org/news/research-news/prevalence-dementia-ad-china-eclipses-predictions
 Chan KY, et al., Epidemiology of Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia in China, 1990-2010: a systematic review and analysis. Lancet. 2013 Jun 8;381(9882):2016-23 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23746902
 Sohu Health, Incidence of Alzheimer’s disease in old age in Shanghai increases, prevalence among old age above 80 years old reaches 30%. http://health.sohu.com/20081013/n259991123.shtml
 Souhu Health, Specialists: incidence of Parkinson disease during recent 20 years has at least increased over 20 times, 2007-04-12 http://health.sohu.com/20070412/n249373631.shtml
 Parkinson treatment center, the "old aged disease" becoming younger, 2012-07-31 http://www.999brain.com/NewsMessage/Show-4-0-3-11519-166-2.html
10) 1988-2004 USA incidence of primary liver cancer rapidly rose 90%, China’s liver cancer patients accounts for 54.26% of World’s total
USA- Liver Cancer
. The incidence of primary liver cancer rose modestly between 1979 and 1988 (14.5 percent) and more rapidly subsequently (90 percent over the period 1988–2004) (Figure 1). Liver cancer was one of the most lethal digestive system cancers,
although 5-year survival did increase nearly fourfold during this period, albeit to only 8 percent.  . The number of new cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a type of primary liver cancer, has increased in the U.S. over the past several years, reaching an incidence rate of 3.2 cases per 100,000 persons in 2006, according to the latest figures reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the May 7, 2010 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 
.At present, cancer prevalence in China is 285.91/100,000, on average every minute everyday 6 persons are diagnosed with malignant cancer. 
Supervision data shows, colon cancer rises faster in the urban areas, as well as thyroid cancer. At present, in urban areas, the prevalence of thyroid cancer already ranks No.4.  . National cancer mortality rates has reached 180.54/100,000, reaching 2.7 million deaths caused cancer ear year. The national rate of mortality caused by cancer in China is 13%, meaning cancer causes one of every 7 - 8 deaths.  . The mortality rate of men caused by cancer is higher than women, with ratio of 1.68/1.  . Regarding kinds of cancer, lung cancer ranks No.1, followed by stomach cancer, then colon cancer, liver cancer and then esophageal cancer. The top ten kinds of cancer amount to 76.39% of all kinds of cancer.  . The cancer with highest mortality rate still is lung cancer, followed by liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colon cancer.  . Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate in both men and women. [F14] The kinds of death causing cancer in men then include liver cancer, stomach cancer, esophageal cancer and colon cancer. In women then include stomach cancer, liver cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer.  . Primary liver cancer in our country is one of the common malignant tumors. Has high mortality rate, ranking No.3 following malignant tumor in the stomach and in the esophagus; but, in the rural areas ranking 2nd place following cancer in the stomach. In China, about 110,000 people die from liver cancer each year, accounting 45% of the total number of deaths caused by liver cancer worldwide.  . China's liver cancer situation is very grim, in 2000 306,000 patients developed liver cancer, and 306,000 mortalities from liver cancer, which accounted for 54.26% of world liver cancer patients, and 54.64% of all mortalities caused by liver cancer over the world.  . In characteristic of regional distribution of liver cancer in China is higher incidents in coastal regions than inland regions; higher incidents in Southeast and Northeast regions than Northwest, North and Southwest regions of China, and higher incidents in coastal islands and river estuaries regions.  . According to cancer register data 1998-2002 from nationwide 30 cities and counties, China's top three liver cancer areas for men are Qidong of Jiangsu Province, Haimen of Jiangsu Province, and Fushui of Guangxi Autonomous Region, and top three liver cancer areas for female are Qidong of Jiangsu Province, Haimen of Jiangsu Province, and Yanting of Sichuan Province.  . From 1972 to 1999, although the total number of liver cancer patients in Shanghai increased significantly, but age standardized incidence rate reduced, for male and female reduced 26% and 28% respectively.  . In 2006, the Ministry of Health and Ministry of Science & Technology led a national
survey on nationwide mortality causes. The Department of Health of the Guangxi
Autonomous Region entrusted the Cancer Hospital attached to the Guangxi Medical University to carry out review mortality causes from 9 locations. Survey data indicate, the first 3 causes of death of population in Guangxi respectively are malignancy cancers, respiration system diseases and cerebrovascular disease. During the 70s of the last century, the mortality rate caused by malignancy cancers was 38.29/100,000, during the 90s was 80.48/100,000, and at present is 112.0/100,000, indicating apparent increase.  . The mortality rate of 112.0/100,000, to the over 50 million population of Guangxi means about 50,000 people die from malignancy cancers, the prevalence increase ranks No.1 in China, which makes Guangxi one of the regions with the highest liver cancer and nasopharynx prevalence rate in China.  . 370,000 new liver cancer patients and 536,000 new lung cancer patients appear each year, which is increasing at the pace of 5% each year in China.  . Epidemiology investigation indicates: The liver cancer incidence for males are 26.23/100,000, and for females 11.09/100,000 in Tianjin. 
 Everhart JE, editor. The burden of digestive diseases in the United States. US
Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 2008; NIH Publication No. 09-6443. http://www3.niddk.nih.gov/Burden_of_Digestive_Diseases/index.shtml#CHAPTER9
 Liz Highleyman, CDC Reports Increasing Incidence of Liver Cancer, Mostly Due to Chronic Hepatitis B and C, 2010 http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/hep_c/news/2010/0615_2010_b.html
 Sanxiang Metropolis Daily, 2012 Cancer Registration Report, 2013-01-15 http://news.sina.com.cn/w/2013-01-15/075926036542.shtml
 Health China, Primary Liver Cancer Incidence, 2010-11-02 http://health.china.com.cn/html/ganai/yfxga/201011/02-77769.html
 Jiujiu Anti-Cancer Website Specialist Group, What characteristics does China’s primary liver cancer have for its distribution?, Jiujiu Anti-Cancer Website, 2011-07-18 http://www.99kangai.com/html/azzt/ganai/gacs/2011/0718/64005.html
 Guangxi News Website-Current Times Life Newspaper, malignancy cancers becomes the No.1 killer of Guangxi residents, prevalence increase ranks No.1 in China, 2010-02-28 http://www.gxnews.com.cn/staticpages/20100228/newgx4b89c584-2722100.shtml
 City Express, Epidemiology investigation: Tianjin has more male liver cancer patients than women, 2011-08-28 http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/dfpd/tianjin/2011-08-28/content_3624967.html
11) Children cancer increasing, especially leukemias, dramatically increased in USA and China.
About 12,500 children and adolescents under the age of 20 years are diagnosed with cancer each year. Childhood cancers remain a leading cause of childhood deaths in the United States, despite the fact that advances in health care and treatment have dramatically increased survival from these cancers. 
The most common childhood cancers are leukemias, cancers of the blood cells. There are different kinds of childhood leukemia. The most common kinds are acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Brain and other nervous system cancers are the second most common types of childhood cancers. Of the 12 major types of childhood cancer, leukemias and brain and other nervous system cancers account for 40% of all cases among children less than 20 years of age. Other childhood cancers, in decreasing order of occurrence, include lymphomas, sympathetic nervous system cancers, soft tissue sarcomas, renal tumors (Wilms tumor and renal carcinoma), bone tumors (osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma), malignant germ cell tumors, retinoblastomas,
hepatic tumors, and other malignancies. Researchers have studied childhood cancers for many years but still do not know a lot about what causes them. Finding the causes of childhood cancers is challenging because cancer in children is rare and each type of cancer may have different factors that lead to its development. It is especially difficult to identify environmental factors related to childhood cancer because environmental exposures to the parent, the child in the womb, or the child after birth may play a role. Childhood cancers, like adult cancers, may be the result of a mix of genetic, environmental, and behavioral causes, not just one factor by itself. 
China--Tumor prevalence in Children shows tread of increase, on average there is one child tumor patient among ever 10,000 children. The causes of death among children deaths under 14 years old, malignant tumor already ranks No.2. Among all kinds of children tumors, leukemia, brain tumor, malignant lymphoma and neuroblastoma rank the top four, leukemia accounts to 1/3 of all children tumor patients.  Based on survey in a number of cities, the incidence of children tumor each year is 10 per each 100,000. China has about 400 million children, thus new children tumor incidence could reach over 30,000 children. 
The increasing trend of children malignant tumors is apparent, with a higher rate in boys than girls. Two age peaks are apparent, 42% develop tumors before 3 years old, thereafter with a lower rate, the 2nd peak appears during period of puberty.   CDC: Childhood Cancers and the Environment http://ephtracking.cdc.gov/showChildhoodCancer.action
 Chengdu Daily, Children cancer indcidence increases, how to protect children, 2013-02-20 http://www.cdrb.com.cn/html/2013-02/20/content_1794291.htm
12) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases rapidly increased 65 percent increase from 2000 to 2009, and increased 12 times in Shanghai from 2003 to 2013!
.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) is a broad term that describes conditions with chronic or recurring immune response and inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The two most common inflammatory bowel diseases are ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.  . Both illnesses have one strong feature in common. They are marked by an abnormal response by the body’s immune system. Normally, the immune cells protect the body from infection. In people with IBD, however, the immune system mistakes food, bacteria, and other materials in the intestine for foreign substances and it attacks the cells of the intestines. In the process, the body sends white blood cells into the lining
of the intestines where they produce chronic inflammation. When this happens, the patient experiences the symptoms of IBD.  . The peak age of onset for IBD is 15 to 30 years old, although it may occur at any age. About 10% of cases occur in individuals younger than 18 years.  . CDC claims: Precise incidence and prevalence of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis have been limited by (1) a lack of gold standard criteria for diagnosis; (2) inconsistent case ascertainment; and (3) disease misclassification. The data that does exist suggest that the worldwide incidence rate of ulcerative colitis varies greatly between 0.5–24.5/100,000 persons, while that of Crohn’s disease varies between 0.1–16/100,000 persons worldwide, with the prevalence rate of IBD reaching up to 396/100,000 persons. It is estimated that as many as 1.4 million persons in the United States suffer from these diseases.  . A new study found, the largest investigation to date has found a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations for children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) during the past decade in the United States. 
The new study, published online and scheduled for the August 2013 print issue of the Journal of Investigative Medicine, found a 65 percent increase in IBD hospital discharges from 2000 to 2009. The number increased from 11,928 discharges in 2000 to 19,568 discharges in 2009. 
During past 10 years (2003 - 2013), the incidence of inflammatory Bowel Disease in children below 14 years old increased 12 times.  . A study published in Aug. 2013 by Inflammatory Bowel Disease Previously confirms: A disease of the West and rarely seen in China, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is now increasing in incidence in China. However, its true incidence is unknown. Conclusion: There is a substantial incidence of IBD in China.
 CDC, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) http://www.cdc.gov/ibd/
 University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Dramatic increase in hospitalization of US children with inflammatory bowel disease, Science Daily, USA, June 25, 2013 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130625141208.htm
 Health Daily, incidence of inflammatory Bowel Disease in children increased 12 times, 2013-03-01http://health.qq.com/a/20130301/000024.htm
 Zhao J et al., First prospective, population-based inflammatory bowel disease incidence study in mainland of China: the emergence of "western" disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013 Aug;19(9):1839-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669403
13) Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) increasing, including in younger people in both USA and China.
CDC confirms-. About 600,000 people die of heart disease in the United States every year–that’s 1 in every 4 deaths.  . Heart disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women. More than half of the deaths due to heart disease in 2009 were in men.  . Coronary heart disease is the most common type of heart disease, killing nearly 380,000 people annually.  . Every year about 720,000 Americans have a heart attack. Of these, 515,000 are a first
heart attack and 205,000 happen in people who have already had a heart attack. The Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Arrest report issued in 2012 by American Academy of Pediatrics reports:  . CDC has estimated that every year in the United States, approximately 2000 patients younger than 25 years will die of SCA.  . Other older reports estimate the frequency of SCA in children and adolescents to be between 0.8 and 6.2 per 100 000 per year.     
Two studies suggest that the frequency of SCA in adolescents and young adults
actually may be increasing.  One study published in 2003 estimated Sudden
cardiac deaths rise 10% in young Americans. 
The number of sudden cardiac arrest deaths reach 544,000 each year, i.e. over 1000 people die of SCA each day, with higher incidence in male than female.  . ccording to media reports, in 1998 the "120" Emergency Center in Beijing received over 80 sudden cardiac arrest death young to middle age patients, this number rapidly increased to over 270 in 2011.  . Other media reported, the percentage of sudden cardiac arrest deaths at age lower than 50 years old reached 12.65%, increased 1.7% compared with 1998.  . During the 1st quarter of 2013, the "120" Emergency Center in Qingdao registered 848 sudden cardiac arrest deaths, the age of most of them were between 35 - 59 years old, accounting to 25% - 35% of the total visits by the center. 
 Murphy SL, Xu JQ, Kochanek KD. Deaths: Final data for 2010. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2013;61(4).http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr61/nvsr61_04.pdf[PDF-3M]
 Go AS, Mozaffarian D, Roger VL, Benjamin EJ, Berry JD, Blaha MJ, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics—2014 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2014 ;128.
 American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Sudden Cardiac Arrest (Report), e March 26, 2012 http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/129/4/e1094.full.pdf
. Kung HC, Hoyert DL, Xu J, Murphy SL.Deaths: final data for 2005. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2008;56(10):1–120
 Corrado D, Basso C, Schiavon M, Thiene G.Screening for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in young athletes. N Engl J Med. 1998; 339(6):364–369
 Driscoll DJ, Edwards WD. Sudden unexpected death in children and adolescents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1985;5(suppl 6):118B–121B
 Wren C. Sudden death in children and adolescents. Heart. 2002;88(4):426–431
 Neuspiel DR, Kuller LH. Sudden and unexpected natural death in childhood and adolescence. JAMA. 1985;254(10):1321–1325
 Shen WK, Edwards WD, Hammill SC, Bailey KR, Ballard DJ, Gersh BJ. Sudden unexpected nontraumatic death in 54 young adults: a 30-year population-based study. Am J Cardiol. 1995;76(3):148–152
 Spurgeon D. Sudden cardiac deaths rise 10% in young Americans. BMJ. 2001;322 (7286):573
 SoRelle R. Jump in sudden deaths reported in younger people during past decade. Circulation. 2001;103(10):e9019–e9021
 News Evening News, At least over 1000 people suddenly die each day in China, incidence higher in male than female., 2012-10-27
 Sina Health, Why does sudden death catch on young people, 2012-07-19 http://health.sina.com.cn/d/2012-07-19/120840838.shtml
 Qilu Daily News, 70% of Qingdao's citizens have cardiac problems, mental stimulation induced by sudden death, 2013-07-26 http://qd.ifeng.com/fgqd/detail_2013_07/26/1039063_0.shtml Common in both USA and China: Exposure to glyphosate and n-hexane residues through environment pollution, food and chemical extracted food oil
. Largest producer of glyphosate of the world.
. Largest exporter of glyphosate of the world, including export of glyphosate to Monsanto to produce Roundup formula herbicide.
. Massive environment pollution caused by illegal discharge of oxic industrial waste from production of glyphosate.
. China is major importer of Monsanto's Roundup, which accounts to 80% of China's herbicide market.
. China widely applies Roundup and other glyphosate-based herbicide, causing widespread pollution.
. China is largest importer of RR soybeans, RR canola processed into RR soybean food oil and RR canola food oil, flooding the Chinese market .
Chinese researchers identified AMPA, metabolites of glyphosate, toxic, in RR soybean food oil.
. RR soybean protein powder, containing higher levels of glyphostate, is added to sausages, ham, frozen food, cakes, cookies, bread, even infant formula milk powder and wheat-flour in China.
. About 90% of food oil in China, are produced by chemical extraction, using n-hexane as oil extracting solvent, results most food oil contains n-hexane residue, including food oil process from soybeans, canola, corn, rice husks.
. Most soybean protein powder in China is processed from soybean cake, the side product of chemical extracted soybean oil.
. According to Chinese national standards, up to <50 mg/kg n-hexane residue is allowed in food oil, and up to <500 mg/kg n-hexane residue is allowed in food grade soybean protein powder added to infant formula milk powder.
. "EFSA allows chemical extracted RR soybean food oil and soybean protein powder to be added to infant formula milk
powder", is the main reason China's Food & Drug Administration Bureau allows such criminal practice! Eleven studies by Chinese scholars reveal harm caused by glyphosate Eleven scientific studies by Chinese scholars reveal that glyphosate cause damage to proteins and lipids, cause apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells with obvious damage, cause mutagenic and reproductive toxicity, capable of causing birth defects to human offspring. 1) (1996).......“............…........
..................”; 1)(1996) Glyphosate and test rat “Liver microsomal protein content
decreased significantly … protein content reduction might be associated with
protein synthesis ability reduction caused by impaired liver cell damage.”
...,..........P450 2B1.P450 2C11.......,«.......»1996..10..4.,231-234. (....:.......................)
Wu Hui-qiong, Glyphosate impact on rat cytochrome P450 2 B1 and P450 2 c11 gene expression, Health Toxicology Journal, 1996 10(4): 231-234 [Chinese]
(Organization: Environment Toxicology Research Section, Public Health College,
Wuhan Tongji Medical University.)
http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-WSDL604.004.htm 2) (2000) “...............”; 2) (2000) “causes obvious genetic damage to yellow eel” ....,..............,«........(.....)» 2000.02.
Geng De-gui et al., Study of Herbicide Roundup impact on yellow eel mutagenic,
Journal of Xuzhou Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2000(2)
3) (2001) .........“........................”; 3) (2001) Different concentration of glyphosate “causes certain degree of effect on RBC micronucleus rate and the rate of nuclear anomalies of toads” ...,...“...”..................[J]. ........:.....,2001,24(4):329-331.
Nan Xu-yang, Impact of glyphosate herbicide on carp peripheral blood erythrocyte micronucleus and nuclear anomalies, Journal of Anhui Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 2001,24(4): 329-331 [Chinese]
4) (2002) “....................” 4) (2002) “causes rather large effect on Crucian carp hemoglobin, red blood cells and white blood cells” ...,......................,......,2002(4)
(....:................) (Organization: Biology & Environment Science Dept., Zhejiang Wenzhou Normal College) Nan Xu-yang, Study of impact of glyphosate herbicide on carp blood cells and hemoglobin, Gansu Science, 2002(4)
5) (2003) “............”; 5) (2003) “causes certain degree of biological toxicity to loaches”. ...,...,.......“ ...” .........[J],...... ..:.....,2003,24(2):72-74 ....:...............
Nan Xu-yang et al., Impact of glyphosate herbicide on loach white blood cells,
Journal of Wenzhou Normal University: (Natural Science Edition), 2003,24(2): 72-74 [Chinese]
6) (2008) “....................”; 6) (2008) “causes reproduction toxicity to mice with a certain mutagenic effect”. .......et al.,..............(«........»,2008.03.)
Kang Ju-fang et al., Study of glyphosate effect causing mutagenic on rats,
Carcinogenesis, Teratogenesis & Mutagenesis, 2008(3)
7) (2008) “............,........,........,..DNA..,........,Cyt C.AIF.......,..........,.............”;
7) (2008) “Can lead to liver cell survival rate decrease, cell membrane
permeability increase, inhibit cell ion transport, induce DNA damage,
mitochondrial membrane potential decreased, leakage of Cyt C, AIF apoptosis
factors, causes cell apoptosis and necrosis, obvious damage to liver cells”.
Wang Fei, Study of Roundup 41% causing damage to human L02 liver cells, Master's thesis, Zhongnan University, 2008
8) (2010) “...................,...............,....................”;
8) (2010) Could cause mice sperm number reduce, sperm deformity rate
increase, epididymis and testis weight and coefficient decline, suggesting Roundup causes obvious reproductive toxicity in male mice”. ..,.......................,....(....),2010
Huang Ting, Preliminary study of Roundup’s toxicity effect and mechanism on male reproductive cells, Master's thesis, Zhongnan University
9) (2010) “.....................”; 9) (2010) “Glyphosate causes certain acute toxicity to sea urchin embryos during different phases of development”.
.. et al.,8..................., ......,2010(2) (..:..............................)
(Organization: Marine Fisheries Aquaculture & Key Laboratory of Biotechnology,
Dalian Marine University and Ministry of Agriculture)
Li Qiao, et al., Acute toxicity of eight types of pesticides to sea urchin embryos during different phases of development”.
http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical_cyyhj201002014.aspx 10) (2011) “...............,........,.........,.........”; 10) (2011) “Glyphosate can reduce total antioxidant capacity, damage protein
and lipid, cause oxidative damage of the body, cause development of various
Zhao Wei et al., Study of oxidative damage of the body caused by glyphosate,
Toxiology Journal, 2011,25(5):364-366 [Chinese]
11) (2012) “.......................”. 11) (2012) “Glyphosate causes reproductive toxicity to mice and has certain mutagenic effect”. ..;...;...;...........[J];.......;2012.06.
Yu Hui et al., Progress in study of glyphosate toxicity, 2012(6)
Twenty-four international and Chinese and scientific studies and epidemiology studies prove that hexane residuals and benzene residuals cause reproduction toxicity to both female and males Summary:-. Hexane residuals were found in urine of fathers, mothers and children exposed to application or mixture of glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup, meaning that glyphosate can enter blood circulation of males, females and children. . Hexane residuals are found can through blood circulation can pass through the placenta and enter into fetus of pregnant rats. . Hexane is a hormone interrupter, which demonstrates effects harmful to human health at very low dose levels, even by exposure of breathing air with low levels of hexane content. . Hexane, as well as benzene, i.e. residual contained in hexane solvent produced for vegetable food oil extraction, show that they specifically attack and cause damage to the female reproduction system, as well as attack and cause damage to the male reproduction system and sperms. [Note: Benzene is a residue of the hexane solvent used for vegetable oil extraction, thus is studied together with the effects of hexane.] 1) (1987) :”Testicular damage was induced in rats by respiratory treatment with n-hexane at a concentration of 5000 ppm. …after interruption of the treatment, the testicular lesions became increasingly severe, up to complete atrophy of the seminiferous tubules, suggesting an irreversible sterility of the treated animals.” C. De Martino et al., Effects of respiratory treatment with N-hexane on rat testis morphology: I. A light microscopic study, Experimental and Molecular Pathology,Volume 46, Issue 2, April 1987, Pages 199–216 F. Angelini Research Institute, Viale Amelia 70, 00181, Rome, Italy
2) (1989): “after cessation of a 61-day inhalation exposure to 1000 ppm
n-hexane…. Severe testicular atrophy involving the seminiferous tubules with
loss of the nerve growth factor (NGF) immunoreactive germ cell line was found.
Total loss of the germ cell line was found in a fraction of animals up to 14 months
post-exposure, indicating permanent testicular damage.”
Arch Toxicol. 1989;63(4):296-307. Testicular atrophy and loss of nerve growth factor-immunoreactive germ cell line in rats exposed to n-hexane and a protective effect of simultaneous exposure to toluene or xylene. Nylén P, Ebendal T, Eriksdotter-Nilsson M, Hansson T, Henschen A, Johnson AC, Kronevi T, Kvist U, Sjöstrand NO, Höglund G, et al. Department of Neuromedicine, National Institute of Occupational Health, Solna, Sweden. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2764718
3) (1990) Prenatal exposure to hexane was found to cause “persistence of reduced
body growth … effects of malnutrition were added to the solvent-induced
retardation. This resulted in an extreme delay in tissue maturation accompanied
by a retarded cell maturation. …” Gisela Stoltenburg-Didinger at el., Neurotoxicity of organic solvent mixtures: Embryotoxicity and fetotoxicity, Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Volume 12, Issue 6, November–December 1990, Pages 585–589
4) (1991): “Benzine might have effects on the reproduction function of female
workers and intelligence development of their offsprings.” Yu Dong-xue, Liu Rui-hua, Effects of benzene compounds in female reproductive function and their offspring, Industrial Health & Professional Disease, 1991(6) [Chinese]
5. (1995): “The results of the study support the hypothesis that daily or high
exposure to organic solvents is associated with reduced fertility.” Am J Ind Med. 1995 May;27(5):699-713. Reduced fertility among women exposed to organic solvents. Sallmén M, Lindbohm ML, Kyyrönen P, Nykyri E, Anttila A, Taskinen H, Hemminki K. Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
6. (1997): ”Our results support the hypothesis that spontaneous abortion may be
an adverse effect of exposure to high levels of organic aliphatic solvents in
women employed in shoe manufacture.” Int Arch Occup Environ Health 1997;69 (5):311-6. Risk of spontaneous abortion and maternal exposure to organic solvents in the shoe industry. Agnesi R , Valentini F , Mastrangelo G .
ULSS 13 Dipartimento di Prevenzione, Dolo, Italy.
6. (1997): “Exposure to more than the highest allowable concentration and lower
than the highest allowable concentration of benzene and its homologue has
certain effect on female menstruation and pregnancy" Jiang Qi-de et al., The effect of exposure to different concentration of benzene on the female menstruation and pregnancy outcome, Industrial Health & Professional
Disease, 1997(2) [Chinese]
7. (1997): “benzene mixture causes harm to genetic material of workers. The
degree of harm indicates a trend increases with duration of exposure.”
Zhao Guo-hua et al., Observation of exposure to low concentration benzene
compounds in workers cell micronucleus rate and chromosome fracture rate, Modern Preventive Medicine, 1997(4) [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTOTAL-XDYF704.004.htm
8. (1997): “Pregnant woman’s exposure to benzene mixture is the main factor
effecting weight and length of newborns.” Chen Da-fang, et al., The effect of pregnant women exposed to benzene mixture compounds on fetal growth and development, Disease Control Journal, 1997(4) [Chinese]
9. (1998): “The findings of the study provide limited support for the hypothesis that paternal exposure to organic solvents might be associated with decreased fertility.” Sallmén M et al., Time to pregnancy among the wives of men exposed to organic solvents. Occup Environ Med 1998 Jan;55 (1): 24-30
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Epidemiology and
Biostatistics, Helsinki, Finland.
10. (2000): “Exposure to low concentration of mixed benzene maybe correlated
with the declined quality of semen and VEFL in occupational workers, and
urinary t, t-MA and beta-hCG can be used as biomarkers of exposure and effect,
[Wang S, Chen H, Wang X. Studies on relationship between exposure to low
concentration of mixed benzene and lower quality of semen and very early fetal loss]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Sep;34(5):271-3.
School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029, China.
11. (2000): “N-hexane induces chromosome damage on poisoned patients"
Liang Wei-hui et al., Peripheral blood micronucleus tests of occupational n-hexane poisoned patients, China Academy of Science Shanghai Metallurgical Research Institute; Material physics and chemistry PhD thesis, 2000 [Chinese]
12. (2001): “Exposure to low level of mixed benzene in workspaces could
interrupt the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis and affect their
normal levels of FSH, PdG and E1C.” Chen Hai-yan et al., Effects of low concentration mixed benzene on female reproductive hormones, China Preventative Medicine Journal, 2001(2) [Chinese]
13. (2004): “Female, age between 17 to 22, average 18. Past history all indicate
healthy … monitoring shows, the main composition of the evaporated fume from
the resins is hexane … 11 girls among this group all appeared with no periods or
out of order.” Xu Xue-chun, Clinical observation analysis of chronic n-hexane poisoning, Industrial Health & Occupational Disease, 2004(3) [Chinese] http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-GYWZ200403019.htm
14. (2004): “Professional exposure to benzene could cause problems with periods
or reproduction functions.” Huo Zhong-li, Pu Xiao-yan, Influence of benzene and its homologue on reproductive function of occupational female, China's Maternity & Child Care, 2004(4),39-40 http://www.chemdrug.com/databases/7_41_akjrtegreeveuyow.html
15. (2006): “Results suggest that maternal occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy may play a role in the aetiology of oral clefts.” Occup Environ Med 2006 Sep;63 (9):617-23.
Chevrier C et al., Occupational exposure to organic solvent mixtures during pregnancy and the risk of non-syndromic oral clefts. Occup Environ Med 2006 Sep;63 (9):617-23. Inserm U625, Rennes, France. firstname.lastname@example.org http://pubmed.cn/16644895
16. (2007) : “The findings provide further evidence that exposure to organic solvents is hazardous for female reproduction. The observed association may be related to any of the following solvents commonly used in shoe manufacturing: n-hexane and hexane isomers, toluene, acetone, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane.” Occup Environ Med. 2008 Aug;65(8):518-24. Epub 2007 Nov 7. Sallmén M, Reduced fertility among shoe manufacturing workers. Occup Environ Med. 2008 Aug;65(8):518-24. Epub 2007 Nov 7. Sallmén M, Neto M, Mayan ON. Centre of Expertise for Health and Work Ability, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Topeliuksenkatu 41 aA, FI-00250 Helsinki, Finland. Markku.Sallmen@ttl.fi http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17989205
17. (2007): “Shows that n-hexane caused different levels of lipid peroxidation damage. The microscopic observation 7 d group micro-structure of germ cells shows apparent anomalies in the development of gonad. Conclusion: N-hexane suction cause certain damage to gonad and developing germ cells of rat, lipid peroxidation damage may be one of the mechanism of such toxic effects." Cao Jing-ting et al., N-hexane static type causes gonad damage to SD rats, China Labor Health Occupational Disease Journal, 2007(5) [Chinese] http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Periodical_zhldwszyb200705005.aspx
18. (2007): “Benzine, ….. causes abnormal changes to periods, incidence shows positive relevance with the number of years of professional exposure; incidence of natural miscarriage, newborn low weight are both higher than control group.” Xing Liang-hong, Deng Xiao-mei, Survey of female menstruation and fertility working with benzene exposure in leather shoe manufacturer at Shandong Rizhao city, Preventative Medicine Forum, 2007(10) http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-YXWX200710034.htm
19. (2009): “1. N-hexane has obvious female gonads toxicity, N-hexane can decrease the organ weights and organ coefficients of ovaries, the period of estrous stages in rats decreased significantly, the constituent rate of primordial follice, atrestic folicle, mature follicle and corpus uterum/albiacans number were in disorder. N-hexane can decrease the level of serum P4, N-hexane can inhibit P4 and E2 release in the ovaries, having the direct adverse effects, which might be the important mechanism in endocrine disruption …4. N-hexane can decrease the reaction of super gonadotrophic hormones, but it not sure of the reaction of normal gonadotrophic hormones. 4. N-hexane can decrease the reaction of super gonadotrophic hormones, but it not sure of the reaction of normal gonadotrophic hormones. Pang Fen, N-hexane (female) female sex gonad reproductive toxicity and reproductive endocrine disruption studies, (Master degree thesis, 2009-03-01), Health Toxicology, Fujian Medical University http://d.wanfangdata.com.cn/Thesis_Y1487285.aspx
20. (2009): “Hexane could cause obvious female gonads toxicity, ovaries is one of the main toxicity organ targets.” Ou Yang-jiang et al., N-hexane gonad toxic effect on female rats, Haixia Preventive Medical Journal, 2009(4) http://www.cnki.com.cn/Article/CJFDTotal-HXYF200904003.htm
21. (2010) “Hexane demonstrates obvious female reproduction gonads interruption, can cause abnormal changes in period of estrous stages, cause Ovarian sex hormone synthesis dysfunction of granulosa cells;N-hexane through effect StAR protein, P450scc and P450arom expression in the process of female, progestational hormone synthesis of ovarian granulosa cells, thus further interfere synthesis of both male and female, progestational hormone. This may be one of the important mechanisms how n-hexane causes disruption of reproductive endocrine." Ou Yang-jiang, Zhang Wen-chang, Studies of N-hexane's disruption of ovarian female male, progestational hormone synthesis and mechanism, Biochemical/Industrial & Health Toxicology Academic Conference Proceedings, 2010. http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGDV201007001088.htm
22. (2010): “N-hexane affected mice oocyte GVBD rate, and inhibit its nuclear mature oocytes." Liu Jin, Zhang Wen-chang, N-hexane toxic effect study of oocyte maturation, Biochemical/Industrial & Health Toxicology Academic Conference Proceedings, 2010. http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGDV201007001095.htm
23. (2010): N-hexane reproductive endocrine disruption (like estrus cycle disorder, sex hormone level change, etc), is caused not by the influence of sex hormone receptor expression in mice. ... Its reproductive secrete interference effect may be through the influence of the combination of sex hormone ligand and receptor or other signaling pathways." Liu Jin, Zhang Wen-chang, The chronic exposure of n-hexane to uterus, ovarian hormone receptor expression in mice, Biochemical/Industrial & Health Toxicology Academic Conference Proceedings, 2010. http://cpfd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CPFDTOTAL-ZGDV201007001095.htm
24. (2011): "1. N-hexane can inhibit mouse oocyte mature, including nuclear maturity and maturity; 2,5-adipic ketone is an effect how n-hexane affects the main active metabolite of oocyte nucleus maturity. 2. Mitochondrial damage and early apoptosis of oocytes, might be one of the important factors of n-hexane inhibition of mouse oocytes mature; 3. N-hexane can induce ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis." Liu Jin, Studies of N-hexane effect on oocyte maturation and granulosa cell apoptosis and its mechanism, PhD thesis, Fujian Medical University, 2011 http://cdmd.cnki.com.cn/Article/CDMD-10392-1011154760.htm
Soybean Oil and Protein Products*
Heavily used in processed foods – “White flakes" made
By defaxng soybeans by hexane extraction aProtein isolate
And soy lecithin – Fat separated into soybean oil and used in
Soy infant formula (and many other products) * EW Lusas and MN
Riaz, J Nutr 1995, 125(3 Suppl): 573S--‐580S
• Glyphosate, Aluminum and Vaccines
• Glyphosate and breast cancer
• Bile Acid Disruption by Glyphosate
– Arsenic toxicity a kidney failure
– Manganese toxicity a Parkinson’s disease
– Manganese deficiency a Autism
• Infertility and Birth Malformations
In (Samsel and Seneff, 2013), a hypothesis was developed that glyphosate disrupts the transport of sulfate from the gut to the liver and pancreas, due to its competition as a similarly kosmotropic solute that also increases blood viscosity. (Kosmotropes are ions that induce “structure ordering” and “salting out” of suspended particles in colloids). Insufficient sulfate supply to the liver is a simple explanation for reduced bile acid production. The problem is compounded by impaired CYP enzymatic action and impaired cycling of bile acids through defective enterocytes in the upper small intestine. The catastrophic effect of loss of bile acids to the feces due to impaired reuptake compels the liver to adopt a conservative approach of significantly reduced bile acid synthesis, which, in turn, leads to gall bladder disease The protein, Nuclear factor κ-lightchain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) controls DNA transcription of hundreds of genes and is a key regulator of the immune response to infection (Tieri et al., 2012). Light chains are polypeptide subunits of immunoglobulins. NF-κB responds to stimulation from bacterial and viral antigens inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, free radicals, oxidized LDL, DNA damage and UV light. The incidence of acute pancreatitis has been increasing in recent years (Bhatia, 2012), and it often follows billiary disease. A local inflammatory reaction at the site of injury coincides with an increase in the synthesis of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. H2S regulates the inflammatory response by exciting the extracellular signal regulated (ERK) pathway, leading to production of NF-κB (Bhatia, 2012). We hypothesize that H2S, while toxic, is a source of both energy and sulfate for the pancreas, derived from sulfur-containing amino acids such as cysteine and homocysteine. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulfate, but not DHEA inhibits NF-κB synthesis, suggesting that sulfate deficiency is a driver of inflammation (Iwasaki et al., 2004). While H2S is well known as a toxic gas through its inhibition of aerobic respiration, a recent paradigm shift in the research surrounding H2S has been inspired by the realization that it is an important signaling gas in the vasculature, on par with nitric oxide (Li et al., 2011). H2S can serve as an inorganic source of energy to mammalian cells (Módis et al., 2013). 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferae (3MST) is expressed in the vascular endothelium, and it produces H2S from mercaptopyruvate, an intermediary in the breakdown of cysteine (Kimura, 2011). Endogenously produced H2S derived from 3-mercaptopyruvate stimulates additional mitochondrial H2S production, which then is oxidized to thiosulfate via at least three different pathways (Ingenbleek and Kimura, 2013; Hildebrandt and Grieshaber, 2008; Goubern et al., 2007), producing ATP. The inflammatory agent superoxide can act as substrate for the oxidation of H2S to sulfite and subsequently sulfate
Abstract: This paper postulates that water structure is altered by biomolecules as well as by disease-enabling entities such as certain solvated ions, and in turn water dynamics and structure affect the function of biomolecular interactions. Although the structural and dynamical alterations are subtle, they perturb a well-balanced system sufficiently to facilitate disease. We propose that the disruption of water dynamics between and within cells underlies many disease conditions[F15] . We survey recent advances in magnetobiology, nanobiology, and colloid and interface science that point compellingly to the crucial role played by the unique physical properties of quantum coherent nanomolecular clusters of magnetized water in enabling life at the cellular level by solving the “problems” of thermal diffusion, intracellular crowding, and molecular self-assembly. Interphase water and cellular surface tension, normally maintained by biological sulfates at membrane surfaces, are compromised by exogenous interfacial water stressors such as cationic aluminum, with consequences that include greater local water hydrophobicity, increased water tension, and interphase stretching. The ultimate result is greater “stiffness” in the extracellular matrix and either the “soft” cancerous state or the “soft” neurodegenerative state within cells.--Our hypothesis provides a basis for understanding why so many idiopathic diseases of today are highly stereotyped and pluricausal.—
Is Biomacromolecular Dysfunction a Cause or Biomarker of Disease?
The vast medical research literature contains extensive documentation of dysfunctional changes in biomacromolecular structure and activity seen in chronic and infectious diseases. Molecular-level phenomena described include inappropriate gene activation and protein synthesis driving uncontrolled division of cancer cells, diversion of this same gene expression process to proliferate infectious viruses, and beta-amyloid protein tangles characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, to name just a few. Details for individual diseases vary, but the common feature of molecular mechanisms offered for all of them is emphasis on the roles of macromolecules and their non-aqueous substrates or ligands, with little or no attention given to water, the most abundant molecule in the body and the most essential for all forms of life. In this paper, we present an alternative view of disease etiology that places water at the center of the stage. We propose that a major cause of inflammation and disease is disruption of normal water structures between and within cells, which then gives rise to the pathological macromolecular changes reported in the literature. We provide a detailed hypothesis specifying a water-driven route to pathology and review recent advances in magnetobiology, nanobiology, and colloid and interface science that support our ideas. The disruptions in water and biomolecular structure that we discuss here generally involve increases in entropy, where the word entropy is used in the conventional thermodynamic sense of “disorder” or “energy not available for useful work.” We direct our attention to molecular structural entropy of water and biomolecules, as opposed to systems entropy. Hence, we do not wish to confuse our use of the word entropy with the concept of biosemiotic entropy, as defined by Oller , although molecular structural entropy would logically be a component of a nested hierarchical model of biological organization, perhaps providing the means for both energy and information flow. We begin our “water-based” view of the etiology of disease in Section 2 below, where we briefly discuss key developments in diagnostic and analytical instrumentation that have enabled scientists to measure properties of water essential to life, to obtain evidence for water’s crucial role in determining and maintaining normal macromolecular structure and function, and to detect differences between water structure in normal and diseased tissue. These findings show biological water structure disruptions as causes of pathology. Indeed, in an earlier review, we proposed exogenous interfacial water stress (EIWS), a pathological increase in water tension at biological interfaces such as cell surfaces, as the initial stage
in a common pathway to inflammation and thrombohemorrhagic phenomena, including sudden death . Building on our prior review , we describe in Section 3 our “central hypothesis” that EIWS causes responses. Sections 4–6 survey the extensive literature that provides strong support for each step in our proposed path to oncologic, infectious, and neurologic disease states. Specifically, Section 4 presents recent findings on the structures and properties of biological water, as maintained by biological sulfates on membrane surfaces and by weak magnetic fields. Section 5 considers the water-disrupting effects of exogenous interfacial water stressors, with emphasis on the aluminum cation, which has been associated with breast cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. This section also deals with the ensuing extracellular and intracellular damage caused by the disconnection between the extracellular matrix and cellular cytoskeleton, as well as additional direct adverse effects of interfacial water stressors on the intracellular environment. Section 6 surveys the application of EIWS to specific diseases, including breast cancer, neurologic disease, and infectious disease. Section 7 contains our concluding remarks.
Historical Background: Advances in Measurement of Biologically Relevant Water Properties
The electrical conductivity of aqueous systems in the body such as blood plasma and neurons is a well-accepted phenomenon today. Also, it has been known since the 19th century that electrical currents generate magnetic fields, and, more recently the converse also has been found to be true: moving magnetic fields can give rise to electrical currents in nearby conductors. However, the science of magnetobiology did not gain credibility until the 1960s, when magnetometers of sufficient sensitivity were finally developed to enable measurement of the heart’s magnetic field (about a million times weaker than that of the Earth) and the even weaker magnetic fields of other organs and tissues [3,4].--The most widely-used and sensitive magnetometers today are superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which contain Josephson junctions, consisting of two superconductors separated by a thin layer of insulating material through which quantum tunneling can take place. With the help of SQUIDs, researchers have been able to gain insight into how migrating animals navigate  and how pulsed electromagnetic therapy can help heal broken bones . SQUIDs have also enabled studies of magnetized biological water as discussed in Section 4 below. The development of SQUIDs to measure very weak, biologically-relevant magnetic fields has paralleled the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which utilizes much higher-energy magnetic fields in the radiofrequency range as a medical diagnostic tool. MRI depends on the high concentration of water in body tissues, as water is the main source of the 1H nuclei that align with or against the applied magnetic field. Differences of water protons’ relaxation times and spin density underlie the spatial and contrast resolution of MRI images. Since the invention of MRI in the early 1970’s , studies have validated its usefulness in distinguishing tumor cells from non-tumor cells, with water appearing less structured in tumor cells [7–9]. Proton magnetic resonance studies have also revealed significant changes in cell water structure during normal mitosis [10–12]. Despite the widespread use of MRI as a medical diagnostic tool, the changes in biological water structure indicated by the MRI measurements seem to be widely regarded as signs rather than possible causes of the diseases being investigated. This irony has been remarked upon by Oschman  but seems to have gone unnoticed by “mainstream” medical researchers. In addition to the advances in weak magnetic field measurement and MRI diagnostics, recent developments in various spectroscopic techniques have enabled researchers to probe the properties of water molecules close to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, including inorganic and biological materials.
USDA Scientist Reveals All
Glyphosate Hazards to Crops, Soils, Animals, and Consumers
Don Huber painted a devastating picture of glyphosate and GM crops at UK Parliament Dr Eva Sirinathsinghji
A fully illustrated and referenced version of this report is posted on ISIS members website and is otherwise available for download here
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In less than an hour, Don Huber, professor emeritus at Purdue University and USDA senior scientist (see Box) delivered to the UK Houses of Parliament a damning indictment of glyphosate agriculture as a most serious threat to the environment, livestock, and human health .
Since his letter to the US Secretary of State Tom Vilsak was leaked in February 2011, there has been a great deal of controversy over what Huber described as a pathogen “new to science” and abundant in glyphosate-tolerant GM crops (see  Emergency! Pathogen New to Science Found in Roundup Ready GM Crops?, SiS 50). As he concluded in the letter: “We are now seeing an unprecedented trend of increasing plant and animal diseases and disorders. This pathogen may be instrumental to understanding and solving this problem”.
There is a linking of glyphosate to reduced nutrient availability in plants, increasing plant diseases, the emergence of a new pathogen, animal illness and possible effects on human health (see [3, 4] Glyphosate Tolerant Crops Bring Death and Disease, Scientists Reveal Glyphosate Poisons Crops and Soil, SiS 47).
Pathogen new to science
The conversion of US agriculture to monochemical herbicide practice has resulted in the extensive use of glyphosate herbicides. Coincidentally, farmers have been witnessing deterioration in the health of corn, soybean, wheat and other crops, and epidemics of diseases in small grain crops. All are associated with the extensive use of glyphosate, which has increased further since the introduction of glyphosate-tolerant, Roundup Ready (RR) crops. --Glyphosate immobilises nutrients required to maintain plant health and resistance to disease. This weakening of the plants defence could explain the infestation of GM crops with the new pathogen, which has now been observed in horse, sheep, pigs, cows, chicken, multiple animal tissues including reproductive parts (semen, amniotic fluid), manure, soil, eggs, milk, as well as the common fungal pathogen that is currently infesting RR crops, Fusarium solani fsp glycines mycelium. All are coming into contact with glyphosate either through direct exposure or consumption through animal feed. It is also highly abundant in crops suffering from plant Goss’ wilt and sudden death syndrome. --The pathogen can be cultured in the lab, and has been isolated from livestock foetal tissue, replicated in the lab and re-introduced back into the animals. It appears to be very common and may well be interacting with the effects of glyphosate on both plants and animals, exacerbating disease and causing reproductive failure in livestock (see below). Although great expectations have been placed on Huber to publish his findings, he insists that before this can be done, further resources are necessary to be able to characterize the ‘entity’ and identify what type of species it is, including sequencing of its genome. This is a slow process and once complete, it is his intention to publish the work in a peer-reviewed journal.
Understanding glyphosate’s mode of action
Recognising glyphosate’s mechanism of action is the key to understanding how it may exert detrimental effects on the health of crops, animals, and the environment alike. Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that interacts with a range of physiological processes in the plant and its environment. Although it is most commonly recognised to work through inhibition of the plant enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) involved in the production of aromatic amino acids in the shikimate pathway, it was actually first patented as a strong metal-chelator that binds to metals including manganese, magnesium, iron, nickel, zinc and calcium[F16] , many of which are important micronutrients acting as co-factors for plant enzymes in different physiological processes including the plants’ defence system. Indeed, it is actually through chelation of manganese that the EPSPS enzyme is inhibited. --Rendering plants more susceptible to disease through glyphosate’s pathogenic activity is actually the way it exerts its herbicidal activity. This is done not just through immobilising nutrients in the plant but also impacting the agricultural system as a whole. Consistently, if glyphosate does not reach the root of a plant or the plant is grown in a sterile soil, the plant is not killed. Once in the soil, glyphosate is later immobilised through the chelation of cations, and is therefore very stable and not easily degraded. However, phosphorus (including phosphorus fertilisers) can desorb the herbicide, making it active once again in the soil.[F17]
Glyphosate interferes negatively with many components of agriculture
Huber stressed that agriculture is an integrated system of many interacting components, which together determine crop health and therefore yield. This concept is undervalued, and the sooner this is recognised, the sooner we will be able to reap the full genetic potential of our crops.
The three main components of an agricultural system are 1) the biotic environment including beneficial organisms for example, nitrogen-fixing microbes and mineralizers; 2) the abiotic environment including nutrients, moisture, pH; and 3), defence against pathogens that damage crops. The genetic potential of a plant can be achieved by minimising the stress placed on these components through improving plant nutrition and physiology and prevention of diseases and pests.
We have been repeatedly told that to meet the world’s needs for food production we must resort to GM crops and chemical agriculture. However, glyphosate detrimentally interacts with all the agricultural components, so much so that an estimated 50 percent of the potential crop yields are currently being lost
Figure 1 Interactions of glyphosate with plant and soil biology; adapted from Huber’s presentation
As shown in figure 1, glyphosate interacts with a wide range of health determinants, which intensifies stress and reduces crop yields. Not only does it accumulate in the plant tissues (shoot and root tips, reproductive structures and legume nodules), it accumulates in the roots where it then leaks into the soil and harms beneficial microorganisms in the soil including those that act as biological controls of pathogens. The obvious consequence is the increased virulence of soil-borne pathogens that lead to disease.
Glyphosate immobilises nutrients critical for plant defence system and other functions
One of Huber’s important discoveries was the close correlation of all the known conditions affecting the disease ‘take-all’ with the availability of manganese to the plant and its physiological effect on resistance to this pathogen.
Micronutrients are the activators or inhibitors of many critical physiological functions. Thus, a deficiency or change in availability of these regulatory elements can greatly affect plant growth and resistance to diseases and pests. Those metabolic pathways producing secondary anti-microbial compounds, pathogen-inhibiting amino acids and peptides, hormones involved in cicatrisation (walling off pathogens), callusing, and disease escape mechanisms can all be compromised by glyphosate.
Micronutrients are also necessary for other processes in a plant. Manganese for example is not only involved in co-activating the EPSPS enzyme, with up to 25 other enzymes known to be affected by manganese chelation. Such enzymes are necessary for photosynthesis, in assimilating carbon dioxide in the electron transport chain, along with zinc. It also helps in the synthesis of chlorophyll and in nitrate assimilation. Numerous enzymes requiring other mineral co-factors are also affected, among them enzymes of the shikimate pathway, to which EPSPS belongs, are responsible for plant responses to stress and the synthesis of defence molecules against pathogens, such as amino acids, lignins, hormones, phytoalexins, flavenoids and phenols.
Consistent with what is known about the role of micronutrients and glyphosate, the levels of key minerals have been measured in transgenic RR soybeans and found to be lower than those in isogenic non-transgenic varieties. Manganese was reduced by as much as 45 %, while iron was reduced by 49 % . Similar deficiencies in mineral content have been found in non-GM varieties, suggesting that the glyphosate, and not the RR transgene, is responsible for reducing mineral availability . Glyphosate reduces photosynthesis, water uptake, amino acid production as well as lignin, a molecule conferring mechanical strength of the plant and crucial for conducting water through plant stems [7, 8].
As Huber stated, the consequences of these nutrient deficiencies is that “crops don‘t look as good, are not as productive or rigorous, and are slower growing“ (see Figure 2). He noted yield drags of 26 % for RR soybeans. Furthermore, with current concerns for global warming, plants that are up to 50 % less water-efficient, such as RR crops, are counter-productive and can only exacerbate problems.
Huber stressed that there is nothing in the glyphosate tolerant crops that operates on the glyphosate applied to them. Consequently, although they have enough resistance to prevent them from dying (conferred by the EPSPS transgene), their overall physiological function is compromised by glyphosate. It therefore affects GM as well as non-GM crops through residual levels of glyphosate in the ground.
In addition to chelating nutrients in the plants, glyphosate can lower mineral content through damaging beneficial soil organisms, including microbes producing indole-acetic acid (a growth-promoting auxin), earthworms, mycorrhizae associations, phosphorus & zinc uptake, microbes such as Pseudomonads, Bacillus that convert insoluble soil oxides to plant-available forms of manganese and iron, nitrogen-fixing bacteria Bradyrhizobium, Rhizobium, and organisms involved in the biological control of soil-borne diseases that reduce root uptake of nutrients.
Figure 2 Effects of long-term glyphosate on crop health; adapted from Huber’s presentation
Glyphosate increases incidence and virulence of soil-borne pathogens
Thirty-four diseases have been reported in the scientific literature to increase in incidence as a result of glyphosate weed-eradication programmes. They affect a wide variety of crops from cereals to bananas, tomatoes, soybean, cotton, canola, melon and grapes [F18] . Some of these diseases are considered ‘emerging’ or ‘re-emerging’ as they had not caused serious economic losses in the past. This has worrying implications for the agricultural sector with the US now in its fourth year of epidemics of Goss’ wilt and sudden death syndrome and eighteenth year of epidemic of Fusarium fungal colonisation resulting in root rot and Fusarium wilt. Not only does glyphosate affect disease susceptibility, there is also evidence of increased disease severity. Examples include ‘take-all’; Corynespora root rot in soybean; Fusarium spp diseases, including those caused by Fusarium species that are ordinarily non-pathogenic. Head-scab caused by Fusarium spp of cereals increases following glyphosate application, which is also now prevalent in cooler climates when previously it was limited to warmer climates.
Food and Feed Safety Concerns
Nutrient-deficient, transgenic plants suffering from disease that also harbour herbicide residues, presents an array of possible safety hazards to animals and humans. According to Huber, possible harm include direct toxicity of glyphosate itself, which has been shown to cause endocrine disruption, DNA damage, reproductive and developmental toxicities, neurotoxicity, cancer, and birth defects (see Glyphosate Toxic and Roundup Worse,SiS26; Death by Multiple Poisoning, Glyphosate and Roundup,SiS42; Ban Glyphosate HerbicideNow.SiS43; Lab Study Establishes Glyphosate Link to Birth Defects,SiS48). Furthermore, allergies are on the rise, and animals are showing allergy responses, including inflamed irritated stomachs (Figure 3), discoloration of stomach lining, leakage of intestines as well as behavioural symptoms of irritability and anti-social behaviour in cows (abnormal for herd animals). Inflammatory bowel disease in humans has risen 40 percent since 1992, which may be related to consumption of GM foods, although this has not yet been proven. [F19]
[F20] Stomach shows allergic response of discolouration and inflammation in GMO fed pig (right) compared with control (left)
The increase in infestation of crops with fungal pathogens that produce toxins is an added concern. Mycotoxins, including fusarium toxins as well as aflatoxins released by Aspergillus fungi are carcinogenic and have forced imports of wheat into the US due to unsafe levels found in domestic harvests.
Triple whammy of reproductive toxicity caused by glyphosate
In 2002, the Cattlemen’s Association gave a statement to US Congress on the serious and puzzling rises in reproductive problems. It said: “high numbers of foetuses are aborting for no apparent reason. Other farmers successfully raise what look to be normal young cattle, only to learn when the animals are butchered that their carcasses appear old and, therefore, less valuable...The sporadic problem is so bad both in the United States and abroad that in some herds around 40-50 percent of pregnancies are being lost.. [and] the viability of this important industry is threatened.”
Glyphosate appears to be able to induce reproductive failures through three separate mechanisms. The first, mentioned above is the endocrine dysfunction caused by direct toxicity of glyphosate. [F21]
The second is the reduced nutrient content having consequential effects on the nutritional status of animals. Manganese in animals, as in plants, is an essential nutrient, and deficiencies have been associated with a variety of diseases as well as reproductive failures, which are becoming increasingly common in livestock. One study performed in Australia following two seasons of high levels of stillbirths in cattle found that all dead calves were manganese deficient . Furthermore, 63 percent of babies with birth defects were also deficient. Manganese is known to be important for mobilising calcium into bones, correlating with abnormal bone formation in these calves.
Third, the unknown pathogenic ‘entity’ may be associated with inducing pseudo-pregnancies. As far back as 1998, a suspect agent was found in reproductive tissue of livestock. It has now been isolated in high concentrations from semen, amniotic fluid as well as placental tissue. It has also been found in aborted foetal tissue. Some farms are reporting up to 50 percent fewer conceptions in animals due to increased miscarriages and pseudo-pregnancies. Although evidence of the widespread presence of this new pathogen is clear, Don Huber suggested the need for further research to understand not only what kind of pathogen it is, but importantly, the effects it is having on the health of plants as well as animals.
Over 100 peer reviewed papers have been published by Huber and other scientists on the detrimental effects of glyphosate. Glyphosate increases disease in plants (as well as animals), prompting Huber to write to the Secretary of Agriculture. It may be linked to many health problems in animals and humans, which are an added cost to all the failed promises of a new agricultural technology that would feed the world. As Huber concluded, the “public trust has been betrayed.”
The Impacts of Glyphosate Herbicide on Human Health. Pathways to Modern Diseases
Glyphosate’s Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases
By Global Research News
Global Research, January 02, 2014
Entropy and Global Research 12 July 2013
Theme: Biotechnology and GMO, Science and Medicine
by Anthony Samsel and Stephanie Seneff
Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup®, is the most popular herbicide used worldwide[F22] . The industry asserts it is minimally toxic to humans, but here we argue otherwise. Residues are found in the main foods of the Western diet, comprised primarily of sugar, corn, soy and wheat. Glyphosate’s inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes is an overlooked component of its toxicity to mammals. CYP enzymes play crucial roles in biology, one of which is to detoxify xenobiotics. Thus, glyphosate enhances the damaging effects of other food borne chemical residues and environmental toxins. Negative impact on the body is insidious and manifests slowly over time as inflammation damages cellular systems throughout the body. Here, we show how interference with CYP enzymes acts synergistically with disruption of the biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids by gut bacteria, as well as impairment in serum sulfate transport. Consequences are most of the diseases and conditions associated with a Western diet, which include gastrointestinal disorders, obesity, diabetes, heart disease, depression, autism, infertility, cancer and Alzheimer’s disease. We explain the documented effects of glyphosate and its ability to induce disease, and we show that glyphosate is the “textbook example” of exogenous semiotic entropy[F23] : the disruption of homeostasis by environmental toxins.
The foodstuffs of the Western diet, primarily grown by industrial agriculture, are increasingly being produced using a two-part system of engineered plant seeds and toxic chemical application.[F24] --Novel bacterial genes are incorporated through genetic engineering, and toxic chemical residues are readily taken up by the engineered plants[F25] . Research indicates that the new bacterial RNA and DNA present in genetically engineered plants, providing chemical herbicide resistance and other traits, have not yet fully understood biological effects. This paper however, will only examine the effects of the chemical glyphosate, the most dangerous Bio Agent on the planet.--------Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine), the active ingredient in the herbicide Roundup®, is the main herbicide in use today in the United States, and increasingly throughout the World, in agriculture and in lawn maintenance, especially now that the patent has expired. 80% of genetically modified crops, particularly corn, soy, canola, cotton, sugar beets and most recently alfalfa, are specifically targeted towards the introduction of genes resistant to glyphosate, the so-called “Roundup Ready® feature” In humans, only small amounts (~2%) of ingested glyphosate are metabolized to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and the rest enters the blood stream and is eventually eliminated through the urine .
Studies have shown sharp increases in glyphosate contamination in streams in the Midwestern United States following the mid 1990s, pointing to its increasing role as the herbicide of choice in agriculture . A now common practice of crop desiccation through herbicide administration shortly before the harvest assures an increased glyphosate presence in food sources as well [3–5]. The industry asserts that glyphosate is nearly nontoxic to mammals [6,7], and therefore it is not a problem if glyphosate is ingested in food sources. Acutely, it is claimed to be less toxic than aspirin [1,6]. As a consequence, measurement of its presence in food is practically nonexistent. A vocal minority of experts believes that glyphosate may instead be much more toxic than is claimed, although the effects are only apparent after a considerable time lapse.
Thus, while short-term studies in rodents have shown no apparent toxicity , studies involving life-long exposure in rodents have demonstrated liver and kidney dysfunction and a greatly increased risk of cancer, with shortened lifespan .
Glyphosate’s claimed mechanism of action in plants is the disruption of the shikimate pathway, which is involved with the synthesis of the essential aromatic amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan .
The currently accepted dogma is that glyphosate is not harmful to humans or to any mammals because the shikimate pathway is absent in all animals. However, this pathway is present in gut bacteria, which play an important and heretofore largely overlooked role in human physiology [11–14] through an integrated biosemiotic relationship with the human host. In addition to aiding digestion, the gut microbiota synthesize vitamins, detoxify xenobiotics, and participitate in immune system homeostasis and gastrointestinal tract permeability . Furthermore, dietary factors modulate the microbial composition of the gut .[F26] ----The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases such as juvenile onset Crohn’s disease has increased substantially in the last decade in Western Europe  and the Entropy 2013, 15 1418 United States . It is reasonable to suspect that glyphosate’s impact on gut bacteria may be contributing to these diseases and conditions.----However, the fact that female rats are highly susceptible to mammary tumors following chronic exposure to glyphosate  suggests that there may be something else going on. Our systematic search of the literature has led us to the realization that many of the health problems that appear to be associated with a Western diet could be explained by biological disruptions that have already been attributed to glyphosate. These include digestive issues, obesity, autism, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, Parkinson’s disease, liver diseases, and cancer, among others. While many other environmental toxins obviously also contribute to these diseases and conditions, we believe that glyphosate may be the most significant environmental toxin, mainly because it is pervasive and it is often handled carelessly due to its perceived nontoxicity.
In this paper, we will develop the argument that the recent alarming increase in all of these health issues can be traced back to a combination of gut dysbiosis, impaired sulfate transport, and suppression of the activity of the various members of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of enzymes. We have found clear evidence that glyphosate disrupts gut bacteria and suppresses the CYP enzyme class. The connection to sulfate transport is more indirect, but justifiable from basic principles of biophysics.
In the remainder of this paper, we will first provide evidence from the literature that explains some of the ways in which glyphosate adversely affects plants, microbes, amphibians and mammals.
Section 3 will discuss the role that gut dysbiosis, arguably resulting from glyphosate exposure, plays in inflammatory bowel disease and its relationship to autism.
Section 4 argues that the excess synthesis of phenolic compounds associated with glyphosate exposure represents a strategy to compensate for impairments in the transport of free sulfate.
Section 5 will provide evidence that glyphosate inhibits CYP enzymes. Section 6 explains how obesity can arise from depletion of serum tryptophan due to its sequestering by macrophages responding to inflammation. Section 7 shows how extreme tryptophan depletion can lead to impaired nutrient absorption and anorexia nervosa.
Section 8 provides a brief review of all the roles played by CYP enzymes in metabolism. Section 9 discusses a likely consequence to glyphosate’s disruption of the CYP-analog enzyme, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Section 10 shows how glyphosate’s effects could plausibly lead to brain-related disorders such as autism, dementia, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Section 11 mentions several other health factors that can potentially be linked to glyphosate, including reproductive issues and cancer.
Section 12 discusses the available evidence that glyphosate is contaminating our food supplies, especially in recent years. Following a discussion section, we sum up our findings with a brief
Numerous laboratory studies have shown that glyphosate and the Roundup formulation can be genotoxic and endocrine disrupting. One study summarises these effects occurring at doses substantially lower than those used in agriculture, or permitted as residues: at 0.5 mg/kg (40 times lower than levels permitted in soybeans in the US) they were anti-androgenic; at 2 mg/kg they were anti-oestrogenic; at 1 mg/kg they disrupted the enzyme aromatase; at 5 mg/kg they damaged DNA, and at 10 mg/kg there were cytotoxic. These effects can result in crucial outcomes for sexual and other cell differentiation, bone metabolism, liver metabolism, reproduction, development and behaviour, and hormone dependent diseases such as breast and prostate cancer (Gasnier et al 2009).
Exposure to glyphosate-based herbicides, even at very low doses may result in reproductive and hormonal problems, miscarriages, low birth weights, birth defects, and various cancers—especially haematological cancers such as non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and hormonal cancers such as breast cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked exposure to glyphosate with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, hairy cell leukaemia, multiple myeloma, DNA damage; and one study with spontaneous abortions and pre-term deliveries
GM pea protein caused lung damage in mice
Offspring of rats fed GM soy showed a five-fold increase in mortality, lower birth weights, and the inability to reproduce
GM potatoes may cause cancer in rats
Male mice fed GM soy had damaged young sperm cells
Bacteria in your gut can take up DNA from GM food
The embryo offspring of GM soy-fed mice had altered DNA functioning
GM foods lead to significant organ disruptions in rats and mice, specifically the kidney, liver, heart and spleen
Several US farmers reported sterility or fertility problems among pigs and cows fed on GM corn varieties
Bt corn caused a wide variety of immune responses in mice, commonly associated with diseases such as arthritis, Lou Gehrig's disease, osteoporosis, and inflammatory bowel disease
Investigators in India have documented fertility problems, abortions, premature births, and other serious health issues, including deaths, among buffaloes fed GM cottonseed products
[F1]Bacteria seems to be the way to remove this---so a consumption of fermented foods would assist drastically the removing of this
[F2]Castrating Men and Women
[F3]Chelation of Glyphosates with a synergistic level of minerals are more impacting on the removal then in a singularity
[F4]Gypsum rock (ground into powder form for some uses) is essentially a nonmetallic mineral known as calcium sulfate. Due to its water content (79.1 percent calcium sulfate to 20.9 percent water), gypsum earned the name hydrous calcium sulfate
[F5]Which Maybe a cause of vaginal damage ---unable to copulate do to excess pain and the inability for the nitric oxide and other chemical reactions to take place to allow for pleasant copulation
[F6]This is sooooooo Wrong on so many ways
[F7]And if the child some how is conceived and born then they try to eliminate the child with drugs and vaccines
[F8]This is why I am saying 15 year olds will not see 30---there in a quagmire---and have nothing core or a foundation for them either—with the current new afflictions coming down---from chemtrails—smart meters and advanced genetically modified poisons---there is going to be a bigger rise in depletions and life lost
[F9]That could be a result of there duration in the usa
[F11]And That was 60 % then---we have progressed 5 years so they may actually be closer to 85%
[F12]Designed to lower the standard of mental acquity
[F13]This is in 2007 ---so now we are in 2015 the number would have at least jumped 2.5 times—so now it would be 50 times more in 25 years
[F14]These stats are almost identical to the stats in the usa in the 70’s with the ratio and types of cancrs causing the most damage
[F15]This is what goes on with nanopoisoning as well as chemical poisoning-the cells are mutating and as a reault of this mutation unable to recognize the damage being done ir are having what ever is there incorporate itself to either the dna –genetic code as a normal functioning material—sabotaging the cell and eventually the gene’s
[F16]Chelates managanese-magnesium-iron-nickel-zinc-and calcium –which without ---the very core of almost anything living would be unable to sustain there insides –there core---there cells---there tissues—there organs—and would not be able to make enzymes or antioxidants required to protect the body
[F17]Phosphorus ---to making soil active
[F18]Foods to concern yourself with that would be contaminated
[F19]This is why to avoid all Pet foods out of a box bag or can that is processed with these grains---nothing with wwheat –rice or cor or soy should be in an pet food nothing with dried fruit or veges either since the animals a re carnivore they would do better without the processed foods just like humans
[F21]Ways to disrupt the endocrine system
Direct exposure to glyphosates
The lack of nutrients that support the body
And a pathogenic infection
[F22]Most powerful Bioagent that is the most destructive mix ever to be released on humanity
[F23]Signs of death or complete termination or destructive effects
[F24]Binary Effect---a dual method of attacking the body
[F25]Delivery method to impact the consumer---entering in a epigenetic venue and then to more readily take up more chemicals
[F26]With out these key aminos ---everything from serotonin-dopamaine thyroid-hypothalmus-pituatary are completely disabled